Partner: Grzegorz Małek


Recent publications
1.Małek G., Nowicki A., Standardy badań ultrasonograficznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Ultrasonograficznego – aktualizacja. Badanie żył kończyn dolnych, Journal of Ultrasonography, ISSN: 2084-8404, DOI: 10.15557/JoU.2014.0029, Vol.14, pp.287-296, 2014
Abstract:

This article has been prepared on the basis of the Ultrasonography Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society (2011) and updated based on the latest findings and reports. Ultrasound examination of the lower extremity veins is relatively easy and commonly used to confirm or rule out venous thrombosis. However, a relatively easy compression test frequently requires experience, particularly in situations when imaging is difficult(due to lymphedema, dressing or thick tissues). The technique is time-consuming and requires assessment of each deep vein every 1 cm. Lesions in the deep veins cannot be ruled out when the vessels are assessed in only 2–3 points – a full examination is needed. The value of the method is the highest when the proximal section is assessed and the lowest when crural veins are evaluated. Doppler sonography is the basic method used when patients are prepared for a surgery of varicose veins. The assessment of the superficial veins prior to this procedure is tedious and requires knowledge of anatomy together with numerous variants. A considerable challenge is posed by re-assessment of recurrent varicose veins following a previous surgery. The Standards include anatomic nomenclature proposed by the Polish Society for Vascular Surgery and Polish Society of Phlebology, which should facilitate communication with clinicians. The most beneficial patient positions have been thoroughly discussed in terms of safety and effectiveness of the examination. Sometimes during such an examination, no venous pathology is found, but other changes with symptoms that suggest deep thrombophlebitis are detected. In such a situation, it is necessary to conduct an initial (or complete, if possible) assessment of lesions as well as provide recommendations connected with further, more detailed diagnosis.

Keywords:

venous thrombosis, veins, venous insufficiency, varicose veins, standards

Affiliations:
Małek G.-other affiliation
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
2.Małek G., Elwertowski M., Nowicki A., Standardy badań ultrasonograficznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Ultrasonograficznego-aktualizacja. Badania aorty i tętnic kończyn dolnych, Journal of Ultrasonography, ISSN: 2084-8404, DOI: 10.15557/JoU.2014.0019, Vol.14, No.57, pp.192-202, 2014
Abstract:

A Doppler ultrasound examination has an advantage over other vessel imaging methods as it can be carried out by the patient’s bedside and allows to make a diagnosis without exposing the patient to the inconveniency of transportation or an X-ray scan. The purpose of testing the lower extremities and the aorta is to objectively confirm a preliminary clinical diagnosis, localize lesions responsible for the symptoms of the disease, determine their severity and nature (e.g., if they are calcifications or soft lesions), and finally evaluate the hemodynamic criteria. In assessment of the aorta attention is paid not only to aortic diameter measurements, but also to the vascular lumen (dissections with the formation of two flow channels, detachments, balloting of atherosclerotic plaques, etc.) and the presence of atherosclerotic plaques with influx into them (PAU – penetrating ulcer in the plaque or lesions surrounding the aorta, such as retroperitoneal fibrosis or mycotic aneurysm). A correct diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm requires repeated measurements of the abdominal aorta diameter, and in particular its transverse dimension. When assessing the degree of peripheral arterial stenosis on the basis of hemodynamic parameters, degree of morphological stenosis must be taken into consideration. Collateral circulation may reduce the flow through the main vessel, and thus, the achieved systolic velocities are lower and may understate the degree of the assessed stenosis. Calf vessels are difficult to detect, which results both from the thickness of the muscle and the presence of calcifications. This article has been prepared on the basis of Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society (2011) and updated on the basis of the latest reports from relevant literature.

Keywords:

Doppler examination, lower limb arteries, abdominal aorta, the size of stenosis, atherosclerotic plaque, ulceration in the atherosclerotic plaque, recommendations

Affiliations:
Małek G.-other affiliation
Elwertowski M.-other affiliation
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN