Partner: Tadeusz Szymczak

Bialystok University of Technology (PL)

Doctoral thesis
2007-09-13Wpływ historii złożonych obciążeń na właściwości mechaniczne materiałów konstrukcyjnych  (PW)
supervisor -- Prof. Zbigniew Kowalewski, Ph.D., Dr. Habil., Eng., IPPT PAN
1039 
Recent publications
1.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., WYBRANE MATERIAŁY STOSOWANE W UKŁADACH HAMULCOWYCH I ICH WŁAŚCIWOŚCI MECHANICZNE, TRANSPORT SAMOCHODOWY, ISSN: 1731-2795, Vol.2, pp.87-99, 2017
Abstract:

W pracy omówiono wybrane materiały stosowane w układach hamulcowych, jak: żeliwo szare, kompozyty ceramiczne oraz metalowe o osnowie ze stopu aluminium. Zaprezentowano ich zasadnicze właściwości mechaniczne oraz parametry fizyczne. Ponadto, omówiono zmiany granicy plastyczności i wytrzymałości doraźnej żeliwa szarego w warunkach rozciągania prowadzonego przy dziewięciu poziomach temperatury w zakresie od 20 °C do 700 °C

Affiliations:
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
2.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Brodecki A., Metoda cyfrowej korelacji obrazu w badaniach materiałów i elementów, Dozór Techniczny, ISSN: 0209-1763, Vol.4, pp.22-31, 2016
Abstract:

W pracy omówiono technike cyfrowej korelacji obrazu (DIC) przeznaczona do bezkontaktowego okreslania rozkładów składowych przemieszczenia i na ich podstawie obliczania składowych odkształcenia oraz naprezenia. Umozliwia ona równiez wyznaczanie parametrów kinematycznych obiektów inzynierskich w postaci predkosci i przyspieszenia, które okreslane sa metoda rózniczkowania po czasie zarejestrowanych wartosci składowych przemieszczenia. Zaprezentowano polowe zmiany rozkładów odkształcenia wzdłuznego oraz rozkładów składowych głównych odkształcenia podczas rozciagania stali konstrukcyjnej, które monitorowano az do chwili zniszczenia materiału. Przedstawiono wyniki próby porównawczej, w której jednoczesnie stosowano ekstensometr oraz system DIC. Dodatkowo zaprezentowano rezultaty prób stanowiskowych mechanicznego elementu sprzegajacego przeprowadzonych przy uzyciu systemu pomiarów cyfrowych w warunkach oddziaływania cyklicznie zmiennego obciazenia.

Affiliations:
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Brodecki A.-Motor Transport Institute (PL)
3.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Kruche pękanie kompozytów metalowo-ceramicznych, Materiały Kompozytowe, ISSN: 2084-1949, Vol.1, pp.53-57, 2016
Abstract:

W pracy omówiono wybrane zagadnienia z zakresu mechaniki pękania dotyczące wyznaczania współczynnika intensywności naprężenia i jego krytycznej wartości (K IC ). Zaprezentowano projekt zminiaturyzowanej próbki kompaktowej (CT) o wymiarach czterokrotnie mniejszych niż jej wersja standardowa. Zamieszczono wyniki z badań odporności na kruche pękanie materiałów kompozytowych wytworzonych na bazie odlewniczego stopu aluminium 44200 z różną zawartością Al 2 O 3 . Analiza rezultatów przeprowadzonych testów wykazała brak wpływu udziału Al 2 O 3 i jego postaci, tj. włókien bądź cząstek, na zmianę krytycznej wartości współczynnika intensywności naprężenia

Affiliations:
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-other affiliation
4.Szymczak T., Brodecki A., Eminger A., Kowalewski Z.L., Rudnik D., Experimental assessment of ball joints operation using servo-hydraulic testing systems, SOLID STATE PHENOMENA, ISSN: 1012-0394, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/SSP.240.232, Vol.240, pp.232-237, 2016
Abstract:

The paper reports experimental results from tests carried out at room temperature on servo-hydraulic system dedicated for examination of the exploitation properties of rocker arms. The ball joint of this element was modified by an application of composite coating such as the tungsten carbide (WC). To apply cyclic loading to rocker arms the griping system was designed and elaborated. Results from tests performed on the composite coated ball joints were compared with data obtained for typical elements. Variations of the following parameters versus time i.e. force, temperature and surface topography of balls were analysed with respect to exploitation properties of the modified ball joints. An increase of the wear coefficient was achieved for sliding joints of the steel ball-steel cups coated by the WC.

Keywords:

Ball Joint, Composite, Cyclic Loading, Surface Topography, Tungsten Carbide, Wear

Affiliations:
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Brodecki A.-Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Eminger A.-Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Rudnik D.-other affiliation
5.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Maciejewski J., Material effects during monotonic-cyclic loading, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES, ISSN: 0020-7683, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2013.10.040, Vol.51, pp.740-753, 2014
Abstract:

The effects commonly related with deformation caused by proportional and non-proportional loading types were identified experimentally. In the case of non-proportional cyclic loading along circular strain path the second order effects such as: phase shift between stress and strain signals was observed. An analysis of experimental data from tests under non-proportional cyclic loading along square strain path exhibited a significant reduction of stress independently on direction of deformation.

The paper also presents experimental results concerning evaluation of an influence of cyclic loading on stress variations during monotonic deformation carried out on the pure copper and X10CrMoVNb9-1 steel. All strain controlled tests were performed at room temperature using thin-walled tubular specimens. The experimental programme contained selected combinations of monotonic and cyclic loadings, i.e. the torsion-reverse-torsion cycles were superimposed on the monotonic tension. It is shown that such cycles associated with monotonic tension caused essential variations of tensile stress. For both materials, a significant decrease of the axial stress was visible. The effects observed during monotonic and cyclic loading combinations were theoretically described using the Mróz and Maciejewski model.

Keywords:

Proportional and non-proportional loadings, Hardening, Softening, Tensile stress, Strain energy, Yield surface, Modelling

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Maciejewski J.-other affiliation
6.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Właściwości mechaniczne wybranych kompozytów oraz metody oceny ich zniszczenia, TRANSPORT SAMOCHODOWY, ISSN: 1731-2795, Vol.4, pp.33-54, 2014
Abstract:

W artykule przedstawiono na podstawie dostępnych prac właściwości mechaniczne żywic i włókien powszechnie stosowanych jako składniki materiałów kompozytowych. Omówiono typy zniszczenia tego rodzaju materiałów wynikające z różnej kruchości zbrojenia. Zaprezentowano rodzaje przełomów występujące podczas rozciągania i ściskania kompozytu w zależności od kierunku pobierania próbek. Omówiono kryteria zniszczenia stosowane do oceny odporności materiałów kompozytowych dla różnych wariantów obciążenia.

Affiliations:
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-other affiliation
7.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., An Influence of Step Cyclic Loading Due to Torsion on Tensile Curve Variation, KEY ENGINEERING MATERIALS, ISSN: 1662-9795, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.535-536.181, Vol.535-536, pp.181-184, 2013
Abstract:

The paper presents experimental results of tests carried out at room temperature on power engineering steel: 10H2M (11CrMo9-10) using thin-walled tubular specimens under biaxial stress state. The loading programme comprised different types of deformation, i.e. monotonic tension and cyclic torsion in the form of symmetric or asymmetric step-increasing strain amplitude. The main task of the paper was focused on investigation of an influence of the cyclic loading parameters on tensile curve variations. The magnitudes of axial strain and cyclic shear strain amplitude were small and did not exceed 1%. An analysis of the results showed a significant reduction of the axial stress (even equal 90% for the torsional amplitude ±0.8%, in both cases of cyclic loading). An influence of torsion frequency on the tensile stress curve was discovered within the range from 0.005Hz to 0.5Hz.

Keywords:

Cyclic Loading, Hysteresis Loop, Stress Variation, Tensile Characteristic

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-other affiliation
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
8.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Fracture Toughness Investigations of Metal Matrix Composites Using Compact Specimens, ENGINEERING TRANSACTIONS (ROZPRAWY INŻYNIERSKIE), ISSN: 0867-888X, Vol.61, No.3, pp.219-229, 2013
Abstract:

This paper presents experimental results of the fracture toughness tests carried out on metal matrix composites. The material was produced using the 44200 aluminium alloy reinforced by Al2O3 in the form of Saffil fibres. Three different contents of Al2O3 were taken into account, i.e. 10%, 15%, 20%. The main aim of the research was to examine an influence of the aluminium oxide content on a critical value of the stress intensity factor, KIC. All tests were performed using a miniature compact specimen, which was four times smaller than the typical one. The results of FEA analysis confirmed a typical distribution of the effective stress at the tip of the notch. In each test the composite specimen was mounted in the loading system of the testing machine by applying special grips. Crack tip opening displacement of the specimen notch was measured by means of the clip on knife edge extensometer having 10 mm gauge length. The results in form of tensile force versus crack tip opening displacement show the first mode of fracture. An inspection of the pre-cracked zone of the composite did not exhibit the typical features usually observed on specimen surface after fatigue. An influence of the Al2O3 Saffil fibres content within the range from 10% to 20% on a critical value of the stress intensity factor was negligible small. The KIC of the composites tested in this research achieved the level of 12 MPa m 1/2.

Keywords:

metal matrix composite, fracture toughness test, compact specimen, fatigue zone, stress intensity factor

Affiliations:
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-other affiliation
9.Moćko W., Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Mechanical Properties of AW8S-V Polyester Composite under Various Loading Conditions, ENGINEERING TRANSACTIONS (ROZPRAWY INŻYNIERSKIE), ISSN: 0867-888X, Vol.61, No.4, pp.289-300, 2013
Abstract:

This article presents the results of an analysis of the mechanical properties of the AW8S-V polyester composite reinforced by a roving fabric under tensile loading. The stress-strain curves show an increase of the maximum stress and elastic modulus with increasing strain rate. By contrast, an increase of the temperature led to decrease of the maximum stress and elastic modulus. It is also shown that, failure mechanisms are dependent on the loading type. Shear cracks occurred in the specimens under quasi-static loading whereas composite layers damage was observed under dynamic loading. Temperature increase resulted to stronger fragmentation of the specimens.

Keywords:

polyester composite, Hopkinson bar, high strain rate, damage

Affiliations:
Moćko W.-other affiliation
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
10.Szymczak T., Grzywna P., Kowalewski Z.L., Nowoczesne metody określania wytrzymałościowych właściwości materiałów konstrukcyjnych, TRANSPORT SAMOCHODOWY, ISSN: 1731-2795, Vol.1, pp.79-104, 2013
Abstract:

W artykule zaprezentowano współczesne maszyny wytrzymałościowe i przyrządy pomiarowe do badania właściwości mechanicznych materiałów. Zamieszczono oraz omówiono ich schematy ideowe, zalety, wady, ograniczenia i zastosowanie. W przypadku niektórych z nich przedstawiono literaturowe i własne wyniki z badań doświadczalnych.

Affiliations:
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Grzywna P.-IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
11.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Variations of mechanical parameters and strain energy dissipated during tension-torsion loading, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, Vol.57, No.1, pp.193-197, 2012
Abstract:

The paper presents behaviour of materials under complex loading being combinations of torsion-reverse-torsion cycles superimposed on monotonic tensile deformation. The 2024 aluminium alloy, P91 steel and M1E copper were investigated under plane stress state using thin-walled tubular specimens. All tests were strain controlled and a total strain was less than 1%. An influence of torsion cycles on tensile characteristic was manifested by lowering of the proportional limit and yield point. This effect was increased with magnification of cyclic strain amplitude and in the case of copper a reduction of yield point was equal around 90%. A character of this effect was checked using the yield surface concept after each test. The papers also presents variations of tangential hardening modulus and plastic strain energy dissipation.

Keywords:

complex loading, biaxial stress state, cyclic loading, mechanical parameters

Affiliations:
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
12.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Makowska K., Augustyniak B., A role of destructive and non-destructive tests in creep damage identification, KEY ENGINEERING MATERIALS, ISSN: 1662-9795, Vol.488-489, pp.315-318, 2012
13.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Wpływ cyklicznego skręcania na właściwości mechaniczne materiałów w próbie rozciągania, BIULETYN WOJSKOWEJ AKADEMII TECHNICZNEJ, ISSN: 1234-5865, Vol.61, No.2, pp.437-447, 2012
Abstract:

W pracy zamieszczono wyniki z badań doświadczalnych dotyczących określania wpływu obciążenia skręcającego o charakterze cyklicznym na przebieg wyznaczanej jednocześnie charakterystyki rozciągania następujących materiałów: stali P91, stopu aluminium P a7 oraz miedzi M1E. Testy przeprowadzono na cienkościennych, osiowosymetrycznych próbkach rurkowych w warunkach płaskiego stanu naprężenia przy sterowaniu sygnałami odkształcenia. Wyznaczono zmiany granicy proporcjonalności, plastyczności i stycznego modułu wzmocnienia w zależności od amplitudy odkształcenia postaciowego oraz opracowano przebiegi zmian naprężeń głównych i kąta obrotu ich kierunków.

Keywords:

mechanika eksperymentalna, obciążenie złożone, obciążenie cykliczne, właściwości mechaniczne, rozciąganie, skręcanie

Affiliations:
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
14.Kowalewski Z.L., Dietrich L., Kukla D., Grzywna P., Szymczak T., Parametry uszkodzenia w procesie zmęczenia oraz ich miary, ENERGETYKA, PROBLEMY ENERGETYKI I GOSPODARKI PALIWOWO-ENERGETYCZNEJ, ISSN: 0013-7294, Vol.65, No.11 (701), pp.706-710, 2012
15.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Efekty Strukturalne oraz Mechanizmy Uszkodzenia Generowane w Materiałach przez Różne Rodzaje Obciążenia, TRANSPORT SAMOCHODOWY, ISSN: 1731-2795, Vol.2, pp.85-96, 2012
16.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Badanie Odporności Kompozytów Metalowo-Ceramicznych Na Kruche Pękanie Przy Użyciu Próbek Kompaktowych (CT), TRANSPORT SAMOCHODOWY, ISSN: 1731-2795, Vol.3, pp.119-131, 2012
17.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Dietrich L., Experimental analysis of creep and fatigue of light multifunctional aluminium alloys, MATERIALS RESEARCH INNOVATIONS, ISSN: 1432-8917, Vol.15, pp.53-56, 2011
Abstract:

The paper presents experimental investigations of two light aluminium alloys (AlSi8Cu3 and AlSi7MgCu0 5) under loading conditions leading to the creep or fatigue processes. During the creep process, the strains were measured under selected tensile stresses and temperatures. An influence of a step loading during creep, at elevated temperature, on steady creep rate and a course of creep curve, was investigated. Moreover, an effect of porosity degree on creep of both aluminium alloys was also analysed. An influence of aging process at the elevated temperature was experimentally evaluated. Fatigue behaviour of materials was checked under strain control using cylindrical samples. The results of LCF tests were analysed for the materials subjected to three-stage sequence of loading at elevated temperature. A resistance to creep and fatigue processes of the AlSi8Cu3 was weaker than that obtained in the case of the AlSi7MgCu0 5.

Keywords:

Creep, Fatigue, Sequence loading, Aluminium alloys

Affiliations:
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Dietrich L.-IPPT PAN
18.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Modification of simple deformation processes of metallic materials by means of cyclic loading, MATERIALS RESEARCH INNOVATIONS, ISSN: 1432-8917, DOI: 10.1179/143307511X12858956847110, Vol.15, pp.73-76, 2011
Abstract:

The paper presents experimental results concerning evaluation of an influence of cyclic loading on material behaviour under monotonic deformation. Tests were carried out on pure copper and P91 steel. The experimental programme contained the torsion–reverse–torsion cycles superimposed on the monotonic tension. It is shown that the torsion–reverse–torsion cycles associated with monotonic tension caused essential variations of the tensile characteristic. For both materials, a significant decrease in the tensile stress can be observed. The effects observed during monotonic and cyclic loading combinations were theoretically described for the 2024 aluminium alloy using the Mróz and Maciejewski model.

Keywords:

Complex loading, Yield point, Yield surface, Mechanical parameters

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
19.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Rutecka A., Zmiany właściwości mechanicznych materiałów w warunkach monotonicznej deformacji realizowanej w obecności obciążenia cyklicznego, PRZEGLĄD MECHANICZNY, ISSN: 0033-2259, Vol.LXX, No.2, pp.27-32, 2011
20.Kowalewski Z.L., Szelążek J., Augustyniak B., Piotrowski L., Makowska K., Szymczak T., Interdyscyplinarne techniki oceny stanu uszkodzenia stali stosowanych w energetyce, ENERGETYKA, PROBLEMY ENERGETYKI I GOSPODARKI PALIWOWO-ENERGETYCZNEJ, ISSN: 0013-7294, No.11, pp.23-26, 2011
21.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Wybrane projekty próbek stosowanych w badaniach właściwości mechanicznych materiałów, Dozór Techniczny, Vol.2, pp.30-35, 2011
22.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., On the effects associated with control parameters delay during biaxial cyclic loading of engineering materials, MATERIALS SCIENCE FORUM, ISSN: 0255-5476, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.638-642.3913, Vol.638-642, pp.3913-3918, 2010
Abstract:

The paper presents experimental results of investigations carried out on the P91 steel and 2024 aluminium alloy under complex stress states due to various combinations of an axial force and twisting moment. An influence of out-of-phase sinusoidal and trapezoidal strain signals on the mechanical behaviour of tested materials was considered. The experiments enabled identification of the second order effects connected with the non-proportional cyclic loadings such as the phase shift between stress and strain signals during the deformation along the circular strain path, and a significant stress drop of the one of loading components applied in the case of deformation enforced by the trapezoidal signals. The experimental programme also contained the tests of monotonic tensile deformation realized simultaneously with delayed torsional cycles. They enabled to observe a drastic variations of the proportional limit and yield point of the materials in the tensile direction. This fact manifests an important material feature which can be applied to the optimal designing of some metal forming processes like an extrusion or forging for example

Keywords:

cyclic loading, biaxial stress state, circle loading path, square loading path, mechanical parameters, yield surface

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
23.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., A role of cyclic loading at modification of simple deformation processes of metallic materials, ACTA MECHANICA ET AUTOMATICA, ISSN: 1898-4088, Vol.4, No.4, pp.1-4, 2010
Abstract:

The paper presents experimental results of investigations carried out on the 2024 aluminium alloy and P91 steel under biaxial stress state. The loading programme comprised a monotonic tension assisted by torsion-reverse-torsion cycles. An influence of the cyclic loading and its delay with respect to uniaxial tension on the selected mechanical parameters taken on the basis of tensile characteristics was investigated. Additionally, a relative variation of the proportional limit and yield point due to the loading history applied was analyzed. A permanency of effects observed during combination of tension and cyclic torsion was experimentally assessed on the basis of an initial yield surface evolution

Affiliations:
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
24.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., On the mutual interactions of monotonic and cyclic loading and their effect on the strength of aluminum alloys, APPLIED MECHANICS AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1662-7482, Vol.24-25, pp.213-218, 2010
25.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Variation of mechanical parameters of engineering materials under tension due to cyclic deformation br torsion, ENGINEERING TRANSACTIONS (ROZPRAWY INŻYNIERSKIE), ISSN: 0867-888X, Vol.57, No.2, pp.113-123, 2009
Abstract:

The paper presents experimental results of investigations carried out under complex stress state on the 2024 aluminium alloy (used by aircraft industry) and P91 steel (used at power plants). Second-order effects associated with cyclic loadings enforced by the trapezoidal signals in the two mutually perpendicular directions are identified. It is shown, how the cyclic loading and its parameters (strain amplitude and frequency) influence the simultaneous monotonic loading in the direction perpendicular with respect to the cyclic one. Moreover, the paper presents an analysis of the selected mechanical properties variations on the basis of an initial yield locus evolution.

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
26.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z., Rutecka A., Material responses to the laboratory simulation of complex cyclic loadings, JOURNAL OF KONES, ISSN: 1231-4005, Vol.15, No.3, pp.509-516, 2008
27.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Ocena zmian właściwości mechanicznych stopu aluminium PA7 pod wpływem obciążeń cyklicznych., PRACE NAUKOWE POLITECHNIKI WARSZAWSKIEJ, SERIA: MECHANIKA, ISSN: 0137-2335, Vol.217, pp.55-60, 2007
28.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Wpływ parametrów obciążeń cyklicznych na przebieg deformacji wskutek obciążeń monotonicznie narastających w kierunku ortogonalnym, PRACE NAUKOWE POLITECHNIKI WARSZAWSKIEJ, SERIA: MECHANIKA, ISSN: 0137-2335, Vol.217, pp.61-66, 2007
29.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Laboratoryjne symulacje obciążeń cyklicznych determinujących zmiany właściwości mechanicznych materiałów konstrukcyjnych, PRZEGLĄD MECHANICZNY, ISSN: 0033-2259, Vol.LXV, No.7-8, pp.53-62, 2006
30.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Klasik A., Możliwości oceny jakości materiałów stosowanych w motoryzacji na podstawie badań próbek krzyżowych, Zeszyty ITS, Vol.4, 2006

List of recent monographs
1.
119
Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Wpływ rodzaju obciążenia na właściwości mechaniczne materiałów, Instytut Transportu Samochodowego (Warszawa), pp.1-173, 2009
List of chapters in recent monographs
1.
470
Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Brodecki A., Advances in Mechanics: Theoretical, Computational and Interdisciplinary Issues, rozdział: An influence of notch type on material behaviour under monotonic tension, CRC Press/Balkema, Taylor & Francis Group, M. Kleiber et al. (Eds.), pp.567-571, 2016
2.
397
Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Maciejewski J., Inelastic Behavior of Materials and Structures Under Monotonic and Cyclic Loading, rozdział: Experimental and Numerical Investigations of the Effects Associated to Complex Loading Combinations, Springer, Altenbach H., Brunig M. (Eds.), pp.117-142, 2015

Conference papers
1.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Kraskowski J., Chojnacki A., Mechanika pękania na tropach awarii konstrukcji i defektów materiałowych, XXIII Seminarium NIENISZCZĄCE BADANIA MATERIAŁÓW, 2017-03-15/03-17, Zakopane (PL), pp.39-74, 2017
2.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Brodecki A., Determination of artificial defects in material under monotonic tension by the use of FEM and DIC methods, Materials Today: Proceedings, ISSN: 2214-7853, DOI: 10.1016/j.matpr.2016.03.011, No.3, pp.1171-1176, 2016
Abstract:

The paper concerns numerical and experimental investigations carried out for determination of an influence of holes on material behaviour under monotonic tension. The 40Cr steel commonly applied in automotive and power plant branches of industry was tested. The analysis was performed by the use of analytical and Finite Element Method calculations. It enabled identification of stress concentration/maximum stress versus hole diameter relationships, and the HMH stress distribution. Full-field contactless Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was used for capturing the effective strain variations from the beginning of test up to specimen fracture. It enabled us to indicate the most important stress concentrator, and moreover, distribution of the HMH effective strain in 2D coordinate system. A comparison of tensile characteristic obtained by means of smooth and perforated specimens showed 70% reduction of yield point and 50% lowering of elongation as an effect of the artificial defects introduced.

Keywords:

Monotonic tension, holes, steel, stress concentration factor, maximum stress, yield point, ductility, FEM, DIC

Affiliations:
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Brodecki A.-Motor Transport Institute (PL)
3.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Ocena zachowania materiałów i elementów konstrukcyjnych w międzylaboratoryjnych próbach statycznych i zmęczeniowych z użyciem nowoczesnych technik pomiarowych, IX Międzynarodowa Konferencja „Laboratoria Badawcze – Systemy Jakości w Unii Europejskiej”, Polsko-Niemieckie Forum Badań Materiałowych – Prezentacja Doświadczeń, 2016-06-09/06-11, Saksonia-Drezno-Zamek Kliczków (DE), pp.157-170, 2016
4.Kowalewski Z.L., Dietrich L., Kopeć M., Szymczak T., Grzywna P., Nowoczesne systemy optyczne w badaniach mechanicznych – budowa, działanie, zastosowania, XXII Seminarium NIENISZCZĄCE BADANIA MATERIAŁÓW, 2016-03-16/03-18, Zakopane (PL), pp.5-36, 2016
5.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Maciejewski J., Effects observed under monotonic-cyclic loading combinations: experiment and modelling, PACAM, 14th Pan-American Congress of Applied Mechanics, 2014-03-24/03-28, Santiago (CL), pp.1-6, 2014
Abstract:

The effects often taking place during proportional and non-proportional types of loading were identified experimentally and modelled numerically. In the case of non-proportional cyclic loading along circular strain path the second order effects such as: phase shift between stress and strain signals were discovered. An analysis of experimental data from tests under non-proportional cyclic loading along square strain path exhibited a significant reduction of stress independently on direction of deformation. The paper also presents experimental results concerning evaluation of an influence of cyclic loading on mechanical parameters during monotonic deformation carried out on the 2024 aluminium alloy and X10CrMoVNb9-1 steel. All strain-controlled tests were conducted at room temperature using thin-walled tubular specimens. The experimental programme contained selected combinations of monotonic and cyclic loadings, i.e. the torsion-reverse-torsion cycles were superimposed on the monotonic tension. It is shown that such cycles caused essential variations of the tension characteristics. A significant decrease of the tension stress was observed. The effects occured during monotonic and cyclic loading combinations were described using Mróz and Maciejewski model. Reasonable good predictions of: hysteresis loops and stress responses for the square and circular loading paths and tensile curves assisted by torsion cycles were obtained

Keywords:

cyclic loading, hardening, softening, complex stress state

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Maciejewski J.-other affiliation
6.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Makowska K., Pietrzak K., Damage Indicators During Fatigue of Metal Matrix Composites, 4th International Conference on Nonlinear Dynamics, 2013-06-19/06-22, Sevastopol (UA), pp.1-6, 2013
Abstract:

Selected damage measures applied for degradation description of engineering materials subjected to fatigue loading conditions are presented. In addition to well - known measures the new concepts of fatigue damage development are discussed using known mechanisms of cyclic plasticity and ratcheting. Their usefulness was studied on the basis of experimental results for modern metal matrix composites commonly applied in many branches of the industry.

Keywords:

Damage, fatigue, composites

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Makowska K.-Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Pietrzak K.-other affiliation
7.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Podstawy tensometrii elektrooporowej oraz praktyczne jej zastosowania, XIX Seminarium NIENISZCZĄCE BADANIA MATERIAŁÓW, 2013-03-12/03-15, Zakopane (PL), Vol.1, pp.69-91, 2013
8.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Variation of tensile characteristic and mechanical parameters of power engineering steels due to cyclic loading, ICEM15, 15th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics, 2012-07-22/07-27, Porto (PT), pp.1-9, 2012
Abstract:

This paper presents experimental results of tests carried out at room temperature on power engineering steels: P91 (X10CrMoVNb9-1), 10H2M (11CrMo9-10) using thin-walled tubular specimens under biaxial stress state. The loading programme comprised two different types of deformation obtained by monotonic tension and torsional cycles. The values of axial strain and cyclic shear strain amplitude were small and did not exceed 1%. In the case of both materials tested, a significant reduction of the axial stress was achieved. It was even equal to 90% for the 10H2M steel.

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
9.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Makowska K., Augustyniak B., Assessment of material degradation of power steels using destructive and non-destructive testing methods, 9th International Congress on Thermal Stresses, 2011-06-05/06-09, Budapest (HU), Vol.1, pp.1-4, 2011
10.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Makowska K., Augustyniak B., A role of destructive and non-destructive tests in creep damage, FDM 2011, 10th International Conference on Fracture and Damage Mechanics, 2011-09-19/09-21, Dubrovnik (HR), pp.315-318, 2011
11.Kowalewski Z.L., Szelążek J., Mackiewicz S., Szymczak T., Augustyniak B., An influence of long-term exploitation on material behaviour under constant and monotonically increasing loading, 3rd International Conference on Nonlinear Dynamic, 2010-09-21/09-24, Kharkov (UA), pp.481-486, 2010
Abstract:

The paper is devoted to an analysis of creep damage at elevated temperatures and structural degradation due to plastic deformation at room temperature of selected steels commonly applied in power plants (40HNMA, 13HMF). The materials were tested in the as-received state, however, in the case of the 13HMF steel also after different periods of exploitation (76000h and 144000h at elevated temperature (813K) under internal pressure (14 bars)). Destructive and non-destructive testing methods were applied to assess material degradation. As destructive methods the standard tension tests were carried out after every kind of prestraining. Subsequently, an evolution of the selected tension parameters were taken into account for damage identification. In order to assess a damage development during the creep and plastic deformation the tests for both steels were interrupted for a range of the selected strain magnitudes. The ultrasonic and magnetic techniques were used as the non-destructive methods for damage evaluation. The last step of the experimental programme contained microscopic observations. A good correlation of mechanical and selected non-destructive parameters identifying damage was achieved for the tested steels. It gives very promising tool for degradation assessments appearing in pipelines at power stations.

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Szelążek J.-IPPT PAN
Mackiewicz S.-IPPT PAN
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Augustyniak B.-Gdansk University of Technology (PL)

Conference abstracts
1.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., ON THE CRUCIFORM SPECIMENS FOR MATERIALS TESTING, DAS 2017, 34th Danubia-Adria Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 2017-09-19/09-22, Trieste (IT), pp.1-2, 2017
2.Brodecki A., Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z., Digital image corellation technique as a tool for kinematics assessments of structural components, ISMMS, 9th International Symposium on Mechanics of Materials and Structures, 2017-06-04/06-08, Augustów (PL), pp.19-20, 2017
Abstract:

The paper reports results of tests focused on determination of kinematic properties of components under cyclic loading. DIC system called 5M PONTOS was employed to follow variations of displacement and velocity versus time. It was conducted by a use of markers stuck on selected sections of components tested. Results are presented in 2D and 3D coordinate systems expressing behaviour of elements such as: car engine, boat frame and mechanical coupling device. These data enable to capture weak and strong sections of the component tested at various loading conditions.

Keywords:

digital image correlation system, cyclic loading, PONTOS, motion, displacement, 3D coordinate system

Affiliations:
Brodecki A.-Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.-IPPT PAN
3.Brodecki A., Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Digital Image Correlation Technique InSelected Mechanical Tests, XII Konferencja „Nowe Kierunki Rozwoju Mechaniki”, 2017-03-22/03-25, Białystok - Supraśl (PL), pp.1-2, 2017
Abstract:

The paper shows how modern contactless Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method can be implemented for examination of material behaviour under various types of loading. DIC method was used to evaluate material straining under monotonic tension conducted by the use of flat specimens having artificial defects in the form of U and V notches. This technique was also examined during capturing of strain distribution in dynamic tests on Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. On the basis of DIC results the strain maps at various stages of material deformation were elaborated in order to indicate characteristic features of a material behaviour. It enabled an analysis of damage zone evolution up to specimen fracture.

Keywords:

Digital Image Correlation, specimen, monotonic tension, Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar, strain maps

Affiliations:
Brodecki A.-Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
4.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Cruciform specimens for testing of engineering materials, XII Konferencja „Nowe Kierunki Rozwoju Mechaniki”, 2017-03-22/03-25, Białystok - Supraśl (PL), pp.1-2, 2017
Abstract:

The paper presents selected cruciform specimens recommended for static and fatigue tests. Guidelines for cruciform specimens designing and optimization are presented. Numerical data of FEA analysis of Kelly’s cruciform specimen in 3D coordinate systems are shown. Various types of cruciform testing machines and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The project of the cruciform specimen for examination of material behaviour under static and cyclic loading types is proposed.

Keywords:

cruciform specimen, biaxial stress state, specimen optimization, static test, fatigue test, FEA, effective stress

Affiliations:
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
5.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Brodecki A., An Influence of Strain Rate and Artificial Defects on Material Behaviour During Tension, 27EMS, Experimental Mechanics of Solids - 27th Symposium, 2016-10-19/10-22, Jachranka (PL), pp.55, 2016
6.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Damage development in 2024 aluminium alloy due to creep and plastic flow, DAS33, 33rd Danubia-Adria Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 2016-09-20/09-23, Portorož, Slovenia (SI), No.OP-2, pp.64-65, 2016
7.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Stress relaxation in steel subjected to tension-torsion deformation, DAS33, 33rd Danubia-Adria Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 2016-09-20/09-23, Portorož, Slovenia (SI), No.OP-2, pp.100-101, 2016
8.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., A role of cyclic loading frequency in establishing of directive lines for technological processes design, ICEM17, 17th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics, 2016-07-03/07-07, Rhodes, Greece (GR), pp.1-2, 2016
9.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., An influence of cyclic loading on stress component reduction in the transversal direction, ICTAM XXIV, 24th International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2016-08-21/08-26, Montréal (CA), pp.2760-2761, 2016
10.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Brodecki A., Determination of Artificial Defects in Material under Monotonic Tension by the use of FEM and DIC Methods, DAS 2015, 32nd Danubia-Adria-Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 2015-09-22/09-25, Smokovec (SK), Vol.1, pp.58-59, 2015
11.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Brodecki A., An influence of notch type on material behaviour under monotonic tension, PCM-CMM 2015, 3rd Polish Congress of Mechanics and 21st Computer Methods in Mechanics, 2015-09-08/09-11, Gdańsk (PL), pp.149-150, 2015
Abstract:

The paper presents results of numerical and experimental investigations conducted in order to determine an influence of notch type on material behaviour under monotonic tension. Two kinds of specimens having U and V notches were applied. Digital image correlation system was used to detect variations of strain/stress state components from beginning of the test up to fracture of the material in question. Assessments of the results enabled identification of stress concentrations in tips of notches. A comparison of tensile characteristics of unnotched and notched specimens exhibited a great reduction of the yield point independently of the geometrical discontinuities applied. In the case of V-notched specimen 50% lowering of elongation was observed.

Keywords:

stress concentration, stress distribution, notches, tensile curve, digital image correlation

Affiliations:
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Brodecki A.-Motor Transport Institute (PL)
12.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Zastosowanie MES i DIC do oceny wpływu karbu na zniszczenie materiału w teście rozciągania, XI Konferencja Nowe Kierunki Rozwoju Mechaniki, 2015-03-18/03-20, Sarbinowo (PL), pp.87-88, 2015
Abstract:

Wpływ karbów jest określany zarówno od strony badań teoretycznych, jak i doświadczalnych. Pierwsze z nich umożliwiają przewidywanie zniszczenia na podstawie analizy zmian wartości współczynnika koncentracji naprężenia (WKN) i pozwalają zilustrować jego zmiany w zależności od geometrii karbu. Z kolei w eksperymentach próbuje się określać, jakie znaczenie na otrzymywane wyniki ma rodzaj próbki. Najczęściej stosowane są w tych badaniach próbki rurkowe lub płaskie. W strefie pomiarowej nacinane są karby o różnym kształcie i wymiarach [1]. Uzyskiwane rezultaty z badań wskazują na 50% obniżenie liczby cykli do zainicjowania pęknięcia wraz ze wzrostem promienia karbu od 0 do 6.35mm [2]. Podobny efekt uzyskano również przy wzroście wartości WKN od 1 do 2.833 [1, 3]. Wyniki tego rodzaju nie ujawniają jednak wystarczająco wpływu nieciągłości geometrycznych w bliskim otoczeniu karbu. Rozwiązanie tego problemu może nastąpić poprzez wykorzystanie nowoczesnej techniki pomiarowej DIC (cyfrowa korelacja obrazu). Dlatego też głównym celem pracy było określenie wpływu karbów na zachowanie materiału w teście rozciągania do zniszczenia przy użyciu wymienionej techniki pomiarowej

Affiliations:
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
13.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Maciejewski J., Material effects during monotonic-cyclic loading conditions, Plasticity 2014, 20th International Symposium on Plasticity and its Current Applications, 2014-01-03/01-08, Freeport (BS), pp.100-102, 2014
Abstract:

The effects commonly taking place during proportional and non - proportional (circle and square) types of loading were identified experimentally. Experimental results of tests under cyclic loading assisted by monotonic deformation are compared to their predictions using the Mróz - Maciejewski model

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Maciejewski J.-other affiliation
14.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Analysis of tensile force variation due to application of cyclic torsion for a range of frequency levels, SolMech 2014, 39th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2014-09-01/09-05, Zakopane (PL), pp.143-144, 2014
15.Szymczak T., Brodecki A., Kowalewski Z.L., An effect of technological notches on stress and strain distribution during monotonic tension, SolMech 2014, 39th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2014-09-01/09-05, Zakopane (PL), pp.325-326, 2014
16.Szymczak T., Brodecki A., Eminger A., Kowalewski Z.L., Experimental assessment of ball joints operation using servo-hydraulic testing systems, SolMech 2014, 39th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2014-09-01/09-05, Zakopane (PL), pp.327-328, 2014
17.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Fracture toughness investigations of metal matrix composites reinforced by ceramic fibres, DAS 30, 30th Danubia-Adria-Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 2013-09-25/09-28, Primosten (HR), Vol.1, pp.201-202, 2013
18.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., An influence of cyclic torsion strain amplitude on monotonic tension of power plant steel, VII International Symposium on Mechanics of Materials and Structures, 2013-06-03/06-06, Augustów (PL), Vol.1, pp.1-2, 2013
Abstract:

The paper reports the experimental data of tests on the 10H2M steel, carried out under complex loading being combination of monotonic tension and cyclic torsion. Two types of torsion cycles were applied, i.e.: symmetrical and asymmetrical, having four blocks of different shear strain amplitude within a range from ±0.1% to ±0.8%,. All tests were conducted using the tubular specimens at room temperature. The main aim of the experimental procedure was focused on examination of axial stress variations due to torsion cycles of step increasing strain amplitude. An analysis of the results showed a significant reduction of the tensile stress. This effect became stronger when the torsion strain amplitude was increased andit achieved 85% stress drop at highest strain amplitude considered in comparison to the standard tensile characteristic.

Keywords:

complex loading, biaxial stress state, stress reduction, tensile stress, shear stress, tubular specimen

Affiliations:
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
19.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Wykorzystanie cyklicznego obciążenia skręcającego i doboru jego parametrów jako sposobu do redukowania siły podczas monotonicznego rozciągania, X Konferencja Nowe Kierunki Rozwoju Mechaniki, 2013-03-21/03-23, Jarnołtówek (PL), Vol.101, No.348, pp.83-84, 2013
20.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., An influence of cyclic torsion parameters on tensile characteristic variation, 29th Danubia-Adria-Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 2012-09-26/09-29, Belgrad (XS), Vol.1, No.1, pp.98-99, 2012
21.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Tensile stress variation due to stepwise increase of cyclic torsion amplitude, 8th European Solid Mechanics Conference, 2012-07-09/09-13, Graz (AT), No.1, pp.1-2, 2012
22.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Variations of stress state components during step cyclic loading of power plant steel, SolMech 2012, 38th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2012-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.130-131, 2012
23.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Wpływ parametrów cyklicznego obciążenia skręcającego na przebieg rozciągania stali energetycznej, XXV Sympozjum Mechaniki Eksperymentalnej Ciała Stałego, 2012-10-17/10-20, Jachranka (PL), Vol.1, No.1, pp.1-2, 2012
24.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Material effects during monotonic-cyclic loading, 28th Danubia-Adria-Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 2011-09-28/10-01, Siófok (HU), Vol.1, pp.93-94, 2011
25.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Makowska K., Augustyniak B., Correlation of parameters determined using destructive and non-destructive testing methods as a tool of material degradation assessment, Plasticity 2011, 17th International Symposium on Plasticity and its Current Applications, 2011-01-03/01-08, Puerto Vallarta (MX), pp.1-3, 2011
26.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Behaviour of the 2024 aluminium alloy under non-proportional cyclic loading, SolMech 2010, 37th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2010-09-06/09-10, Warszawa (PL), pp.206-207, 2010
27.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Maciejewski J., On the mutual interactions of monotonic and cyclic loading – experiments and theoretical predictions, Workshop on Constitutive Modeling in Applications for Industrial Processes, 2010-09-01/09-03, Kraków (PL), pp.1-2, 2010

Patents
Numer/data zgłoszenia patentowego
Ogłoszenie o zgłoszeniu patentowym
Twórca / twórcy
Tytuł
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Numer patentu
Ogłoszenie o udzieleniu patentu
pdf
402175
2012-12-21
BUP 13/14
2014-06-23
Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T.
Przyrząd do mocowania cienkościennych próbek rurkowych w uchwytach maszyny wytrzymałościowej
PL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN
223676
WUP 10/16
2016-10-31
391485
2010-05-18
24/2011
2011-11-21
Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T.
Sposób badania mechanicznych właściwości materiałów w postaci próbek poddawanych jednoczesnemu działaniu monotonicznie narastającej siły osiowej oraz rewersyjnego momentu skręcającego o charakterze cyklicznym
PL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN, Instytut Transportu Samochodowego
224035
11/2016
2016-11-30
391486
2010-05-18
24/2011
2011-11-21
Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T.
Sposób badania mechanicznych właściwości materiałów w postaci próbek poddawanych jednoczesnemu działaniu momentu skręcającego oraz siły osiowej
PL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN, Instytut Transportu Samochodowego
224036
11/2016
2016-11-30