Partner: Wiesław Jakubowski


Recent publications
1.Dobruch-Sobczak K., Piotrzkowska-Wróblewska H., Roszkowska-Purska K., Nowicki A., Jakubowski W., Usefulness of combined BI-RADS analysis and Nakagami statistics of ultrasound echoes in the diagnosis of breast lesions, Clinical Radiology, ISSN: 0009-9260, DOI: 10.1016/j.crad.2016.11.009, Vol.72, pp.339.e7-339.e15, 2017
Abstract:

AIM: To develop a method combining the statistics of the ultrasound backscatter and the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification to enhance the differentiation of breast tumours.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Nakagami shape parameter m was used to characterise the scatter properties of breast tumours. Raw data from the radiofrequency (RF) echo-signal and Bmode images from 107 (32 malignant and 75 benign) lesions and their surrounding tissue were recorded. Three different characteristic values of the shape parameters of m (maximum [mLmax], minimum [mLmin] and average [mLavg]) and differences between m parameters (Dmmax, Dmmin, Dmavg) of the lesions and their surrounding tissues were assessed. A lesion with a BI-RADS score of 3 was considered benign, while a lesion with a score of 4 was considered malignant (a cut-off of BI-RADS 3/4 was set for all patients).
RESULTS: The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was equal to 0.966 for BI-RADS, with 100% sensitivity and 54.67% specificity. All malignant lesions were diagnosed correctly, whereas 34 benign lesions were biopsied unnecessarily. In assessing the Nakagami statistics, the sum of the sensitivity and specificity was the best for mLavg (62.5% and 93.33%, respectively). Only four of 20 lesions were found over the cut-off value in BI-RADS of 4a. When comparing the differences in m parameters, Dmavg had the highest sensitivity of 90% (only three of 32 lesions were false negative). These three lesions were classified as BIRADS category 4c. The combined use of B-mode and mLmin parameter improve the AUC up to 0.978 (pĽ0.088), compared to BI-RADS alone.
CONCLUSION: The combination of the parametric imaging and the BI-RADS assessment does not significantly improve the differentiation of breast lesions, but it has the potential to better identify the group of patients with mainly benign lesions that have a low level of suspicion for malignancy with a BI-RADS score of 4a.

Affiliations:
Dobruch-Sobczak K.-IPPT PAN
Piotrzkowska-Wróblewska H.-IPPT PAN
Roszkowska-Purska K.-other affiliation
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Jakubowski W.-other affiliation
2.Dobruch-Sobczak K., Bakuła-Zalewska E., Gumińska A., Słapa R. Z., Mlosek K., Wareluk P., Jakubowski W., Dedecjus M., Diagnostic performance of shear wave elastography parameters alone and in combination with conventional b-mode ultrasound parameters for the characterization of thyroid nodules: a prospective, dual-center study, ULTRASOUND IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY, ISSN: 0301-5629, DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2016.07.010, Vol.42, No.12, pp.2803-2811, 2016
Abstract:

The aims of our study were to determine whether shear wave elastography (SWE) can improve the conventional B-mode differentiation of thyroid lesions, determine the most accurate SWE parameter for differentiation and assess the influence of microcalcifications and chronic autoimmune thyroiditis on SWE values. We examined 119 patients with 169 thyroid nodules who prospectively underwent B-mode ultrasound and SWE using the same ultrasound machine. The parameters assessed using SWE were: mean elasticity within the entire lesion (SWE-whole) and mean (SWE-mean) and maximum (SWE-max) elasticity for a 2-mm-diameter region of interest in the stiffest portion of the lesion, excluding microcalcifications. The discriminant powers of a generalized estimating equation model including B-mode parameters only and a generalized estimation equation model including both B-mode and SWE parameters were assessed and compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, in association with pathologic verification. In total, 50 and 119 malignant and benign lesions were detected. In generalized estimated equation regression, the B-mode parameters associated with higher odds ratios (ORs) for malignant lesions were microcalcifications (OR = 4.3), hypo-echogenicity (OR = 3.13) and irregular margins (OR = 10.82). SWE-max was the only SWE independent parameter in differentiating between malignant and benign tumors (OR = 2.95). The area under the curve for the B-mode model was 0.85, whereas that for the model combining B-mode and SWE parameters was 0.87. There was no significant difference in mean SWE values between patients with and without chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. The results of the present study suggest that SWE is a valuable tool for the characterization of thyroid nodules, with SWE-max being a significant parameter in differentiating benign and malignant lesions, independent of conventional B-mode parameters. The combination of SWE parameters and conventional B-mode parameters does not significantly improve the diagnosis of malignant thyroid nodules. The presence of microcalcifications can influence the SWE-whole value, whereas the presence of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis may not.

Keywords:

Shear wave elastography, B-Mode ultrasound, Thyroid nodules, Diagnostic performance, Malignant, Benign

Affiliations:
Dobruch-Sobczak K.-other affiliation
Bakuła-Zalewska E.-Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology (PL)
Gumińska A.-other affiliation
Słapa R. Z.-other affiliation
Mlosek K.-Medical University of Warsaw (PL)
Wareluk P.-Medical University of Warsaw (PL)
Jakubowski W.-other affiliation
Dedecjus M.-Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology (PL)
3.Słapa R.Z., Kasperlik-Załuska A.A., Migda B., Otto M., Dobruch-Sobczak K., Jakubowski W.S., Echogenicity of benign adrenal focal lesions on imaging with new ultrasound techniques – report with pictorial presentation, Journal of Ultrasonography, ISSN: 2084-8404, DOI: 10.15557/JoU.2015.0034, Vol.15, pp.368-376, 2015
Abstract:

Aim: The aim of the research was to assess the echogenicity of benign adrenal focal lesions using new ultrasound techniques. Material and method: 34 benign adrenal masses in 29 patients were analyzed retrospectively. The examinations were conducted using Aplio XG (Toshiba, Japan) ultrasound scanner with a convex probe 1–6 MHz in the B-mode presentation with the combined use of new ultrasound techniques: harmonic imaging and spatial compound sonography. The size of the adrenal tumors, their echogenicity and homogeneity were analyzed. Statistical analysis was conducted using the STATISTICA 10 software. Results: The following adrenal masses were assessed: 12 adenomas, 10 nodular hyperplasias of adrenal cortex, 7 myelolipomas, 3 pheochromocytomas, a hemangioma with hemorrhage and a cyst. The mean diameter of nodular hyperplasia of adrenal cortex was not statistically different from that of adenomas (p = 0.075). The possibility of differentiating between nodular hyperplasia and adenoma using the parameter of hypoechogenicity or homogeneity of the lesion was demonstrated with the sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 41.7%, respectively. The larger the benign adrenal tumor was, the more frequently did it turn out to have a mixed and inhomogenous echogenicity (p < 0.05; ROC areas under the curve: 0.832 and 0.805, respectively). Conclusions: A variety of echogenicity patterns of benign adrenal focal lesions was demonstrated. The image of an adrenal tumor correlates with its size. The ultrasound examination, apart from its indisputable usefulness in detecting and monitoring adrenal tumors, may also allow for the differentiation between benign lesions. However, for lesions found incidentally an algorithm for the assessment of adrenal incidentalomas is applicable, which includes computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

Keywords:

adrenal glands, adrenal masses, ultrasound, echogenicity

Affiliations:
Słapa R.Z.-other affiliation
Kasperlik-Załuska A.A.-other affiliation
Migda B.-other affiliation
Otto M.-other affiliation
Dobruch-Sobczak K.-IPPT PAN
Jakubowski W.S.-other affiliation
4.Słapa R.Z., Jakubowski W.S., Dobruch-Sobczak K., Kasperlik-Załuska A.A., Standards of ultrasound imaging of the adrenal glands, Journal of Ultrasonography, ISSN: 2084-8404, DOI: 10.15557/JoU.2015.0035, Vol.15, pp.377-387, 2015
Abstract:

Adrenal glands are paired endocrine glands located over the upper renal poles. Adrenal pathologies have various clinical presentations. They can coexist with the hyperfunction of individual cortical zones or the medulla, insufficiency of the adrenal cortex or retained normal hormonal function. The most common adrenal masses are tumors incidentally detected in imaging examinations (ultrasound, tomography, magnetic resonance imaging), referred to as incidentalomas. They include a range of histopathological entities but cortical adenomas without hormonal hyperfunction are the most common. Each abdominal ultrasound scan of a child or adult should include the assessment of the suprarenal areas. If a previously non-reported, incidental solid focal lesion exceeding 1 cm (incidentaloma) is detected in the suprarenal area, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging should be conducted to confirm its presence and for differentiation and the tumor functional status should be determined. Ultrasound imaging is also used to monitor adrenal incidentaloma that is not eligible for a surgery. The paper presents recommendations concerning the performance and assessment of ultrasound examinations of the adrenal glands and their pathological lesions. The article includes new ultrasound techniques, such as tissue harmonic imaging, spatial compound imaging, three-dimensional ultrasound, elastography, contrast-enhanced ultrasound and parametric imaging. The guidelines presented above are consistent with the recommendations of the Polish Ultrasound Society.

Keywords:

adrenal glands, adrenal masses, ultrasound, standards

Affiliations:
Słapa R.Z.-other affiliation
Jakubowski W.S.-other affiliation
Dobruch-Sobczak K.-IPPT PAN
Kasperlik-Załuska A.A.-other affiliation
5.Dobruch-Sobczak K., Gumińska A., Bakuła-Zalewska E., Mlosek K., Słapa R.Z., Wareluk P., Krauze A., Ziemiecka A., Migda B., Jakubowski W., Dedecjus M., Shear wave elastography in medullary thyroid carcinoma diagnostics, Journal of Ultrasonography, ISSN: 2084-8404, DOI: 10.15557/JoU.2015.0033, Vol.15, pp.358-367, 2015
Abstract:

Shear wave elastography (SWE) is a modern method for the assessment of tissue stiffness. There has been a growing interest in the use of this technique for characterizing thyroid focal lesions, including preoperative diagnostics. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the clinical usefulness of SWE in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) diagnostics. Materials and methods: A total of 169 focal lesions were identified in the study group (139 patients), including 6 MTCs in 4 patients (mean age: 45 years). B-mode ultrasound and SWE were performed using Aixplorer (SuperSonic, Aix-en-Provence), with a 4–15 MHz linear probe. The ultrasound was performed to assess the echogenicity and echostructure of the lesions, their margin, the halo sign, the height/width ratio (H/W ratio), the presence of calcifications and the vascularization pattern. This was followed by an analysis of maximum and mean Young’s (E) modulus values for MTC (EmaxLR, EmeanLR) and the surrounding thyroid tissues (EmaxSR, EmeanSR), as well as mean E-values (EmeanLRz) for 2 mm region of interest in the stiffest zone of the lesion. The lesions were subject to pathological and/or cytological evaluation. Results: The B-mode assessment showed that all MTCs were hypoechogenic, with no halo sign, and they contained micro- and/ or macrocalcifications. Ill-defined lesion margin were found in 4 out of 6 cancers; 4 out of 6 cancers had a H/W ratio > 1. Heterogeneous echostructure and type III vascularity were found in 5 out of 6 lesions. In the SWE, the mean value of EmaxLR for all of the MTCs was 89.5 kPa and (the mean value of EmaxSR for all surrounding tissues was) 39.7 kPa Mean values of EmeanLR and EmeanSR were 34.7 kPa and 24.4 kPa, respectively. The mean value of EmeanLRz was 49.2 kPa. Conclusions: SWE showed MTCs as stiffer lesions compared to the surrounding tissues. The lesions were qualified for fine needle aspiration biopsy based on B-mode assessment. However, the diagnostic algorithm for MTC is based on the measurement of serum calcitonin levels, B-mode ultrasound and FNAB.

Keywords:

medullary thyroid carcinoma, thyroid, ultrasound, shear wave elastography

Affiliations:
Dobruch-Sobczak K.-IPPT PAN
Gumińska A.-other affiliation
Dedecjus M.-Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology (PL)
Bakuła-Zalewska E.-Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology (PL)
Mlosek K.-Medical University of Warsaw (PL)
Słapa R.Z.-other affiliation
Wareluk P.-Medical University of Warsaw (PL)
Krauze A.-other affiliation
Ziemiecka A.-other affiliation
Migda B.-other affiliation
Jakubowski W.-other affiliation
6.Dobruch-Sobczak K., Jędrzejowski M., Jakubowski W., Trzebińska A., Błędy i pomyłki w diagnostyce ultrasonograficznej tarczycy, Journal of Ultrasonography, ISSN: 2084-8404, DOI: 10.15557/JoU.2014.0006, Vol.14, pp.61-73, 2014
Abstract:

Ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland permits to evaluate its size, echogenicity, margins, and stroma. An abnormal ultrasound image of the thyroid, accompanied by other diagnostic investigations, facilitates therapeutic decision-making. The ultrasound image of a normal thyroid gland does not change substantially with patient’s age. Nevertheless, erroneous impressions in thyroid imaging reports are sometimes encountered. These are due to diagnostic pitfalls which cannot be prevented by either the continuing development of the imaging equipment, or the growing experience and skill of the practitioners. Our article discusses the most common mistakes encountered in US diagnostics of the thyroid, the elimination of which should improve the quality of both the ultrasound examination itself and its interpretation. We have outlined errors resulting from a faulty examination technique, the similarity of the neighboring anatomical structures, and anomalies present in the proximity of the thyroid gland. We have also pointed out the reasons for inaccurate assessment of a thyroid lesion image, such as having no access to clinical data or not taking them into account, as well as faulty qualification for a fine needle aspiration biopsy. We have presented guidelines aimed at limiting the number of misdiagnoses in thyroid diseases, and provided sonograms exemplifying diagnostic mistakes.

Keywords:

thyroid, ultrasound imaging, medical mistakes, thyroid diseases, fine needle biopsy

Affiliations:
Dobruch-Sobczak K.-other affiliation
Jędrzejowski M.-other affiliation
Jakubowski W.-other affiliation
Trzebińska A.-other affiliation
7.Trzebińska A., Dobruch-Sobczak K., Jakubowski W., Jędrzejowski M., Standardy badań ultrasonograficznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Ultrasonograficznego – aktualizacja. Badanie ultrasonograficzne tarczycy oraz biopsja tarczycy pod kontrolą ultrasonografii, Journal of Ultrasonography, ISSN: 2084-8404, DOI: 10.15557/JoU.2014.0005, Vol.14, pp.49-60, 2014
Abstract:

Ultrasonography is a primary imaging technique in patients with suspected thyroid disease. It allows to assess the location, size and echostructures of the thyroid gland as well as detect focal lesions, along with indication of their size, echogenicity, echostructure and vascularity. Based on these features, ultrasound examination allows to predict abnormal focal lesions for biopsy and monitor the biopsy needle track. This paper presents the standards of thyroid ultrasound examination regarding ultrasound apparatus technical requirements, scanning techniques, readings, measurements, and the description of the examination. It discusses the ultrasound features of increased malignancy risk in focal lesions (nodules) found in the thyroid gland. It presents indications for fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid gland for the visibility of single nodules (focal lesions) and numerous lesions as well as discusses contraindications for thyroid biopsy. It describes the biopsy technique, possible complications and rules for post-biopsy monitoring of benign lesions. The paper is an update of the Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society issued in 2011. It has been prepared on the basis of current literature, taking into account the information contained in the following publications: Thyroid ultrasound examination and Recommendations of the Polish Ultrasound Society for the performance of the FNAB of the thyroid.

Keywords:

ultrasound imaging, thyroid, standards, thyroid diseases, fine needles biopsy

Affiliations:
Trzebińska A.-other affiliation
Dobruch-Sobczak K.-other affiliation
Jakubowski W.-other affiliation
Jędrzejowski M.-other affiliation

Conference abstracts
1.Dobruch-Sobczak K., Gumińska A., Bakuła-Zalewska E., Piotrzkowska H., Mlosek K., Słapa R.Z., Wareluk P., Migda B., Olszewski W., Jakubowski W., Nowicki A., Dedecjus M., Wartość sonoelastografii fali poprzecznej (SWE) w szacowaniu ryzyka złośliwości zmian ogniskowych tarczycy, V Konferencja Rak Tarczycy i inne nowotwory zlośliwe układu wydzielania wewnętrznego, 2015-11-14/11-17, Wisła (PL), Vol.66, pp.1, 2015
2.Dobruch-Sobczak K., Gumińska A., Bakuła-Zalewska E., Kaczor A., Piotrzkowska H., Jakubowski W., Nowicki A., Dedecjus M., Zastosowanie elastografii fali poprzecznej w diagnostyce raka rdzeniastego tarczycy, V Konferencja Rak Tarczycy i inne nowotwory zlośliwe układu wydzielania wewnętrznego, 2015-11-14/11-17, Wisła (PL), DOI: 10.15557/JoU.2015.003, Vol.66, No.15, pp.358-367, 2015
Abstract:

Elastografia fali poprzecznej jest nowoczesną metodą oceny sztywności tkanek. Obserwuje się wzrost zainteresowania tą techniką w różnicowaniu charakteru zmian ogniskowych w tarczycy również w diagnostyce przedoperacyjnej. Cel pracy: Celem niniejszej pracy była ocena klinicznej przydatności elastografi i fali poprzecznej w diagnostyce raka rdzeniastego tarczycy (RRT). Materiał i metoda: W badanej grupie 139 pacjentów stwierdzono 169 zmian ogniskowych, a u 4 pacjentów (średni wiek: 45 lat) rozpoznano 6 RRT. Wykonano USG B-mode oraz elastografię fali poprzecznej aparatem Aixplorer (Super-Sonic, Aix-en-Provence), głowicą liniową o częstotliwości 4–15 MHz. W USG oceniano echogeniczność i echo strukturę zmian, ich brzegi, objaw „halo”, stosunek wysokości dogłębokości (W/G), obecność zwapnień oraz wzorzec unaczynienia. Następnie analizowano: maksymalne i średnie wartości modułu Younga (E) dla największego ROI dla RRT (EmaxLR, EmeanLR ) oraz dla otaczających tkanek w miąższu gruczołu (EmaxSR , EmeanSR), a także średnie wartości E (EmeanLRz) dla 2 mm obszaru zainteresowania z najsztywniejszej części zmiany. Zmiany zweryfikowano histopatologicznie i/lub cytologicznie. Wyniki: W ocenie B-mode wszystkie RRT były hipoechogeniczne, bez obecności objawu „halo”, oraz zawierał y mikro- i/lub makrozwapnienia. Nieostre granice zmiany obecne były w 4 z 6 raków. Wartość ilorazu WG >1 dotyczył a 4 na 6 zmian. Niejednorodną echo strukturę oraz typ III unaczynienia stwierdzono w 5 na 6 zmian. W SWE średnia wartość E maxLR w obrębie RRT wynosił a 89,5 kPa, w otoczeniu – 39,7 kPa. Średnie wartości E meanLR , E meanSR wynosił y odpowiednio: 34,6 kPa i 24,4 kPa. Wartość średnia E meanLRz=49,2 kPa. Wnioski: W SWE RRT przedstawiały się jako zmiany sztywniejsze w porównaniu z otaczającymi tkankami. W ocenie B-mode spełniały wskazania do biopsji spiracyjnej cienkoigłowej. Jednak algorytm diagnostyczny RRT opiera się na pomiarze stężenia kalcytoniny w surowicy krwi, ocenie USG B-mode oraz biopsji.

Keywords:

rak rdzeniasty, tarczyca, badanie USG, sonoelastografia fali poprzecznej

Affiliations:
Dobruch-Sobczak K.-IPPT PAN
Gumińska A.-other affiliation
Bakuła-Zalewska E.-Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology (PL)
Kaczor A.-other affiliation
Piotrzkowska H.-IPPT PAN
Jakubowski W.-other affiliation
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Dedecjus M.-Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology (PL)