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Affiliation to IPPT PAN

1.Ryś M., Egner H., Energy equivalence based constitutive model of austenitic stainless steel at cryogenic temperatures, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES, ISSN: 0020-7683, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2018.12.028, Vol.164, pp.52-65, 2019
Ryś M., Egner H., Energy equivalence based constitutive model of austenitic stainless steel at cryogenic temperatures, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES, ISSN: 0020-7683, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2018.12.028, Vol.164, pp.52-65, 2019

Abstract:
In the present work the constitutive model of 316L and 304 stainless steel subjected to mechanical loading at cryogenic temperatures is derived. Three main coupled dissipative phenomena taking place in the material: plastic flow, plastic strain-induced transformation from the primary phase (γ) to the secondary phase (α′), and evolution of micro-damage are considered using a thermodynamically consistent framework. The approach based on total energy equivalence, originally developed for damaged materials, is here extended to modelling not only damage but also phase transformation, in a consistent manner. The proposed model is implemented numerically and validated by means of parametric studies, and by comparison with the experimental results. Very good qualitative and quantitative results are obtained.

Keywords:
Constitutive modelling, Plasticity, Damage, Phase transformation, Cryogenic temperatures

2.Chmielewski M., Nosewicz S., Wyszkowska E., Kurpaska Ł., Strojny-Nędza A., Piątkowska A., Bazarnik P., Pietrzak K., Analysis of the micromechanical properties of copper-silicon carbide composites using nanoindentation measurements, CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL, ISSN: 0272-8842, DOI: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2019.01.257, Vol.45, No.7A, pp.9164-9173, 2019
Chmielewski M., Nosewicz S., Wyszkowska E., Kurpaska Ł., Strojny-Nędza A., Piątkowska A., Bazarnik P., Pietrzak K., Analysis of the micromechanical properties of copper-silicon carbide composites using nanoindentation measurements, CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL, ISSN: 0272-8842, DOI: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2019.01.257, Vol.45, No.7A, pp.9164-9173, 2019

Abstract:
The study presents a detailed analysis of the impact of the coating type of silicon carbide particles and its share by volume on the microstructure and micromechanical properties of Cu-SiC composites. In order to protect the carbide from decomposition during the manufacturing of the composites, the surface of SiC was modified via a plasma vapour deposition technique with a layer of metals (W, Cr, Ti and Ni). Composites with a variable share of the ceramic phase (10–50 %vol.) were obtained at a temperature of 950 °C using spark plasma sintering. An analysis of the structures of the composites, especially in the metal-ceramic boundary region, was conducted with the use of scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of the composites in the Cu-interface-SiC system were studied via a nanoindentation technique. The comparison of the results of hardness and Young's modulus studies were completed in relation to the actual structures of the materials, which in turn made it possible to determine the impact of the interfacial structure on the global properties of the composite materials.

Keywords:
Copper-silicon carbide composites; Nanoindentation; SPS; Interface study

3.Nosewicz S., Rojek J., Chmielewski M., Pietrzak K., Discrete Element Modeling of Intermetallic Matrix Composite Manufacturing by Powder Metallurgy, Materials, ISSN: 1996-1944, DOI: 10.3390/ma12020281, Vol.12, No.281, pp.1-18, 2019
Nosewicz S., Rojek J., Chmielewski M., Pietrzak K., Discrete Element Modeling of Intermetallic Matrix Composite Manufacturing by Powder Metallurgy, Materials, ISSN: 1996-1944, DOI: 10.3390/ma12020281, Vol.12, No.281, pp.1-18, 2019

Abstract:
This paper presents a numerical and experimental analysis of manufacturing of intermetallic ceramic composites by powder metallurgy techniques. The scope of the paper includes the formulation and development of an original numerical model of powder metallurgy of two-phase material within the framework of the discrete element method, simulations of powder metallurgy processes for different combinations of process parameters, and a verification of the numerical model based on own experimental results. Intermetallic-based composite NiAl–Al2O3 has been selected as representative material for experimental and numerical studies in this investigation. Special emphasis was given to the interactions between the intermetallic and ceramic particles by formulating the special model for adhesive contact bond. In order to properly represent a real microstructure of a two-phase sintered body, a discrete element specimen was generated using a special algorithm. Numerical validation showed the correct numerical representation of a sintered two-phase composite specimen. Finally, micromechanical analysis was performed to explain the macroscopic behavior of the sintered sample. The evolution of the coordination number, a number of equilibrium contacts, and the distribution of the cohesive neck size with respect to time are presented.

Keywords:
powder metallurgy; sintering; discrete element method; modeling; intermetallic matrix composites

4.Kucharski S., Woźniacka S., Size Effect in Single Crystal Copper Examined with Spherical Indenters, METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, ISSN: 1073-5623, DOI: 10.1007/s11661-019-05160-w, pp.1-16, 2019
Kucharski S., Woźniacka S., Size Effect in Single Crystal Copper Examined with Spherical Indenters, METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, ISSN: 1073-5623, DOI: 10.1007/s11661-019-05160-w, pp.1-16, 2019

Abstract:
The increasing hardness with decreasing penetration depth, referred to as indentation size effect (ISE) was previously investigated experimentally and theoretically by many researchers, however the mechanisms responsible for ISE are still being discussed. Generally, ISE is related to the density of geometrically necessary dislocation stored within a small volume beneath the indenter tip. In this study ISE is investigated experimentally in a single crystal copper using spherical indenter tips of different radii. Some new aspects of ISE are shown: a qualitative change of shape of residual impression (pile-up/sink-in pattern) when tip radius or load is modified, an increase of maximum pop-in load with decrease of tip radius as well as the well-known increase of hardness when tip radius decreases are analyzed. As we observe a difference of the residual imprint morphology which depends on tip radius and load, we apply two methods of hardness estimation: true hardness and nominal hardness. The former is determined on the basis of direct measurement of the contact area while accounting for a specific pile-up pattern, while the latter is determined by measuring the contact area using residual penetration depth. We show that hardness–tip radius relationship has a linear form for the nominal hardness and bilinear form for the true hardness.

5.Krajewski M., Węglewski W., Bochenek K., Wysmołek A., Basista M., Optical measurements of thermal residual stresses in alumina reinforced with chromium, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, ISSN: 0021-8979, DOI: 10.1063/1.5083115, Vol.125, No.135104, pp.135104-1-135104-10, 2019
Krajewski M., Węglewski W., Bochenek K., Wysmołek A., Basista M., Optical measurements of thermal residual stresses in alumina reinforced with chromium, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, ISSN: 0021-8979, DOI: 10.1063/1.5083115, Vol.125, No.135104, pp.135104-1-135104-10, 2019

Abstract:
This work describes optical measurements of processing-induced thermal residual stresses in an alumina matrix reinforced with chromium particles. This ceramic-metal composite is manufactured by the powder metallurgy method comprising powder mixing in a planetary ball mill and consolidation by hot pressing. Two different chromium powders (5 μm and 45 μm mean particle size) are used, while the average
alumina particle size is kept constant (1 μm). The residual stresses in aluminum oxide are determined by applying two optical methods: photoluminescence piezo-spectroscopy (PLPS) and Raman spectroscopy (RS). Both experimental techniques reveal a chromium size effect in the residual stress measurements. When the fine chromium powder (5 μm) is used, the average residual stress in the ceramic phase is
tensile (unusual effect), whereas for the coarser chromium powder (45 μm) it becomes compressive. The PLPS measurements of the hydrostatic residual stress component in the ceramic phase yield the values of 0.290 and −0.130 GPa for samples with 5 μm and 45 μm chromium powders, respectively. In the RS experiments, the corresponding stress component in the alumina equals 0.351 GPa for the composite with 5 μm chromium and −0.158 GPa for that with 45 μm chromium powder. These values indicate that the residual stress in the alumina reinforced with 5 μm chromium is approximately twice higher than that in the alumina reinforced with 45 μm chromium. Finally, the validity of the results obtained with the optical techniques is confirmed by the neutron diffraction measurements.

6.Lengiewicz J., Hołobut P., Efficient collective shape shifting and locomotion of massively-modular robotic structures, Autonomous Robots, ISSN: 0929-5593, DOI: 10.1007/s10514-018-9709-6, Vol.43, No.1, pp.97-122, 2019
Lengiewicz J., Hołobut P., Efficient collective shape shifting and locomotion of massively-modular robotic structures, Autonomous Robots, ISSN: 0929-5593, DOI: 10.1007/s10514-018-9709-6, Vol.43, No.1, pp.97-122, 2019

Abstract:
We propose a methodology of planning effective shape shifting and locomotion of large-ensemble modular robots based on a cubic lattice. The modules are divided into two groups: fixed ones, that build a rigid porous frame, and mobile ones, that flow through the frame.Mobile modules which flow out of the structure attach to the frame, advancing its boundary. Conversely, a deficiency of mobile modules in other parts of the boundary is corrected by decomposition of the frame. Inside the structure, appropriate module flow is arranged to transport the modules in a desired direction, which is planned by a special distributed version of a maximum flow search algorithm. The method engages a volume of modules during reconfiguration, which is more efficient than common surface-flow approaches. Also, the proposed interpretation as a flow in porous media with moving boundaries seems particularly suitable for further development of more advanced global reconfiguration scenarios. The theoretical efficiency of the method is assessed, and then partially verified by a series of simulations. The method can be possibly also applied to a wider class of modular robots, not necessarily cubic-lattice-based.

Keywords:
Modular robots, Self-reconfiguration, Maximum flow search, Programmable matter, Distributed algorithms

7.Widłaszewski J., Nowak M., Nowak Z., Kurp P., LASER-ASSISTED THERMOMECHANICAL BENDING OF TUBE PROFILES, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.24425/amm.2019.126268, Vol.64, No.1, pp.421-430, 2019
Widłaszewski J., Nowak M., Nowak Z., Kurp P., LASER-ASSISTED THERMOMECHANICAL BENDING OF TUBE PROFILES, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.24425/amm.2019.126268, Vol.64, No.1, pp.421-430, 2019

Abstract:
The subject of the work is the analysis of thermomechanical bending process of a thin-walled tube made of X5CrNi18-10 stainless steel. The deformation is produced at elevated temperature generated with a laser beam in a specially designed experimental setup. The tube bending process consists of local heating of the tube by a moving laser beam and simultaneous kinematic enforcement of deformation with an actuator and a rotating bending arm. During experimental investigations, the resultant force of the actuator and temperature at the laser spot are recorded. In addition to experimental tests, the bending process of the tube was modelled using the finite element method in the ABAQUS program. For this purpose, the tube deformation process was divided into two sequentially coupled numerical simulations. The first one was the heat transfer analysis for a laser beam moving longitudinally over the tube surface. The second simulation described the process of mechanical bending with the time-varying temperature field obtained in the first simulation. The force and temperature recorded during experiments were used to verify the proposed numerical model. The final stress state and the deformation of the tube after the bending process were analyzed using the numerical solution. The results indicate that the proposed bending method can be successfully used in forming of the thin-walled profiles, in particular, when large bending angles and a small spring-back effect are of interest.

Keywords:
laser forming, laser-assisted bending, numerical modelling