Publications in journals ranked by Journal Citation Reports (JCR) 
Publications in other journals ranked by Ministry of Science and Higher Education
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Publications in other journals and conference proceedings
Affiliation to IPPT PAN

1.Sumelka W., Nowak M., On a general numerical scheme for the fractional plastic flow rule, MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, ISSN: 0167-6636, DOI: 10.1016/j.mechmat.2017.02.005, Vol.116, pp.120-129, 2018
Sumelka W., Nowak M., On a general numerical scheme for the fractional plastic flow rule, MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, ISSN: 0167-6636, DOI: 10.1016/j.mechmat.2017.02.005, Vol.116, pp.120-129, 2018

Abstract:
This paper presents a general numerical scheme for the fractional plastic flow rule, dedicated to a wide class of materials manifesting the non-normality of plastic flow and induced plastic anisotropy. To determine the vector of the plastic flow, a special numerical procedure has been developed, which is applicable for any smooth and convex yield function. The obtained approximation is verified based on an analytical solution. The paper also presents a set of numerical results for the generalised Drucker–Prager model

Keywords:
Non-normality, Plastic anisotropy, Fractional calculus, Return mapping algorithm

2.Kursa M., Kowalczyk-Gajewska K., Lewandowski M.J., Petryk H., Elastic-plastic properties of metal matrix composites: Validation of mean-field approaches, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MECHANICS A-SOLIDS, ISSN: 0997-7538, DOI: 10.1016/j.euromechsol.2017.11.001, Vol.68, pp.53-66, 2018
Kursa M., Kowalczyk-Gajewska K., Lewandowski M.J., Petryk H., Elastic-plastic properties of metal matrix composites: Validation of mean-field approaches, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MECHANICS A-SOLIDS, ISSN: 0997-7538, DOI: 10.1016/j.euromechsol.2017.11.001, Vol.68, pp.53-66, 2018

Abstract:
Several micromechanical and numerical approaches to estimating the effective properties of heterogeneous media are analyzed. First, micromechanical mean-field estimates of elastic moduli for selected metal matrix composite systems are compared with the results of finite element calculations performed for two simplified unit cells: spherical and cylindrical. Advantages and deficiencies of such numerical verification of analytical homogenization schemes are indicated. Next, predictions of both approaches are compared with available experimental data for two composite systems for tension and compression tests in the elastic-plastic regime using tangent and secant linearization procedures. In the examined range of strain and ceramic volume content, both the Mori-Tanaka averaging scheme and the generalized self-consistent scheme lead to reliable predictions when combined with the tangent linearization, while the use of secant moduli results in a too stiff response. It is also found that the mean-field predictions for a small ceramic volume content are very close to the results obtained from the finite-element analysis of a spherical unit cell.

Keywords:
Metal-matrix composites, Effective properties, Analytical estimates, Numerical homogenization, Nonlinear analysis

3.Mróz Z., Kucharski S., Páczelt I., Anisotropic friction and wear rules with account for contact state evolution, WEAR, ISSN: 0043-1648, DOI: 10.1016/j.wear.2017.11.004, Vol.396-397, pp.1-11, 2018
Mróz Z., Kucharski S., Páczelt I., Anisotropic friction and wear rules with account for contact state evolution, WEAR, ISSN: 0043-1648, DOI: 10.1016/j.wear.2017.11.004, Vol.396-397, pp.1-11, 2018

Abstract:
The present study is related to analysis of coupled friction and wear process in sliding along the rough surface with an anisotropic asperity pattern characterized by single or mutually orthogonal striations. Due to wear process the initial anisotropic response evolves with the variation of asperity distribution, tending to a steadystate pattern. The orthotropic friction sliding model and the related wear rule are analytically formulated assuming evolution of contact anisotropy to its steady state. The orthotropic frictional sliding model and the related wear rule are analytically formulated assuming evolution of contact anisotropy to its steady state. The experimental study is next presented for orthotropic asperity patterns induced on steel plate surface. The transient and steady states are characterized and the respective evolution parameters calibrated. The numerical finite element wear analysis aimed at validation of model-predictions and wear parameter calibration is presented at the end of paper

Keywords:
Anisotropic contact, Friction sliding and wear rules, Evolution of contact anisotropy, Experimental study, Numerical wear analysis

4.Nowak M., Maj M., Determination of coupled mechanical and thermal fields using 2D digital image correlation and infrared thermography: Numerical procedures and results, ARCHIVES OF CIVIL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, ISSN: 1644-9665, DOI: 10.1016/j.acme.2017.10.005, Vol.18, pp.630-644, 2018
Nowak M., Maj M., Determination of coupled mechanical and thermal fields using 2D digital image correlation and infrared thermography: Numerical procedures and results, ARCHIVES OF CIVIL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, ISSN: 1644-9665, DOI: 10.1016/j.acme.2017.10.005, Vol.18, pp.630-644, 2018

Abstract:
The objective of the work is to develop numerical method for determining coupled thermo-mechanical fields based on experimental data obtained from two cameras working in the visible and infrared mode. The sequence of images recorded by the first camera is used to determine the displacement field on the sample surface using the 2D digital image correlation (DIC) method. The resulting field from DIC analysis in a form of a set of discrete points with the corresponding in-plane displacement vector is used as the input for the next step of analysis, where the coupled temperature field is computed. This paper provides a detailed description of the numerical procedures, that allow, to obtain coupled thermal and mechanical fields together with the specification of experimental data needed for calculations. The presented approach was tested on an experimental data obtained during uniaxial tension of the multicrystalline aluminum. The developed numerical routine has been implemented in dedicated software, which can be used for the testing of materials on both a macro and micro scales

Keywords:
Digital image correlation (DIC), Infrared thermography (IRT), Coupled thermo-mechanical fields, Aluminum multicrysta

5.Dziekoński C., Dera W., Jarząbek D.M., Method for lateral force calibration in atomic force microscope using MEMS microforce sensor, ULTRAMICROSCOPY, ISSN: 0304-3991, DOI: 10.1016/j.ultramic.2017.06.012, Vol.182, pp.1-9, 2017
Dziekoński C., Dera W., Jarząbek D.M., Method for lateral force calibration in atomic force microscope using MEMS microforce sensor, ULTRAMICROSCOPY, ISSN: 0304-3991, DOI: 10.1016/j.ultramic.2017.06.012, Vol.182, pp.1-9, 2017

Abstract:
In this paper we present a simple and direct method for the lateral force calibration constant determination. Our procedure does not require any knowledge about material or geometrical parameters of an investigated cantilever. We apply a commercially available microforce sensor with advanced electronics for direct measurement of the friction force applied by the cantilever's tip to a flat surface of the microforce sensor measuring beam. Due to the third law of dynamics, the friction force of the equal value tilts the AFM cantilever. Therefore, torsional (lateral force) signal is compared with the signal from the microforce sensor and the lateral force calibration constant is determined. The method is easy to perform and could be widely used for the lateral force calibration constant determination in many types of atomic force microscopes.

Keywords:
A precise and direct method for lateral force calibration, Inaccuracy equal to approximately 2%, Wedge method is proven to give inaccurate results

6.Majewski M., Kursa M., Hołobut P., Kowalczyk-Gajewska K., Micromechanical and numerical analysis of packing and size effects in elastic particulate composites, COMPOSITES PART B-ENGINEERING, ISSN: 1359-8368, DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2017.05.004, Vol.124, pp.158-174, 2017
Majewski M., Kursa M., Hołobut P., Kowalczyk-Gajewska K., Micromechanical and numerical analysis of packing and size effects in elastic particulate composites, COMPOSITES PART B-ENGINEERING, ISSN: 1359-8368, DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2017.05.004, Vol.124, pp.158-174, 2017

Abstract:
Effects of particle packing and size on the overall elastic properties of particulate random composites are analyzed. In order to account for the two effects the mean-field Morphologically Representative Pattern (MRP) approach is employed and an additional interphase surrounding inclusions (coating) is introduced. The analytical mean-field estimates are compared with the results of computational homogenization performed using the finite element (FE) method. Periodic unit cells with cubic crystal-type arrangements and representative volume elements with random distributions of particles are used for verification purposes. The validity of the MRP estimates with respect to the FE results is assessed.

Keywords:
Composite materials, Elasticity, Micro-mechanics, Packing and size effects

7.Sadowski P., Kowalczyk-Gajewska K., Stupkiewicz S., Consistent treatment and automation of the incremental Mori–Tanaka scheme for elasto-plastic composites, COMPUTATIONAL MECHANICS, ISSN: 0178-7675, DOI: 10.1007/s00466-017-1418-z, Vol.60, pp.493-511, 2017
Sadowski P., Kowalczyk-Gajewska K., Stupkiewicz S., Consistent treatment and automation of the incremental Mori–Tanaka scheme for elasto-plastic composites, COMPUTATIONAL MECHANICS, ISSN: 0178-7675, DOI: 10.1007/s00466-017-1418-z, Vol.60, pp.493-511, 2017

Abstract:
A consistent algorithmic treatment of the incremental Mori–Tanaka (MT) model for elasto-plastic composites is proposed. The aim is to develop a computationally efficient and robust micromechanical constitutive model suitable for large-scale finite-element computations. The resulting overall computational scheme is a doubly-nested iteration-subiteration scheme. The Newton method is used to solve the nonlinear equations at each level involved. Exact linearization is thus performed at each level so that a quadratic convergence rate can be achieved. To this end, the automatic differentiation (AD) technique is used, and the corresponding AD-based formulation is provided. Excellent overall performance of the present MT scheme in threedimensional finite-element computations is illustrated.

Keywords:
Mori–Tanaka method, Composite materials, Elasto-plasticity, Finite element method, Automatic differentiation

8.Fras T., Murzyn A., Pawłowski P., Defeat mechanisms provided by slotted add-on bainitic plates against small-calibre 7.62 mm x 51 AP projectiles., INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF IMPACT ENGINEERING, ISSN: 0734-743X, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2017.01.015, Vol.103, pp.241-253, 2017
Fras T., Murzyn A., Pawłowski P., Defeat mechanisms provided by slotted add-on bainitic plates against small-calibre 7.62 mm x 51 AP projectiles., INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF IMPACT ENGINEERING, ISSN: 0734-743X, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2017.01.015, Vol.103, pp.241-253, 2017

Abstract:
Thin steel plates with an array of holes, i.e. perforated plates, are used as a passive add-on improving protective properties of armours against small-calibre projectiles. A number of holes in such plates increases the probability of asymmetrical contact between the plate and the projectile, due to which small-calibre projectiles may be destabilized or fragmented before they reach the main-armour. The aim of the study is to analyse the defeat mechanisms provided by 4-mm-thick slotted super-bainitic plates (Pavise™ SBS 600P) against hard-core 7.62mm P80 0.30 AP×51 (0.308 Win) projectiles. To show the dependence between the hit-point and projectile failure, moments when projectiles hit the pre-armour plate were recorded by an ultra-high speed camera and their behaviour after the impact was captured by the flash X-ray radiography. The obtained results complemented by the Lagrangian FEM analysis confirm that slotted steel plates have high protection effectiveness against small-calibre projectiles.

Keywords:
Light-weight ballistic protectionPerforated add-on armourSuper-bainitic steelArmour-piercing (AP) projectile

9.Krajewski M., Lee P.H., Wu S.H., Brzózka K., Małolepszy A., Stobiński L., Tokarczyk M., Kowalski G., Wąsik D., Nanocomposite composed of multiwall carbon nanotubes covered by hematite nanoparticles as anode material for Li-ion batteries, Electrochimica Acta, ISSN: 0013-4686, DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2017.01.051, Vol.228, pp.82-90, 2017
Krajewski M., Lee P.H., Wu S.H., Brzózka K., Małolepszy A., Stobiński L., Tokarczyk M., Kowalski G., Wąsik D., Nanocomposite composed of multiwall carbon nanotubes covered by hematite nanoparticles as anode material for Li-ion batteries, Electrochimica Acta, ISSN: 0013-4686, DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2017.01.051, Vol.228, pp.82-90, 2017

Abstract:
This work describes the detailed studies performed on the nanocomposite composed of chemically-modified multiwall carbon nanotubes covered by hematite nanoparticles which diameters vary from 10 nm to 70 nm. This nanomaterial was fabricated in two-steps facile chemical synthesis and was characterized with the use of several experimental techniques, such as: thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy in order to determine its structure precisely. Moreover, the investigated nanocomposite was tested as an anode material of Li-ion batteries. Its cycling performance was stable during 40 cycles, while its capacity was retained at the level of 330 and 230 mAh/g at the discharge/charge rate of 25 and 200 mA/g, respectively.

Keywords:
anode material, hematite, Li-ion battery, multiwall carbon nanotube, nanocomposite

10.Krajewski M., Magnetic-field-induced synthesis of magnetic wire-like micro- and nanostructures, NANOSCALE, ISSN: 2040-3364, DOI: 10.1039/c7nr05823c, Vol.9, No.43, pp.16511-16545, 2017
Krajewski M., Magnetic-field-induced synthesis of magnetic wire-like micro- and nanostructures, NANOSCALE, ISSN: 2040-3364, DOI: 10.1039/c7nr05823c, Vol.9, No.43, pp.16511-16545, 2017

Abstract:
A lot of physical and chemical preparation methods of one-dimensional (1D) structures are known today. Most of them use highly advanced technology or quite complex chemical reagents. This results in their high costs and difficulties with their implementation to a large industrial scale. Hence, new, facile and inexpensive approaches are still sought. One alternative to wire-like structure production is based on the chemical reduction reactions combined with an external magnetic field, which acts as an independent synthesis parameter. This approach is commonly called magnetic-field-assisted (MFA) synthesis or magnetic-field-induced (MFI) synthesis. As usual, this manufacturing strategy comprises both drawbacks and advantages, which are introduced in this review. Moreover, this work shows that MFI synthesis depends on several synthesis parameters including the strength of the applied magnetic field, reaction temperature, pH value of the reaction environment, chemical composition of the precursor solution, reaction time, and also the presence of surfactants, complexing agents, nucleating agents, initiators as well as organic solvents. All of them have an impact on the morphology and dimensions of wire-like materials and their chemical, physical and mechanical properties. Finally, the opportunities and challenges associated with the magnetic-assisted fabrication of wire-like structures are widely discussed in this review

Keywords:
magnetic-field-induced synthesis, nanowire, microwire, nanochain, nanostructure, one-dimensional nanostructures

11.Ryś M., Skoczeń B., Coupled constitutive model of damage affected two-phase continuum, MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, ISSN: 0167-6636, DOI: 10.1016/j.mechmat.2017.08.015, Vol.115, pp.1-15, 2017
Ryś M., Skoczeń B., Coupled constitutive model of damage affected two-phase continuum, MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, ISSN: 0167-6636, DOI: 10.1016/j.mechmat.2017.08.015, Vol.115, pp.1-15, 2017

Abstract:
A broad class of metastable materials, including selected alloys (e.g. stainless steels) used for applications in radiation environment (particle accelerators), is characterized by simultaneous occurrence of the plastic strain driven phase transformation and evolution of nano/micro damage. Plastic flow in such materials is usually accompanied by dynamic evolution of microstructure, resulting from the strain induced fcc-bcc phase transformation. Two-phase continuum is composed of austenitic matrix (fcc) and martensitic inclusions (bcc), represented by type Eshelby ellipsoidal entities embedded in ductile matrix. The matrix remains entirely plastic, and contains micro-cracks and micro-voids representing ductile damage. On the other hand, the inclusions are characterized by much higher yield stress and their behavior is generally brittle. Thus, brittle damage develops in the inclusions. The origin of damage is mechanical (manufacturing and load induced defects), and related to the source of radiation (primary or secondary particles flux). Among the lattice defects induced by radiation, the clusters of nano/micro voids are accounted for. The constitutive model takes into account the evolution of mechanically and radiation induced nano/micro damage in the presence of microstructure evolution, reflected by the plastic strain driven dynamic change of proportions between the matrix and the inclusions. The model is multiscale since the processes that occur at different scales (micro, meso, macro) are addressed, and coupled, since both phenomena: phase transformation and damage are described by coupled equations. Application to irradiated corrugated shells, components of thermo-mechanical compensation systems, are presented.

12.Jarząbek D.M., Milczarek M., Wojciechowski T., Dziekoński C., Chmielewski M., The effect of metal coatings on the interfacial bonding strength of ceramics to copper in sintered Cu-SiC composites, CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL, ISSN: 0272-8842, DOI: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2017.01.056, pp.1-9, 2017
Jarząbek D.M., Milczarek M., Wojciechowski T., Dziekoński C., Chmielewski M., The effect of metal coatings on the interfacial bonding strength of ceramics to copper in sintered Cu-SiC composites, CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL, ISSN: 0272-8842, DOI: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2017.01.056, pp.1-9, 2017

Abstract:
Cu-SiC composites are very promising materials which have high thermal and electrical conductivity and may find many applications. Unfortunately, the main disadvantage of these materials is the dissolution of silicon in copper at elevated temperature, which significantly reduces their properties. In order to overcome this problem particles can be coated with a protective material before sintering. In this paper– the influence of three different metallic coatings on bonding strength were investigated. SiC particles were coated with tungsten, chromium or titanium. As reference a material with uncoated particles was prepared. The experiments were carried out with the use of microtensile tester. The highest increase in strength was observed in the case of chromium coating. On the other hand, the titanium coating, which was of very poor quality, decrease the bonding strength in comparison with uncoated particles. Furthermore, scanning electron and optical microscopes were used to determine the mechanism of debonding.

Keywords:
Interfacial bonding strength, Metal matrix composites, Tensile strength, Silicon carbide particles

13.Pieczyska E.A., Staszczak M., Kowalczyk-Gajewska K., Maj M., Golasiński K., Golba S., Tobushi H., Hayashi S., Experimental and numerical investigation of yielding phenomena in a shape memory polymer subjected to cyclic tension at various strain rates, POLYMER TESTING, ISSN: 0142-9418, DOI: 10.1016/j.polymertesting.2017.04.014, Vol.60, pp.333-342, 2017
Pieczyska E.A., Staszczak M., Kowalczyk-Gajewska K., Maj M., Golasiński K., Golba S., Tobushi H., Hayashi S., Experimental and numerical investigation of yielding phenomena in a shape memory polymer subjected to cyclic tension at various strain rates, POLYMER TESTING, ISSN: 0142-9418, DOI: 10.1016/j.polymertesting.2017.04.014, Vol.60, pp.333-342, 2017

Abstract:
This paper presents experimental and numerical results of a polyurethane shape memory polymer (SMP) subjected to cyclic tensile loading. The goal was to investigate the polymer yielding phenomena based on the effects of thermomechanical coupling. Mechanical characteristics were obtained with a testing machine, whereas the SMP temperature accompanying its deformation process was simultaneously measured in a contactless manner with an infrared camera. The SMP glass transition temperature was approximately 45oC; therefore, when tested at room temperature, the polymer is rigid and behaves as solid material. The stress and related temperature changes at various strain rates showed how the SMP yield limit evolved in subsequent loading-unloading cycles under various strain rates. A two-phase model of the SMP was applied to describe its mechanical response in cyclic tension. The 3D Finite Element model of a tested specimen was used in simulations. Good agreement between the model predictions and experimental results was observed for the first tension cycle.

Keywords:
Shape memory polymer, Tension cyclic loading, Thermomechanical coupling, Yield limit, Thermoelastic effect, Constitutive model

14.Korol E., Tejchman J., Mróz Z., Experimental and numerical assessment of size effect in geometrically similar slender concrete beams with basalt reinforcement, ENGINEERING STRUCTURES, ISSN: 0141-0296, DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2017.03.011, Vol.141, pp.272-291, 2017
Korol E., Tejchman J., Mróz Z., Experimental and numerical assessment of size effect in geometrically similar slender concrete beams with basalt reinforcement, ENGINEERING STRUCTURES, ISSN: 0141-0296, DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2017.03.011, Vol.141, pp.272-291, 2017

Abstract:
The paper presents a comprehensive experimental and numerical analysis of slender rectangular reinforced concrete beams with longitudinal BFRP bars without shear reinforcement subjected to 3-point bending. The experiments included 4 different beams which were similar in two directions. The main research objective was to investigate the size effect on the nominal shear strength of beams. The detailed experimental analysis of beam strength, failure mode and cracking evolution was presented and compared with previous test results on beams reinforced by ordinary steel bears. The experiments with BFRP bars were numerically reproduced using the 2D finite element method based on a coupled elastic-plastic-damage formulation. In order to describe strain localization in concrete, a non-local constitutive model was applied with account for a characteristic length of micro-structure developing in the softening regime. The numerical results were in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. Advantages and disadvantages of BFRP reinforcement in concrete beams were next outlined.

Keywords:
BFRP bars, Concrete, Elastic-plastic-damage, Non-local softening, Shear, Size effect, Strain localization

15.Rezaee Hajidehi M., Stupkiewicz S., Gradient-enhanced model and its micromorphic regularization for simulation of Lüders-like bands in shape memory alloys, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES, ISSN: 0020-7683, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2017.11.021, pp.1-11, 2017
Rezaee Hajidehi M., Stupkiewicz S., Gradient-enhanced model and its micromorphic regularization for simulation of Lüders-like bands in shape memory alloys, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES, ISSN: 0020-7683, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2017.11.021, pp.1-11, 2017

Abstract:
Shape memory alloys, notably NiTi, often exhibit softening pseudoelastic response that results in formation and propagation of Lüders-like bands upon loading, for instance, in uniaxial tension. A common approach to modelling softening and strain localization is to resort to gradient-enhanced formulations that are capable of restoring well-posedness of the boundary-value problem. This approach is also followed in the present paper by introducing a gradient-enhancement into a simple one-dimensional model of pseudoelasticity. In order to facilitate computational treatment, a micromorphic-type regularization of the gradient-enhanced model is subsequently performed. The formulation employs the incremental energy minimization framework that is combined with the augmented Lagrangian treatment of the resulting non-smooth minimization problem. A thermomechanically coupled model is also formulated and implemented in a finite-element code. The effect of the loading rate on the localization pattern in a NiTi wire under tension is studied, and the features predicted by the model show a good agreement with the experimental observations. Aditionally, an analytical solution is provided for a propagating interface (macroscopic transformation front) both for the gradient-enhanced model and for its micromorphic version

Keywords:
martensite, phase transformation, micromorphic model, strain localization, thermomechanical coupling

16.Pakdel A., Witecka A., Rydzek G., Shri D.N.A., A comprehensive microstructural analysis of Al–WC micro- and nano-composites prepared by spark plasma sintering, MATERIALS AND DESIGN, ISSN: 0261-3069, DOI: 10.1016/j.matdes.2017.01.064, Vol.119, pp.225-234, 2017
Pakdel A., Witecka A., Rydzek G., Shri D.N.A., A comprehensive microstructural analysis of Al–WC micro- and nano-composites prepared by spark plasma sintering, MATERIALS AND DESIGN, ISSN: 0261-3069, DOI: 10.1016/j.matdes.2017.01.064, Vol.119, pp.225-234, 2017

Abstract:
There have been many investigations on metal matrix microcomposites produced by conventional casting routes; however, in the past decade, the focus has shifted more toward nanocomposites produced via solid state routes. To have a realistic view of performance prediction and optimum design of such composites, in this work Al matrix composites (AMCs) reinforced with WC microparticles, nanoparticles, and bimodal micro-/nano-particles were prepared by spark plasma sintering. The effects of particle size and concentration, and process variables (i.e. sintering temperature, duration, and pressure) on the evolution of microstructure, density and hardness of the composites were studied comprehensively. Full densification of AMCs with high particle concentration was problematic because of ceramic cluster formations in the microstructure. This effect was more emphasized in AMCs containing nanoparticles. AMCs with microparticles were more easily densified, but their hardness benefits were inferior. On the other hand, the mixture of micro- and nano-particles in Al-WC bimodal composites led to better matrix reinforcement integrity and an overall improvement in the microstructural properties. Finally, increasing the sintering temperature improved the microstructural features and hardness of the composites (more enhanced in high wt.% samples), but sintering duration and pressure did not have a big impact on the composite properties.

Keywords:
Composite, Nanoparticle, Microparticle, Powder metallurgy, SPS, Microstructure

17.Pietrzak K., Strojny-Nędza A., Olesińska W., Bańkowska A., Gładki A., Cu-rGO subsurface layer creation on copper substrate and its resistance to oxidation, APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE, ISSN: 0169-4332, DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2016.11.155, Vol.421, pp.228-233, 2017
Pietrzak K., Strojny-Nędza A., Olesińska W., Bańkowska A., Gładki A., Cu-rGO subsurface layer creation on copper substrate and its resistance to oxidation, APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE, ISSN: 0169-4332, DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2016.11.155, Vol.421, pp.228-233, 2017

Abstract:
On the basis of a specially designed experiment, this paper presents a model, which is an attempt to explain the mechanism of formatting and creating oxidation resistance of Cu-rGO subsurface layers. Practically zero chemical affinity of copper to carbon is a fundamental difficulty in creating composite structures of Cu-C, properties which are theoretically possible to estimate. In order to bind the thermally reduced graphene oxide with copper surface, the effect of structural rebuilding of the copper oxide, in the process of annealing in a nitrogen atmosphere, have been used. On intentionally oxidized and anoxic copper substrates the dispersed graphene oxide (GO) and thermally reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were loaded. Annealing processes after the binding effects of both graphene oxide forms to Cu substrates were tested. The methods for high-resolution electron microscopy were found subsurface rGO-Cu layer having a substantially greater resistance to oxidation than pure copper. The mechanism for the effective resistance to oxidation of the Cu-rGO has been presented in a hypothetical form

Keywords:
Metal matrix composite, Copper, Graphene, Oxidation

18.Giusti S.M., Mróz Z., Novotny A.A., Sokołowski J., Topology design of thermomechanical actuators, STRUCTURAL AND MULTIDISCIPLINARY OPTIMIZATION, ISSN: 1615-147X, DOI: 10.1007/s00158-016-1593-0, Vol.55, No.5, pp.1575-1587, 2017
Giusti S.M., Mróz Z., Novotny A.A., Sokołowski J., Topology design of thermomechanical actuators, STRUCTURAL AND MULTIDISCIPLINARY OPTIMIZATION, ISSN: 1615-147X, DOI: 10.1007/s00158-016-1593-0, Vol.55, No.5, pp.1575-1587, 2017

Abstract:
The paper deals with topology design of thermomechanical actuators. The goal of shape optimization is to maximize the output displacement in a given direction on the boundary of the elastic body, which is submitted to a thermal excitation that induces a dilatation/contraction of the thermomechanical device. The optimal structure is identified by an elastic material distribution, while a very compliant (weak) material is used to mimic voids. The mathematical model of an actuator takes the form of a semi-coupled system of partial differential equations. The boundary value problem includes two components, the Navier equation for linear elasticity coupled with the Poisson equation for steady-state heat conduction. The mechanical coupling is the thermal stress induced by the temperature field. Given the integral shape functional, we evaluate its topological derivative with respect to the nucleation of a small circular inclusion with the thermomechanical properties governed by two contrast parameters. The obtained topological derivative is employed to generate a steepest descent direction within the level set numerical procedure of topology optimization in a fixed geometrical domain. Finally, several finite element-based examples for the topology design of thermomechanical actuators are presented

Keywords:
Shape-topology optimization, Topological derivative, Thermomechanical devices, Optimum design

19.Průša V., Řehoř M., Tůma K., Colombeau algebra as a mathematical tool for investigating step load and step deformation of systems of nonlinear springs and dashpots, ZEITSCHRIFT FUR ANGEWANDTE MATHEMATIK UND PHYSIK ZAMP, ISSN: 0044-2275, DOI: 10.1007/s00033-017-0768-x, Vol.68, No.24, pp.1-13, 2017
Průša V., Řehoř M., Tůma K., Colombeau algebra as a mathematical tool for investigating step load and step deformation of systems of nonlinear springs and dashpots, ZEITSCHRIFT FUR ANGEWANDTE MATHEMATIK UND PHYSIK ZAMP, ISSN: 0044-2275, DOI: 10.1007/s00033-017-0768-x, Vol.68, No.24, pp.1-13, 2017

Abstract:
The response of mechanical systems composed of springs and dashpots to a step input is of eminent interest in the applications. If the system is formed by linear elements, then its response is governed by a system of linear ordinary differential equations. In the linear case, the mathematical method of choice for the analysis of the response is the classical theory of distributions. However, if the system contains nonlinear elements, then the classical theory of distributions is of no use, since it is strictly limited to the linear setting. Consequently, a question arises whether it is even possible or reasonable to study the response of nonlinear systems to step inputs. The answer is positive. A mathematical theory that can handle the challenge is the so-called Colombeau algebra. Building on the abstract result by Průša and Rajagopal (Int J Non-Linear Mech 81:207–221, 2016), we show how to use the theory in the analysis of response of nonlinear spring–dashpot and spring–dashpot–mass systems.

Keywords:
Mechanical systems, Nonlinear ordinary differential equations, Jump discontinuities, Colombeau algebra

20.Zajączkowska U., Kucharski S., Nowak Z., Grabowska K., Morphometric and mechanical characteristics of Equisetum hyemale stem enhance its vibration, PLANTA, ISSN: 0032-0935, DOI: 10.1007/s00425-017-2648-1, Vol.245, No.4, pp.835-848, 2017
Zajączkowska U., Kucharski S., Nowak Z., Grabowska K., Morphometric and mechanical characteristics of Equisetum hyemale stem enhance its vibration, PLANTA, ISSN: 0032-0935, DOI: 10.1007/s00425-017-2648-1, Vol.245, No.4, pp.835-848, 2017

Abstract:
The order of the internodes, and their geometry and mechanical characteristics influence the capability of theEquisetumstem to vibrate, potentially stimulating spore liberation at the optimum stress setting along the stem.
Equisetum hyemale L. plants represent a special example of cellular solid construction with mechanical stability achieved by a high second moment of area and relatively high resistance against local buckling. We proposed the hypothesis that the order of E. hyemale L. stem internodes, their geometry and mechanical characteristics influence the capability of the stem to vibrate, stimulating spore liberation at the minimum stress setting value along the stem. An analysis of apex vibration was done based on videos presenting the behavior of an Equisetum clump filmed in a wind tunnel and also as a result of excitation by bending the stem by 20°. We compared these data with the vibrations of stems of the same size but deprived of the three topmost internodes. Also, we created a finite element model (FEM), upon which we have based the ‘natural’ stem vibration as a copy of the real object, ‘random’ with reshuffled internodes and ‘uniform’, created as one tube with the characters averaged from all internodes. The natural internode arrangement influences the frequency and amplitude of the apex vibration, maintaining an equal stress distribution in the stem, which may influence the capability for efficient spore spreading.

Keywords:
Mechanical properties, Plant biomechanics, Segmented structure, Stem vibration, Stress distribution, Wind

21.Nosewicz S., Rojek J., Chmielewski M., Pietrzak K., Discrete element modeling and experimental investigation of hot pressing of intermetallic NiAl powder, ADVANCED POWDER TECHNOLOGY, ISSN: 0921-8831, DOI: 10.1016/j.apt.2017.04.012, Vol.28, pp.1745-1759, 2017
Nosewicz S., Rojek J., Chmielewski M., Pietrzak K., Discrete element modeling and experimental investigation of hot pressing of intermetallic NiAl powder, ADVANCED POWDER TECHNOLOGY, ISSN: 0921-8831, DOI: 10.1016/j.apt.2017.04.012, Vol.28, pp.1745-1759, 2017

Abstract:
This paper presents the numerical and experimental analysis of hot pressing of NiAl powder with an emphasis on the best possible representation of its main stages: initial powder compaction and pressure-assisted sintering. The numerical study has been performed within the discrete element framework. In the paper, an original viscoelastic model of hot pressing has been used. In order to ensure that the applied values of material parameters in numerical simulations are appropriate, the reference literature has been reviewed. It produced the relations and equations to estimate the values of all required sintering material parameters of the considered viscoelastic model. Numerical simulations have employed the geometrical model of the initial dense specimen generated by a special algorithm which uses the real grain distribution of powder. The numerical model has been calibrated and validated through simulations of the real process of hot pressing of intermetallic NiAl material. The kinetics of compaction, sintering and cooling stage indicated by the evolution of density, shrinkage and densification rate have been studied. The comparison of numerical and experimental results has shown a good performance of the developed numerical model.

Keywords:
Powder metallurgy; Hot pressing; Sintering; Simulation; Discrete element method; Nickel aluminide

22.Jarząbek D.M., Gwiazda M., Dera W., The Influence of Alkali Metal Chloride Treatments on the Wear Resistance of Silicon Surfaces for Possible Use in MEMS, TRIBOLOGY TRANSACTIONS, ISSN: 1040-2004, DOI: 10.1080/10402004.2017.1296211, pp.1-7, 2017
Jarząbek D.M., Gwiazda M., Dera W., The Influence of Alkali Metal Chloride Treatments on the Wear Resistance of Silicon Surfaces for Possible Use in MEMS, TRIBOLOGY TRANSACTIONS, ISSN: 1040-2004, DOI: 10.1080/10402004.2017.1296211, pp.1-7, 2017

Abstract:
The wear of contacting silicon surfaces in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) has been a longstanding concern. To address this issue, the effects of immersing silicon surfaces into alkali metal chloride solutions (LiCl, NaCl, CsCl) on their sliding friction and wear were investigated. A custom-built reciprocating tribometer was used with a sapphire ball as the counterbody. Results indicated that the friction coefficient between the silicon surface (p-doped, orientation (100)) and a sapphire ball can be reduced by up to 30% by treating the silicon surfaces in aqueous salt solutions (concentration 1 mol/L, exposure for 24 h). These modified surfaces also have higher wear resistance and a significant change in wettability. After immersion, the contact angle between the silicon surface and water was reduced by approximately 50%. These results may lead to new, simple, and inexpensive methods to increase the wear resistance of silicon surfaces for use in MEMs devices.

Keywords:
silicon surface, wear, friction, alkali metal chlorides

23.Nosewicz S., Rojek J., Chmielewski M., Pietrzak K., Lumelskyj D., Application of the Hertz formulation in the discrete element model of pressure-assisted sintering, GRANULAR MATTER, ISSN: 1434-5021, DOI: 10.1007/s10035-016-0699-9, Vol.19, No.1, pp.16-1-8, 2017
Nosewicz S., Rojek J., Chmielewski M., Pietrzak K., Lumelskyj D., Application of the Hertz formulation in the discrete element model of pressure-assisted sintering, GRANULAR MATTER, ISSN: 1434-5021, DOI: 10.1007/s10035-016-0699-9, Vol.19, No.1, pp.16-1-8, 2017

Abstract:
This paper presents the numerical modelling of initial powder compaction and pressure-assisted sintering performed by original viscoelastic discrete element model. The research is focused on the influence of the type of the model representing an elastic part of interparticle force. Two elastic contact models—linear and nonlinear Hertz model—have been implemented and used to analyse interaction of NiAl powder particles during compaction and sintering process. Numerical models have been validated using own experimental results. Microscopic effects (particle penetration) and macroscopic changes (relative density) have been compared. It has been shown that although both models represent properly macroscopic behaviour of the material at the sintering process, the Hertz model produces the results closer to the real experimental ones during the initial compaction stage. Evaluation of macroscopic quantities enables implementation of the discrete element model in the framework of the multiscale modelling framework which is currently developed for sintering processes.

Keywords:
Powder metallurgy, Sintering, Initial compaction, Elasticity, Discrete element method

24.Hron J., Miloš V., Průša V., Souček O., Tůma K., On thermodynamics of incompressible viscoelastic rate type fluids with temperature dependent material coefficients, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NON-LINEAR MECHANICS, ISSN: 0020-7462, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijnonlinmec.2017.06.011, Vol.95, pp.193-208, 2017
Hron J., Miloš V., Průša V., Souček O., Tůma K., On thermodynamics of incompressible viscoelastic rate type fluids with temperature dependent material coefficients, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NON-LINEAR MECHANICS, ISSN: 0020-7462, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijnonlinmec.2017.06.011, Vol.95, pp.193-208, 2017

Abstract:
We derive a class of thermodynamically consistent variants of Maxwell/Oldroyd-B type models for incompressible viscoelastic fluids. In particular, we study the models that allow one to consider temperature dependent material coefficients. This naturally calls for the formulation of a temperature evolution equation that would accompany the evolution equations for the mechanical quantities. The evolution equation for the temperature is explicitly formulated, and it is shown to be consistent with the laws of thermodynamics and the evolution equations for the mechanical quantities. The temperature evolution equation contains terms that are ignored or even not thought of in most of the practically oriented (computational) works dealing with this class of fluids. The impact of the additional terms in the temperature evolution equation on the flow dynamics is documented by the solution of simple initial/boundary value problems.

Keywords:
Maxwell fluid; Oldroyd-B fluid; Temperature dependent material coefficients; Thermodynamics; Cylindrical Couette flow; Biaxial extension; Numerical simulations

25.Mackiewicz M., Mikulski J.L., Wańkowicz J., Kucharski S., Ranachowski P., Ranachowski Z., Study of composite insulator sheds subjected to wheel test, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.1515/amm-2017-0101, Vol.62, No.2, pp.679-686, 2017
Mackiewicz M., Mikulski J.L., Wańkowicz J., Kucharski S., Ranachowski P., Ranachowski Z., Study of composite insulator sheds subjected to wheel test, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.1515/amm-2017-0101, Vol.62, No.2, pp.679-686, 2017

Abstract:
The paper presents investigation of the properties of the surface and the material stiffness – flexibility of series of samples taken from the sheds of the composite insulators. The insulators were previously subjected to wheel test. The wheel test and 1000 h salt fog test are regarded as alternative examination of the material resistance to the effects of electrical surface discharges. There were investigated two series of the samples of the composite insulators sheds. Examined specimens, made of HTV silicone rubber, were taken from the sheds of medium-voltage composite insulators of two different manufacturers. Insulators of both types passed the 1000 h salt fog test without reservation. Meanwhile, the wheel test can provide a basis for better distinguishing between physical properties of the tested materials. In the case of the insulators of one of the manufacturers the wheel test result was negative. Cross puncture effect of the sheds took place in several places. In addition, sheds were covered with dark coating of varying thicknesses. The results of the study indicated a significantly stronger influence of electrical and temperature factors on the sheds under investigations during the wheel test than in the case of the 1000 h salt fog test. It can be stated that these tests cannot be considered as alternative and it seems that wheel test enables better distinguishing between properties of the materials.

Keywords:
composite insulators, silicone rubber, wheel test, electrical surface discharges, tracking and erosion

26.Chmielewski M., Pietrzak K., Strojny-Nędza A., Jarząbek D., Nosewicz S., Investigations of interface properties in copper-silicon carbide composites, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.1515/amm-2017-0200, Vol.62, No.2B, pp.1315-1318, 2017
Chmielewski M., Pietrzak K., Strojny-Nędza A., Jarząbek D., Nosewicz S., Investigations of interface properties in copper-silicon carbide composites, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.1515/amm-2017-0200, Vol.62, No.2B, pp.1315-1318, 2017

Abstract:
This paper analyses the technological aspects of the interface formation in the copper-silicon carbide composite and its effect on the material’s microstructure and properties. Cu-SiC composites with two different volume content of ceramic reinforcement were fabricated by hot pressing (HP) and spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. In order to protect SiC surface from its decomposition, the powder was coated with a thin tungsten layer using plasma vapour deposition (PVD) method. Microstructural analyses provided by scanning electron microscopy revealed the significant differences at metal-ceramic interface. Adhesion force and fracture strength of the interface between SiC particles and copper matrix were measured. Thermal conductivity of composites was determined using laser flash method. The obtained results are discussed with reference to changes in the area of metal-ceramic boundary.

Keywords:
copper matrix composites, silicon carbide, interface, thermal conductivity, adhesion

27.Strojny-Nędza A., Pietrzak K., Teodorczyk M., Basista M., Węglewski W., Chmielewski M., Influence of Material Ccating on the heat Transfer in a layered Cu-SiC-Cu Systems, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.1515/amm-2017-0199, Vol.62, No.2B, pp.1311-1314, 2017
Strojny-Nędza A., Pietrzak K., Teodorczyk M., Basista M., Węglewski W., Chmielewski M., Influence of Material Ccating on the heat Transfer in a layered Cu-SiC-Cu Systems, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.1515/amm-2017-0199, Vol.62, No.2B, pp.1311-1314, 2017

Abstract:
This paper describes the process of obtaining Cu-SiC-Cu systems by way of spark plasma sintering. A monocrystalline form of silicon carbide (6H-SiC type) was applied in the experiment. Additionally, silicon carbide samples were covered with a layer of tungsten and molybdenum using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. Microstructural examinations and thermal properties measurements were performed. A special attention was put to the metal-ceramic interface. During annealing at a high temperature, copper reacts with silicon carbide. To prevent the decomposition of silicon carbide two types of coating (tungsten and molybdenum) were applied. The effect of covering SiC with the aforementioned elements on the composite’s thermal conductivity was analyzed. Results were compared with the numerical modelling of heat transfer in Cu-SiC-Cu systems. Certain possible reasons behind differences in measurements and modelling results were discussed.

Keywords:
copper matrix composites, silicon carbide, interface, thermal conductivity, modelling

28.Pietrzak K., Gładki A., Frydman K., Wójcik-Grzybek D., Strojny-Nędza A., Wejrzanowski T., COPPER-CARBON NANOFORMS COMPOSITES – PROCESSING, MICROSTRUCTURE AND THERMAL PROPERTIES, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.1515/amm-2017-0198, Vol.62, No.2B, pp.1307-1310, 2017
Pietrzak K., Gładki A., Frydman K., Wójcik-Grzybek D., Strojny-Nędza A., Wejrzanowski T., COPPER-CARBON NANOFORMS COMPOSITES – PROCESSING, MICROSTRUCTURE AND THERMAL PROPERTIES, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.1515/amm-2017-0198, Vol.62, No.2B, pp.1307-1310, 2017

Abstract:
The main current of publication is focused around the issues and problems associated with the formation of composite materials with Cu matrix and reinforcing phases in the various carbon nanoforms. The core of the research has been focused on thermal conductivity of these composites types. This parameter globally reflects the state of the structure, quality of raw materials and the technology used during the formation of composite materials. Vanishingly low affinity of copper for carbon, multilayered forms of graphene, the existence of critical values of graphene volume in the composite are not conducive to the classic procedures of composites designing. As a result, the expected, significant increase in thermal conductivity of composites is not greater than for pure copper matrix. Present paper especially includes: (i) data of obtaining procedure of copper/graphene mixtures, (ii) data of sintering process, (iii) the results of structure investigations and of thermal properties. Structural analysis revealed the homogenous distribution of graphene in copper matrix, the thermal analysis indicate the existence of carbon phase critical concentration, where improvement of thermal diffusivity to pure copper can occur

Keywords:
metal matrix composite, sintering, copper, graphene, thermal diffusivity

29.Zybała R., Mars K., Mikuła A., Bogusławski J., Soboń G., Sotor J., Schmidt M., Kaszyca K., Chmielewski M., Ciupiński L., Pietrzak K., SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTIMONY TELLURIDE FOR THERMOELECTRIC AND OPTOELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.1515/amm-2017-0155, Vol.62, No.2B, pp.1067-1070, 2017
Zybała R., Mars K., Mikuła A., Bogusławski J., Soboń G., Sotor J., Schmidt M., Kaszyca K., Chmielewski M., Ciupiński L., Pietrzak K., SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTIMONY TELLURIDE FOR THERMOELECTRIC AND OPTOELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.1515/amm-2017-0155, Vol.62, No.2B, pp.1067-1070, 2017

Abstract:
Antimony telluride (Sb2Te3) is an intermetallic compound crystallizing in a hexagonal lattice with R-3m space group. It creates a c lose packed structure of an ABCABC type. As intrinsic semiconductor characterized by excellent electrical properties, Sb2Te3 is widely used as a low-temperature thermoelectric material. At the same time, due to unusual properties (strictly connected with the structure), antimony telluride exhibits nonlinear optical properties, including saturable absorption. Nanostructurization, elemental doping and possibilities of synthesis Sb2Te3 in various forms (polycrystalline, single crystal or thin film) are the most promising methods for improving thermoelectric properties of Sb2Te3.Applications of Sb2Te3 in optical devices (e.g. nonlinear modulator, in particular saturable absorbers for ultrafast lasers) are also interesting. The antimony telluride in form of bulk polycrystals and layers for thermoelectric and optoelectronic applications respectively were used. For optical applications thin layers of the material were formed and studied. Synthesis and structural characterization of Sb2Te3 were also presented here. The anisotropy (packed structure) and its influence on thermoelectric properties have been performed. Furthermore, preparation and characterization of Sb2Te3 thin films for optical uses have been also made

Keywords:
antimony telluride, thermoelectric materials, thin films, PVD magnetron sputtering, topological insulator

30.Mróz Z., Maciejewski J., Constitutive modeling of cyclic deformation of metals under strain controlled axial extension and cyclic torsion, ACTA MECHANICA, ISSN: 0001-5970, DOI: 10.1007/s00707-017-1982-5, pp.1-22, 2017
Mróz Z., Maciejewski J., Constitutive modeling of cyclic deformation of metals under strain controlled axial extension and cyclic torsion, ACTA MECHANICA, ISSN: 0001-5970, DOI: 10.1007/s00707-017-1982-5, pp.1-22, 2017

Abstract:
The present work provides a formulation of a constitutive model for metals with the aim to simulate cyclic deformation under axial extension or compression assisted by cyclic torsional (or shearing) straining of specified amplitude and frequency. Such a mode of deformation was recently implemented in technological processes such as extrusion, forging and rolling, cf. Bochniak and Korbel (Eng Trans 47:351–367, 1999, J Mater Process Technol 134:120–134, 2003, Philos Mag 93:1883–1913, 2013, Mater Sci Technol 16:664–674, 2000). The constitutive model accounting for combined hardening (isotropic–kinematic) with both hardening and recovery effects is presented and calibrated for several materials: pure copper, aluminum alloy (2024), and austenitic steel. The experimental data are used to specify model parameters of materials tested, and next the cyclic response for different shear strain amplitudes is predicted and confronted with empirical data. The constitutive model is developed in order to simulate technological processes assisted by cyclic deformation

31.Basista M., Jakubowska J., Węglewski W., Processing Induced Flaws in Aluminum–Alumina Interpenetrating Phase Composites, Advanced Engineering Materials, ISSN: 1438-1656, DOI: 10.1002/adem.201700484, Vol.19, No.1700484, pp.1-14, 2017
Basista M., Jakubowska J., Węglewski W., Processing Induced Flaws in Aluminum–Alumina Interpenetrating Phase Composites, Advanced Engineering Materials, ISSN: 1438-1656, DOI: 10.1002/adem.201700484, Vol.19, No.1700484, pp.1-14, 2017

Abstract:
This review paper deals with flaws in aluminum–alumina composites and FGMs induced by their manufacturing processes. Aluminum–alumina composites have been studied for many years as potentially interesting materials for applications, for example, in the automotive sector due to their enhanced mechanical strength, wear resistance, good heat conductivity and low specific weight. The focus here is on the interpenetrating phase composites (IPCs) manufactured by infiltration of porous alumina preforms with molten aluminum alloys. The primary objective is to provide an updated overview of research findings on a variety of flaws occurring at different stages of the manufacturing processes. Some precautions on how to avoid processing induced flaws in aluminum–alumina bulk composites and FGMs are mentioned.

32.Golasiński K.M., Pieczyska E.A., Staszczak M., Maj M., Furuta T., Kuramoto S., Infrared thermography applied for experimental investigation of thermomechanical couplings in Gum Metal, Quantitative InfraRed Thermography Journal, ISSN: 1768-6733, DOI: 10.1080/17686733.2017.1284295, Vol.14, No.2, pp.1-8, 2017
Golasiński K.M., Pieczyska E.A., Staszczak M., Maj M., Furuta T., Kuramoto S., Infrared thermography applied for experimental investigation of thermomechanical couplings in Gum Metal, Quantitative InfraRed Thermography Journal, ISSN: 1768-6733, DOI: 10.1080/17686733.2017.1284295, Vol.14, No.2, pp.1-8, 2017

Abstract:
Results of initial investigation of thermomechanical couplings in innovative β-Ti alloy called Gum Metal subjected to tension are presented. The experimental set-up, consisting of testing machine and infrared camera, enabled to obtain stress–strain curves with high accuracy and correlate them to estimated temperature changes of the specimen during the deformation process. Both ultra-low elastic modulus and high strength of Gum Metal were confirmed. The infrared measurements determined average and maximal temperature changes accompanying the alloy deformation process, allowed to estimate thermoelastic effect, which is related to the alloy yield point. The temperature distributions on the specimen surface served to analyse strain localization effects leading to the necking and rupture.

Keywords:
Gum Metal, thermomechanical coupling, nonlinear elasticity, yield point, infrared camera

33.Pęcherski R.B., Nowak M., Nowak Z., VIRTUAL METALLIC FOAMS. APPLICATION FOR DYNAMIC CRUSHING ANALYSIS, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR MULTISCALE COMPUTATIONAL ENGINEERING, ISSN: 1543-1649, Vol.15, No.5, pp.431-442, 2017
Pęcherski R.B., Nowak M., Nowak Z., VIRTUAL METALLIC FOAMS. APPLICATION FOR DYNAMIC CRUSHING ANALYSIS, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR MULTISCALE COMPUTATIONAL ENGINEERING, ISSN: 1543-1649, Vol.15, No.5, pp.431-442, 2017

Abstract:
The subject of the study are the models based on digital microstructures, in particular open-cell metallic foams characterized with the skeleton formed of convex or re-entrant cells. Recently, the auxetic materials revealing negative Poisson’s ratio have attracted increasing attention in the context of modern materials applications. Up to date, the research of auxetics is mainly concentrating on the cell structure design and the analysis of quasi-static response. The dynamic properties of such materials are less known. Impact compressions of the two kind of foams under high-velocity are numerically analyzed. To simulate the deformation processes the finite element program ABAQUS is used. The computer tomography makes the basis for the formulation of computational model of virtual foam and the finite element discretization of the skeleton. For numerical simulations the constitutive elasto-viscoplasticity model is applied that defines the dynamic behavior of oxygen-free high conductivity (OFHC) Cu using the experimental data reported in the literature. The numerical predictions of crushing force for velocity 50 and 300 m/s are discussed

Keywords:
compression test, open-cell copper, convex cell, re-entrant cell, virtual cellular materials, metallic foams, numerical simulation

34.Egner H., Ryś M., Total energy equivalence in constitutive modeling of multidissipative materials, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DAMAGE MECHANICS, ISSN: 1056-7895, DOI: 10.1177/1056789516679496, Vol.26, No.3, pp.417-446, 2017
Egner H., Ryś M., Total energy equivalence in constitutive modeling of multidissipative materials, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DAMAGE MECHANICS, ISSN: 1056-7895, DOI: 10.1177/1056789516679496, Vol.26, No.3, pp.417-446, 2017

Abstract:
In the present work, the total energy equivalence hypothesis was applied in constitutive modeling of engineering materials. The approach originally developed for damaged materials, was extended to modeling not only damage but also other dissipative phenomena, like phase transformation, in a consistent manner. The proposed model was examined by means of parametric studies to show its ability to reflect different experimentally observed features of real materials.

Keywords:
Constitutive modeling, dissipative material, plasticity, damage, phase transformation

35.Sadowski P., Kowalczyk-Gajewska K., Stupkiewicz S., Response discontinuities in the solution of the incremental Mori–Tanaka scheme for elasto-plastic composites, ARCHIVES OF MECHANICS, ISSN: 0373-2029, Vol.69, No.1, pp.3-27, 2017
Sadowski P., Kowalczyk-Gajewska K., Stupkiewicz S., Response discontinuities in the solution of the incremental Mori–Tanaka scheme for elasto-plastic composites, ARCHIVES OF MECHANICS, ISSN: 0373-2029, Vol.69, No.1, pp.3-27, 2017

Abstract:
The incremental Mori–Tanaka model of elasto-plastic composites is discussed, and the corresponding finite-step formulation is shown to lead to discontinuities in the overall response at the instant of elastic-to-plastic transition in the matrix. Specifically, two situations may be encountered: the incremental equations may have two solutions or no solution. In the former situation, switching between the two solutions is associated with a jump in the overall stress. Response discontinuities are studied in detail for a special case of proportional deviatoric loading. The discontinuities constitute an undesirable feature of the incremental Mori–Tanaka scheme that apparently has not been discussed in the literature so far. Remedies to the related problems are briefly discussed.

Keywords:
mean-field homogenization, Mori–Tanaka method, incremental scheme, composite materials, elasto-plasticity

36.Chmielewski M., Pietrzak K., Strojny-Nędza A., Kaszyca K., Zybala R., Bazarnik P., Lewandowska M., Nosewicz S., Microstructure and thermal properties of Cu-SiC composite materials depending on the sintering technique, SCIENCE OF SINTERING, ISSN: 0350-820X, DOI: 10.2298/SOS1701011C, Vol.49, pp.11-22, 2017
Chmielewski M., Pietrzak K., Strojny-Nędza A., Kaszyca K., Zybala R., Bazarnik P., Lewandowska M., Nosewicz S., Microstructure and thermal properties of Cu-SiC composite materials depending on the sintering technique, SCIENCE OF SINTERING, ISSN: 0350-820X, DOI: 10.2298/SOS1701011C, Vol.49, pp.11-22, 2017

Abstract:
The presented paper investigates the relationship between the microstructure and thermal properties of copper–silicon carbide composites obtained through hot pressing (HP) and spark plasma sintering (SPS) techniques. The microstructural analysis showed a better densification in the case of composites sintered in the SPS process. TEM investigations revealed the presence of silicon in the area of metallic matrix in the region close to metal ceramic boundary. It is the product of silicon dissolving process in copper occurring at an elevated temperature. The Cu-SiC interface is significantly defected in composites obtained through the hot pressing method, which has a major influence on the thermal conductivity of materials.

Keywords:
Metal matrix composites; Silicon carbide; Interface; Spark plasma sintering; Thermal conductivity.

37.Brzózka K., Krajewski M., Małolepszy A., Stobiński L., Szumiata T., Górka B., Gawroński M., Wasik D., Phase Analysis of Magnetic Inclusions in Nanomaterials Based on Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes, ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A, ISSN: 0587-4246, DOI: 10.12693/APhysPolA.131.863, Vol.131, No.4, pp.863-865, 2017
Brzózka K., Krajewski M., Małolepszy A., Stobiński L., Szumiata T., Górka B., Gawroński M., Wasik D., Phase Analysis of Magnetic Inclusions in Nanomaterials Based on Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes, ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A, ISSN: 0587-4246, DOI: 10.12693/APhysPolA.131.863, Vol.131, No.4, pp.863-865, 2017

Abstract:
Functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes as well as nanocomposite based on that material covered by nanoparticles composed of iron oxides were the subject of investigations. In order to identify all iron-bearing phases including those reported on the base of previous X-ray diffraction measurements, the transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy was utilized. The experiments were carried out both at room temperature and also at low temperatures. It was stated that in the investigated nanotubes some impurities were present, originating from the catalyst remains, in form of Fe–C and -Fe nanoparticles. The Mössbauer spectra collected for the nanocomposite showed a complex shape characteristic of temperature relaxations. The following subspectra related to iron-based phases were identified: sextet attributed to hematite, with hyperfine magnetic field reduced due to the temperature relaxations, sextet corresponding to iron carbide as well as two doublets linked to superparamagnetic hematite and ferrihydrites.

Keywords:
Mossbauer spectroscopy, multiwall carbon nanotubes, phase transition

38.Levintant Zayonts N., Kwiatkowski L., Swiatek Z., Brzozowska J., Local Pseudoelastic Behaviour and Surface Characteristics of N Ion Implanted NiTi Shape Memory Alloy, ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A, ISSN: 0587-4246, DOI: 10.12693/APhysPolA.132.210, Vol.132, No.2, pp.210-216, 2017
Levintant Zayonts N., Kwiatkowski L., Swiatek Z., Brzozowska J., Local Pseudoelastic Behaviour and Surface Characteristics of N Ion Implanted NiTi Shape Memory Alloy, ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A, ISSN: 0587-4246, DOI: 10.12693/APhysPolA.132.210, Vol.132, No.2, pp.210-216, 2017

Abstract:
The main goal of the proposed paper is to present the results of the nitrogen ion implantation effects on mechanical and corrosion properties of NiTi shape memory alloy. Local pseudoelasticity phenomena of NiTi were determined using the ultra-low load applied system. The load–penetration depth curves show that lower nitrogen fluence improves mechanical properties in the near surface layer but higher ion fluence leads to degradation of pseudoelasticity properties. Corrosion resistance of NiTi in the Ringer solution was evaluated by means of electrochemical methods. The results of potentiodynamic measurements in the anodic range for implanted NiTi indicate a decrease of passive current density range in comparison with non-treated NiTi, without any signs related to Ni release. The results of impedance measurements recorded at the corrosion potential show a capacitive behaviour for all samples without clear predominance of one of them. It can be explained by the fact that this result concerns the first stage of corrosion exposition. It is shown that nitrogen ion implantation leads to formation of modified surface of improved physicochemical properties

39.Ustrzycka A., Mróz Z., Kowalewski Z.L., EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS AND MODELLING OF FATIGUE CRACK INITIATION MECHANISMS, JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL AND APPLIED MECHANICS, ISSN: 1429-2955, DOI: 10.15632/jtam-pl.55.4.1443, Vol.55, No.4, pp.1443-1448, 2017
Ustrzycka A., Mróz Z., Kowalewski Z.L., EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS AND MODELLING OF FATIGUE CRACK INITIATION MECHANISMS, JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL AND APPLIED MECHANICS, ISSN: 1429-2955, DOI: 10.15632/jtam-pl.55.4.1443, Vol.55, No.4, pp.1443-1448, 2017

Abstract:
The present work is devoted to simulation of fatigue crack initiation for cyclic loading within the nominal elastic regime. It is assumed that damage growth occurs due to action of meanstress and its fluctuations induced by crystalline grain inhomogeneity and the free boundary effect. The macrocrack initiation corresponds to a critical value of accumulated damage. The modelling of damage growth is supported by Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) apparatus using coherent laser light.

Keywords:
fatigue crack initiation, damage evolution, optical methods