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Affiliation to IPPT PAN

1.Wójcik J., Gambin B., Theoretical and numerical aspects of nonlinear reflection–transmission phenomena in acoustics, Applied Mathematical Modelling, ISSN: 0307-904X, DOI: 10.1016/j.apm.2016.10.026, Vol.42, pp.100-113, 2017
Wójcik J., Gambin B., Theoretical and numerical aspects of nonlinear reflection–transmission phenomena in acoustics, Applied Mathematical Modelling, ISSN: 0307-904X, DOI: 10.1016/j.apm.2016.10.026, Vol.42, pp.100-113, 2017

Abstract:
Equations of nonlinear acoustic wave motion in a non-classical lossy medium are used to derive generalised formulas describing the phenomena of reflection and transmission. Integral, non-local operators that are caused by the nonlinear effects in wave propagation and occur in reflection and transmission formulas are given in a form in which classical linear reflection and transmission coefficients are explicitly separated. Numerical calculations are performed for a simplified, one-dimensional wave travelling in a lossless medium. These simplifications reveal the pure effect of the impact of nonlinearities on the reflection and transmission phenomena. We consider adjacent media with different properties to illustrate various aspects of the problem. In particular, even if two media have the same linear impedance and the same material modules of the third order, we observe an explicit effect of the nonlinearity on the reflection phenomenon. The theoretical predictions are confirmed qualitatively by numerical calculations based on the finite difference time domain method.

Keywords:
Non-linear sound wave, Non-linear reflection, Non-classical absorption, Soft tissues

2.Wójcik J., Lewandowski M., Żołek N., Grating Lobes Suppression by Adding Virtual Receiving Subaperture in Synthetic Aperture Imaging, Ultrasonics, ISSN: 0041-624X, DOI: 10.1016/j.ultras.2016.12.013, Vol.76, pp.125-135, 2017
Wójcik J., Lewandowski M., Żołek N., Grating Lobes Suppression by Adding Virtual Receiving Subaperture in Synthetic Aperture Imaging, Ultrasonics, ISSN: 0041-624X, DOI: 10.1016/j.ultras.2016.12.013, Vol.76, pp.125-135, 2017

Abstract:
A method of suppression of grating lobes is presented, analyzed, and verified. The method is based on creating a Virtual Receiving Subaperture (VRS) by adding virtual transducer elements not existing in the physical layout of the receiver. The VRS channels are filled with data based on signals from real channels. The analytical model of the synthetic aperture imaging system’s impulse response is presented to describe the properties of the VRS. The model shows a reduction of the receiving grating lobes’ amplitude (with a comparison to the main lobe’s amplitude) by a magnitude equal to the number of receiving transducer elements. It is shown that effective properties of the entire system with a VRS are similar to a system with a pitch in the receiving aperture that is twice as small. The numerical calculations of the impulse response show a doubling of the signal to noise ratio, which results in a reduction of the receiving grating lobes. For experimental validation, the generalized Plane Wave Imaging with and without the VRS is compared with a basic synthetic transmit aperture (STA) imaging. The experiment confirmed that the use of a VRS allows for visualizat ion of the objects in a medium in which they are not imaged without a VRS or are visualized with a lower contrast. The reduction of grating lobes attained using the proposed method is at the level of 15dB in the visualization of the superficial cyst.

Keywords:
Grating lobes, Image quality, Synthetic aperturę, Virtual subaperture

3.Kujawska T., Secomski W., Byra M., Postema M., Nowicki A., Annular phased array transducer for preclinical testing of anti-cancer drug efficacy on small animals, Ultrasonics, ISSN: 0041-624X, DOI: 10.1016/j.ultras.2016.12.008, Vol.76, pp.92-98, 2017
Kujawska T., Secomski W., Byra M., Postema M., Nowicki A., Annular phased array transducer for preclinical testing of anti-cancer drug efficacy on small animals, Ultrasonics, ISSN: 0041-624X, DOI: 10.1016/j.ultras.2016.12.008, Vol.76, pp.92-98, 2017

Abstract:
A technique using pulsed High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) to destroy deep-seated solid tumors is a promising noninvasive therapeutic approach. A main purpose of this study was to design and test a HIFU transducer suitable for preclinical studies of efficacy of tested, anti-cancer drugs, activated by HIFU beams, in the treatment of a variety of solid tumors implanted to various organs of small animals at the depth of the order of 1–2 cm under the skin. To allow focusing of the beam, generated by such transducer, within treated tissue at different depths, a spherical, 2-MHz, 29-mm diameter annular phased array transducer was designed and built. To prove its potential for preclinical studies on small animals, multiple thermal lesions were induced in a pork loin ex vivo by heating beams of the same: 6 W, or 12 W, or 18 W acoustic power and 25 mm, 30 mm, and 35 mm focal lengths. Time delay for each annulus was controlled electronically to provide beam focusing within tissue at the depths of 10 mm, 15 mm, and 20 mm. The exposure time required to induce local necrosis was determined at different depths using thermocouples. Location and extent of thermal lesions determined from numerical simulations were compared with those measured using ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging techniques and verified by a digital caliper after cutting the tested tissue samples. Quantitative analysis of the results showed that the location and extent of necrotic lesions on the magnetic resonance images are consistent with those predicted numerically and measured by caliper. The edges of lesions were clearly outlined although on ultrasound images they were fuzzy. This allows to conclude that the use of the transducer designed offers an effective noninvasive tool not only to induce local necrotic lesions within treated tissue without damaging the surrounding tissue structures but also to test various chemotherapeutics activated by the HIFU beams in preclinical studies on small animals.

Keywords:
Spherical annular phased array transducer, Pulsed HIFU beam, Electronically adjustable focal length, Local tissue heating, Thermal ablation, Necrotic lesion