Andrzej Zachara


Recent publications
1.Jarecki L., Błoński S., Zachara A., Modeling of Pneumatic Melt Drawing of Poly‑L‑lactide Fibers in the Laval Nozzle, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN: 0888-5885, DOI: 10.1021/acs.iecr.5b02375, Vol.54, pp.10796-10810, 2015
Abstract:

An air-drawing model of poly-l-lactide melt under a supersonic air jet in the Laval nozzle is presented. The aerodynamic fields are computed using the k–ω model. The pneumatic process is considered based on the mathematical model of melt spinning in single-, thin-filament approximation. Simultaneous acceleration of the air and the melt within the nozzle leads to fast attenuation of the filament. Air velocity dominates velocity of the filament and results in continual air-drawing on the entire spinning line. Oriented crystallization and nonlinear viscoelasticity effects under fast uniaxial elongation of the polymer melt are considered. The filament velocity at the collector increases significantly with increasing air compression, from the values typical for high-speed melt spinning up to values by two folds higher. The increase in filament velocity is limited by the effects of online oriented crystallization at higher air compressions. Influence of the inlet air compression, melt extrusion temperature and weight-average molecular weight on the axial profiles of the melt spinning functions is discussed, as well as on the development of amorphous orientation and online oriented crystallization.

Keywords:

Laval nozzle, Pneumatic melt spinning, Super-thin fibers, Oriented crystallization, Computer simulation, Polylactides

Affiliations:
Jarecki L.-IPPT PAN
Błoński S.-IPPT PAN
Zachara A.-other affiliation
2.Jarecki L., Błoński S., Blim A., Zachara A., Modeling of pneumatic melt spinning processes, JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, ISSN: 0021-8995, DOI: 10.1002/app.36575, Vol.125, No.6, pp.4402-4415, 2012
Abstract:

Computer simulation of the pneumatic processes of fiber formation from the polymer melts is discussed. The dynamics of air-drawing of thin polymer streams in supersonic air jets formed in the Laval nozzle is presented versus the melt blowing process. In the Laval nozzle process, the air flow takes place with high Reynolds number and the k–omega model is used which considers kinetic energy of the air flow and the specific dissipation rate of the kinetic energy. For melt blowing, the air fields are simulated with the use of the k–epsilon turbulent model. The air velocity, temperature, and pressure distributions along the centerline of the air jets are considered in the modeling of both pneumatic processes. The air fields are predetermined at the absence of the polymer streams for several air compression values in the Laval nozzle inlet and several initial air velocities in the melt blowing process. Each polymer stream in a usual configuration of a single row of the filaments in the process is considered as non-interacting aerodynamically with other streams, and the air jet is assumed to be undisturbed by the polymer streams. Airdrawing of the polymer filaments is simulated as controlled by the distribution of air velocity, temperature, and pressure on the air jet centerline with the use of a stationary model of melt spinning in a single-, thin-filament approximation. Effects of non-linear viscoelasticity of the polymer melt subjected to fast uniaxial elongation are accounted for in the modeling. Strong influence of the air jet velocity, the melt viscosity which controls response of the polymer melt on the air-drawing forces, and the dieto-collector distance has been predicted. Influence of initial air temperature, geometry of the air die, initial velocity and temperature of the melt, extrusion orifice diameter can be also predicted from the model. The example computations concern air-drawing of isotactic polypropylene with the use of the Laval nozzle are compared with the predictions for the melt blowing process.

Keywords:

computer modeling, fibers, melt blowing, supersonic melt spinning, polypropylene

Affiliations:
Jarecki L.-IPPT PAN
Błoński S.-IPPT PAN
Blim A.-IPPT PAN
Zachara A.-other affiliation
3.Jarecki L., Błoński S., Zachara A., Blim A., Computer modeling of pneumatic formation of superthin fibres, COMPUTER METHODS IN MATERIALS SCIENCE / INFORMATYKA W TECHNOLOGII MATERIAŁÓW, ISSN: 1641-8581, Vol.11, No.1, pp.74-80, 2011
Abstract:

Dynamics of a novel pneumatic process of superthin fibres formation from polymer melts in supersonic air jets in the Laval nozzle is studied using computer simulation. The approach bases on the mathematical k-w models of air flow in the nozzle and air drawing of polymer filaments in the coaxial air jet. The aerodynamic fields can be considered as undisturbed by presence of a single row of thin polymer filaments and predetermined air conditions are used in the modeling. The air fields are simulated for several values of the air compressions in the nozzle inlet and two nozzle geometries. Driving force of the Laval nozzle process results form air drag forces acting onto the filament surface. Mathematical model of stationary melt spinning in single-, thin-filament approximation is applied with the effects of non-linear viscoelasticity of the polymer melt accounted for. The model allows also to discuss non-linear stress-optical relationship reflecting online molecular orientation, as well as online crystallization of the polymer filament if it occurs. Negative rheological extra-pressure in the air-drawn filament is predicted, as resulting from non-linear viscoelasticity of the polymer melt subjected to high elongation rates. The negative extra-pressure could lead to cavitation and longitudinal burst splitting of each filament into a high number of superthin sub-filaments. A hypothetical mean diameter of the sub-filaments is estimated from an energetic criterion. Example computations of the dynamic profiles of air drawing and discussion concern isotactic polypropylene (iPP) subjected to the Laval nozzle process.

Keywords:

melt spinning, polymer air drawing, Laval nozzle process, superthin fibres

Affiliations:
Jarecki L.-IPPT PAN
Błoński S.-IPPT PAN
Zachara A.-other affiliation
Blim A.-IPPT PAN
4.May S., Tokarzewski S., Zachara A., Cichocki B., Efektywna przewodność dwuskładnikowego kompozytu o regularnej dwuwymiarowej strukturze, Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.24, pp.1-78, 1992
5.Szaniawski A., Zachara A., Przepływ przez dyszę Lavala mieszaniny dwuskładnikowej z wymianą masy, Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.21, pp.1-15, 1975
6.Szaniawski A., Zachara A., Kwazijednowymiarowe przepływy barotropowe w dyszy Lavala, Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.69, pp.1-20, 1972

Conference abstracts
1.Jarecki L., Błoński S., Blim A., Zachara A., Modeling of pneumatic melt spinning processes, 4th International Conference on Polymer Behavior, 2010-09-20/09-23, Łódź (PL), 2010
Abstract:

Computer modeling of pneumatic melt spinning of super-thin fibers from crystallizing polymers is presented. Air drawing dynamics of thin polymer streams in melt blowing technology as well as under supersonic air jet in the Laval nozzle is discussed. Hot air jet is used in melt blowing while in the Laval nozzle process cold air is compressed in the nozzle inlet and accelarated to supersonic velocity. Predetermined air fields are simulated using the k-epsilon turbulence model for melt blowing and the k-omega model for the supersonic Laval nozzle processes, with an assumption that the thin polymer filaments do not disturb the air fields substantially. A single-, thin-filament mathematical model of stationary melt spinning is modified for the pneumatic processes and dynamics of the processes is controlled by the axial distributions of the air velocity, temperature and pressure. Effects of non-linear viscoelasticity important for fast flow elongation of polymer melts are accounted for in the model, as well as non-linear stress-orientation relationship and on-line stress induced crystallization of the filament. Example computations are performed for pneumatic formation of polypropylene nonwovens.

Keywords:

pneumatic melt spinning, melt blowing, supersonic air jet, super-thin fibers, oriented crystallization

Affiliations:
Jarecki L.-IPPT PAN
Błoński S.-IPPT PAN
Blim A.-IPPT PAN
Zachara A.-other affiliation