Prof. Zbigniew Kowalewski, Ph.D., Dr. Habil., Eng.

Department of Experimental Mechanics (ZMD)
Division of Strength of Materials (PWM)
position: professor
telephone: (+48) 22 826 98 00
telephone: (+48) 22 826 12 81 ext.: 205
room: 036
e-mail: zkowalew

Doctoral thesis
1988Wpływ wtórnej anizotropii plastycznej na pełzanie metali w złożonym stanie naprężenia 
supervisor -- Prof. Lech Dietrich, Ph.D., Dr. Habil., Eng., IPPT PAN
442 
Habilitation thesis
1997Analiza procesu pełzania oraz jego wpływu na zachowanie metali w jednoosiowym i złożonym stanie naprężenia 
Professor
2008-04-14Title of professor
Supervision of doctoral theses
1.2015-03-26Makowska Katarzyna  
(ITS)
Metodyka oceny stanu uszkodzenia materiałów poddawanych laboratoryjnie symulowanym obciążeniom eksploatacyjnym1083
 
2.2007-09-13Szymczak Tadeusz  
(PW)
Wpływ historii złożonych obciążeń na właściwości mechaniczne materiałów konstrukcyjnych 
3.2006-12-19Rutecka Agnieszka  
(PW)
Modelowanie zjawiska kolmatacji z wykorzystaniem metody elementów skończonych 

Recent publications
1.Piotrowski L., Chmielewski M., Kowalewski Z.L., The Dominant Influence of Plastic Deformation Induced Residual Stress on the Barkhausen Effect Signal in Martensitic Steels, JOURNAL OF NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION, ISSN: 0195-9298, DOI: 10.1007/s10921-016-0389-x, Vol.36, No.10, pp.1-8, 2017
Abstract:

The paper presents the results of investigation of the influence of plastic deformation on the magnetic properties of martensitic steel (P91 grade). The properties of the hysteresis loops as well as of the Barkhausen effect (BE) signal are analysed for both tensile and compressive loading up to ε=10% of plastic deformation. The choice of the steel and of the deformation range is unique, since for such combination one can expect high residual stresses (both compressive and tensile) in the material that does not exhibit saturation of the BE intensity as a function of elastic stress. The obtained relationships show that for the low level of deformation the dislocation density changes may play a dominant role, yet for higher deformation level the residual stress becomes a dominant factor. It leads to the strong decrease of the BE signal for tensile deformation and an increase for the case of compression. It agrees well with the assumption that the tensile plastic deformation results in the compressive stresses appearance in the soft (magnetically active) sub-regions of the material whereas for the compression one can expect a residual stress of a tensile nature in those areas. Both deformation modes result in the increase of coercivity of the samples, yet the increase observed for the tensile deformation is significantly higher since both the residual compressive stress and increase of dislocation density have a strong effect on the material coercivity. The change of the hysteresis loops steepness agrees well with the notion of the dominant role of residual stresses too.

Keywords:

Barkhausen effect, Plastic deformation, Residual stress, Magnetic hysteresis, Coercivity

Affiliations:
Piotrowski L.-other affiliation
Chmielewski M.-Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
2.Makowska K., Piotrowski L., Kowalewski Z.L., Prediction of the Mechanical Properties of P91 Steel by Means of Magneto-acoustic Emission and Acoustic Birefringence, JOURNAL OF NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION, ISSN: 0195-9298, DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0421-9, Vol.36, No.2, pp.43/1-43/10, 2017
Abstract:

The paper describes an application of non-destructive volumetric magnetic and ultrasonic techniques for evaluation of the selected mechanical parameter variations of P91 steel having direct influence on its suitability for further use in critical components used in power plants. Two different types of deformation processes were carried out. First, a series of the P91 steel specimens was subjected to creep and second, one to plastic deformation in order to achieve the material with an increasing strain level up to 10%. Subsequently, non-destructive and destructive tests were performed. Magnetic methods based on measurements of magnetoacoustic emission and magnetic hysteresis loop changes as well as the ultrasonic method based on acoustic birefringence measurements, were applied. Finally, the static tensile tests were carried out in order to evaluate the mechanical parameters. It is shown that some relationships between the selected parameters coming from the non-destructive and destructive tests may be formulated.

Keywords:

Creep, Plastic deformation, Acoustic birefringence, Magnetoacoustic emission, Magnetic hysteresis loop

Affiliations:
Makowska K.-Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Piotrowski L.-other affiliation
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
3.Moćko W., Grzywna P., Kowalewski Z.L., Radziejewska J., An influence of cyclic loading on the form of constitutive relationship for DP500 steel, MATERIALS AND DESIGN, ISSN: 0261-3069, DOI: 10.1016/j.matdes.2016.04.075, Vol.103, pp.183-193, 2016
Abstract:

Fatigue loading induces a microstructure evolution leading to the change of macroscopically observed mechanical behavior of a dual phase DP500 steel. It was assumed that stress–strain characteristic of a pre-fatigued material may be determined using constitutive equation taking into account damage parameter. To estimate development of the fatigue damage in specimen a variation of the inelastic strain component was applied.

The flat "dog-bone" specimens were initially loaded using stress controlled cycles. When the strain reached a given value the fatigue process was stopped. Subsequently, the specimens with introduced fatigue damage were subjected to tensile tests. Next, the Johnson-Cook's constitutive equation was calibrated separately for each pre-fatigue case. Finally, a new constitutive relationship, based on the Johnson-Cook's model was proposed. It reflects the hardening and softening effects by taking into account both a change in the dislocation structure and development of fatigue microdamage. Proposed model shows a very good agreement with experimental data.

Keywords:

Constitutive model, Dual-phase steel, Fatigue, Stress–strain curve, Fatigue damage, Inelastic strain

Affiliations:
Moćko W.-other affiliation
Grzywna P.-IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Radziejewska J.-other affiliation
4.Kukla D., Grzywna P., Kopeć M., Kowalewski Z.L., Assessment of hardened layer thickness for 40HNMA steel using eddy current method, INŻYNIERIA MATERIAŁOWA, ISSN: 0208-6247, DOI: 10.15199/28.2016.5.10, Vol.213, No.5, pp.263-266, 2016
Abstract:

Materials and semi-manufactured products for aviation equipment are usually subjected to increasingly rigorous demands for the quality control. In many cases, like hardened or carburized wheels or rollers assembled in the gear motors, the control procedures enforce necessity of the selective testing of details coming from production lines using destructive techniques. The main aim of diagnostic investigations carrying out on series of final products is to assess qualitatively and quantitatively the layers obtained due to carburizing and induction hardening. Unfortunately, such processes increase the fabrication costs significantly, especially in the case of complex manufacturing technology applied and small-lot production as well. In order to reduce them the attempts for application of non-destructive testing methods are taken for evaluation of either the layers quality or the products subjected to surface treatments. This paper presents the eddy currents method used for the thickness evaluation of the carburized and induction-hardened layers on the basis of the impedance signal variation. The signal was obtained as a result of the so-called ‘lift off’ effect. A methodology for the quantitative thickness evaluation of the carburized and induction-hardened layers has been elaborated under a range of technological parameters. The measurements ranges were defined in the framework of which an identification of the hardened layer was possible using the commercial defectoscope and reference specimens of the fixed thickness. Tests were carried out on specimens made of the ASM6414 steel and subjected subsequently to carburization and induction hardening. The impedance parameters were measured for selected values of frequency. The results were verified on the basis of metallographic investigations as well as the microhardness measurements captured in the form of profiles taken from specimens’ cross-sections of different layer thickness.

Keywords:

eddy current, hardening, carburizing, layers, non-destructive technique

Affiliations:
Kukla D.-IPPT PAN
Grzywna P.-IPPT PAN
Kopeć M.-IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
5.Kopeć M., Grzywna P., Kukla D., Kowalewski Z.L., Evaluation of the fatigue damage development using ESPI method, INŻYNIERIA MATERIAŁOWA, ISSN: 0208-6247, DOI: 10.15199/28.2016.4.9, Vol.212, No.4, pp.201-205, 2016
Abstract:

Fatigue damage process developing in structural materials under long-term cyclic loading is still an unsolved problem of modern engineering. Attempts to assess a degree of materials degradation under fatigue conditions on the basis of changes in the areas of local strain concentration determined by optical methods can be treated as the promising contemporary research direction of majority of scientific centres in the world. In most cases, fatigue damage has a local character and it is based on damage development leading to generation of cracks appearing around structural defects or geometrical notches. An identification of these areas and their subsequent monitoring requires a full-field displacement measurements performed on the objects surfaces. It seems that modern contemporary optical methods for displacement components measuring on the surfaces of structural elements or tested specimens are suitable for such purpose. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) are nowadays the most widely used testing methods in this area. Both of them enable capturing of displacement and strain components distributions. This paper presents an attempt to use the ESPI method for fatigue damage evaluation and its monitoring on specimens made of the aluminide coated nickel super-alloys. Flat specimens were subjected to cyclic loading. The fatigue tests were interrupted several times in order to perform a static loading during which the optical measurements were carried out. An analysis of the results captured by the ESPI system allowed indication of places of the greatest stress concentration and demonstration of the damage development process as a function of the increasing number of cycles.

Keywords:

fatigue, damage, super-alloy, Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry

Affiliations:
Kopeć M.-IPPT PAN
Grzywna P.-IPPT PAN
Kukla D.-IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
6.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Brodecki A., Metoda cyfrowej korelacji obrazu w badaniach materiałów i elementów, Dozór Techniczny, ISSN: 0209-1763, Vol.4, pp.22-31, 2016
Abstract:

W pracy omówiono technike cyfrowej korelacji obrazu (DIC) przeznaczona do bezkontaktowego okreslania rozkładów składowych przemieszczenia i na ich podstawie obliczania składowych odkształcenia oraz naprezenia. Umozliwia ona równiez wyznaczanie parametrów kinematycznych obiektów inzynierskich w postaci predkosci i przyspieszenia, które okreslane sa metoda rózniczkowania po czasie zarejestrowanych wartosci składowych przemieszczenia. Zaprezentowano polowe zmiany rozkładów odkształcenia wzdłuznego oraz rozkładów składowych głównych odkształcenia podczas rozciagania stali konstrukcyjnej, które monitorowano az do chwili zniszczenia materiału. Przedstawiono wyniki próby porównawczej, w której jednoczesnie stosowano ekstensometr oraz system DIC. Dodatkowo zaprezentowano rezultaty prób stanowiskowych mechanicznego elementu sprzegajacego przeprowadzonych przy uzyciu systemu pomiarów cyfrowych w warunkach oddziaływania cyklicznie zmiennego obciazenia.

Affiliations:
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Brodecki A.-Motor Transport Institute (PL)
7.Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Ocena stopnia degradacji materiałów ferromagnetycznych technikami magnetycznymi, ENERGETYKA, PROBLEMY ENERGETYKI I GOSPODARKI PALIWOWO-ENERGETYCZNEJ, ISSN: 0013-7294, Vol.749, No.11, pp.681-684, 2016
8.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Kruche pękanie kompozytów metalowo-ceramicznych, Materiały Kompozytowe, ISSN: 2084-1949, Vol.1, pp.53-57, 2016
Abstract:

W pracy omówiono wybrane zagadnienia z zakresu mechaniki pękania dotyczące wyznaczania współczynnika intensywności naprężenia i jego krytycznej wartości (K IC ). Zaprezentowano projekt zminiaturyzowanej próbki kompaktowej (CT) o wymiarach czterokrotnie mniejszych niż jej wersja standardowa. Zamieszczono wyniki z badań odporności na kruche pękanie materiałów kompozytowych wytworzonych na bazie odlewniczego stopu aluminium 44200 z różną zawartością Al 2 O 3 . Analiza rezultatów przeprowadzonych testów wykazała brak wpływu udziału Al 2 O 3 i jego postaci, tj. włókien bądź cząstek, na zmianę krytycznej wartości współczynnika intensywności naprężenia

Affiliations:
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-other affiliation
9.Szymczak T., Brodecki A., Eminger A., Kowalewski Z.L., Rudnik D., Experimental assessment of ball joints operation using servo-hydraulic testing systems, SOLID STATE PHENOMENA, ISSN: 1012-0394, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/SSP.240.232, Vol.240, pp.232-237, 2016
Abstract:

The paper reports experimental results from tests carried out at room temperature on servo-hydraulic system dedicated for examination of the exploitation properties of rocker arms. The ball joint of this element was modified by an application of composite coating such as the tungsten carbide (WC). To apply cyclic loading to rocker arms the griping system was designed and elaborated. Results from tests performed on the composite coated ball joints were compared with data obtained for typical elements. Variations of the following parameters versus time i.e. force, temperature and surface topography of balls were analysed with respect to exploitation properties of the modified ball joints. An increase of the wear coefficient was achieved for sliding joints of the steel ball-steel cups coated by the WC.

Keywords:

Ball Joint, Composite, Cyclic Loading, Surface Topography, Tungsten Carbide, Wear

Affiliations:
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Brodecki A.-Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Eminger A.-Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Rudnik D.-other affiliation
10.Rutecka A., Kowalewski Z.L., Makowska K., Pietrzak K., Dietrich L., Fatigue damage of Al/SiC composites – macroscopic and microscopic analysis, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.1515/amm-2015-0016, Vol.60, No.1, pp.101-105, 2015
Abstract:

The results of comparative examinations of mechanical behaviour during fatigue loads and microstructure assessment before and after fatigue tests were presented. Composites of aluminium matrix and SiC reinforcement manufactured using the KoBo method were investigated. The combinations of two kinds of fatigue damage mechanisms were observed. The first one governed by cyclic plasticity and related to inelastic strain amplitude changes and the second one expressed in a form of ratcheting based on changes in mean inelastic strain. The higher SiC content the less influence of the fatigue damage mechanisms on material behaviour was observed. Attempts have been made to evaluate an appropriate fatigue damage parameter. However, it still needs further improvements.

Keywords:

fatigue, damage, metal matrix composites, microstructure

Affiliations:
Rutecka A.-IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Makowska K.-Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Pietrzak K.-other affiliation
Dietrich L.-IPPT PAN
11.Kowalewski Z.L., Dietrich L., Socha G., Experimental investigation of thin brass sheets under tension-compression cyclic loading, JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL AND APPLIED MECHANICS, ISSN: 1429-2955, DOI: 10.15632/jtam-pl.53.3.757, Vol.53, No.3, pp.757-762, 2015
Abstract:

Strength and durability of thin-walled structures are usually calculated with the use of computer simulations. To perform such simulations using Finite Element Method, characteristics of a material subjected to monotonic tension or compression and tension-compression cyclic loading are necessary. Experimental determination of such kind of characteristics is usually performed on specimens cut out from a metal or composite thin sheet. Problems associated with testing on flat specimens under large deformation are discussed in this paper. A new design of fixture proposed by the authors for this kind of testing is shortly described. The results of investigations carried out on brass using the new fixture for flat specimens testing are also presented.

Keywords:

fixture, large deformations, tension-compression tests, thin metal sheet

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Dietrich L.-IPPT PAN
Socha G.-other affiliation
12.Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Możliwości wykorzystania szumu Barkhausena do oceny mikrostruktury i właściwości mechanicznych materiałów, ENERGETYKA, PROBLEMY ENERGETYKI I GOSPODARKI PALIWOWO-ENERGETYCZNEJ, ISSN: 0013-7294, Vol.736, No.10, pp.664-667, 2015
13.Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Nowe możliwości zastosowania parametrów ultradźwiękowych do oceny właściwości mechanicznych materiałów, TRANSPORT SAMOCHODOWY, ISSN: 1731-2795, Vol.4, pp.97-113, 2015
14.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Maciejewski J., Material effects during monotonic-cyclic loading, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES, ISSN: 0020-7683, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2013.10.040, Vol.51, pp.740-753, 2014
Abstract:

The effects commonly related with deformation caused by proportional and non-proportional loading types were identified experimentally. In the case of non-proportional cyclic loading along circular strain path the second order effects such as: phase shift between stress and strain signals was observed. An analysis of experimental data from tests under non-proportional cyclic loading along square strain path exhibited a significant reduction of stress independently on direction of deformation.

The paper also presents experimental results concerning evaluation of an influence of cyclic loading on stress variations during monotonic deformation carried out on the pure copper and X10CrMoVNb9-1 steel. All strain controlled tests were performed at room temperature using thin-walled tubular specimens. The experimental programme contained selected combinations of monotonic and cyclic loadings, i.e. the torsion-reverse-torsion cycles were superimposed on the monotonic tension. It is shown that such cycles associated with monotonic tension caused essential variations of tensile stress. For both materials, a significant decrease of the axial stress was visible. The effects observed during monotonic and cyclic loading combinations were theoretically described using the Mróz and Maciejewski model.

Keywords:

Proportional and non-proportional loadings, Hardening, Softening, Tensile stress, Strain energy, Yield surface, Modelling

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Maciejewski J.-other affiliation
15.Dietrich L., Socha G., Kowalewski Z.L., Anti-buckling Fixture for Large Deformation Tension–Compression Cyclic Loading of Thin Metal Sheets, STRAIN, ISSN: 0039-2103, DOI: 10.1111/str.12078, Vol.50, pp.174-183, 2014
Abstract:

Determination of cyclic properties of a material used for many engineering structures, e.g. airframes, requires preparation of specimens from two-dimensional, shell structures. A specimen must be cut out from the structure component in the way allowing application of a load corresponding to that reflecting service cases. In order to fulfil this requirement, tension–compression testing of the flat specimen is necessary to obtain credible data. Problems associated with such kind of testing are discussed in this paper. In the first part, an extensive review of the anti-buckling fixtures developed up to now is given. Several representative solutions are discussed, with special emphasis on the technique limitations. In the second part of the paper, detailed description of the proposed design is given. Finally, the results of preliminary tests carried out using new fixture to mount the flat specimens cut from steel sheets are presented. Application of the proposed testing technique allowed tension–compression tests to be performed at the displacement amplitude within the range ±5 mm what corresponds to the maximum strain amplitude of ±0.4 for the specimen gauge length to be equal 12.5 mm. Taking into account all data captured by means of new fixture, one can conclude that the technique is promising with respect to providing data for modelling of cyclic deformation behaviour for shell structures.

Keywords:

buckling, cyclic loading, fixture, thin sheets

Affiliations:
Dietrich L.-IPPT PAN
Socha G.-other affiliation
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
16.Kukla D., Kowalewski Z.L., Grzywna P., Kubiak K., Assessment of fatigue damage development in power engineering steel by local strain analysis, KOVOVE MATERIALY-METALLIC MATERIALS, ISSN: 0023-432X, Vol.52, No.5, pp.269-277, 2014
Abstract:

The results of analysis of fatigue damage development in the X10CrMoVNb9-1(P91) steel specimens subjected to various cyclic loading combinations are presented. The study concerning a quantitative assessment of damage is based on analysis of the fatigue hysteresis evolution in subsequent loading cycles. According to the elaborated algorithms, damage parameters were determined on the basis of two indicators, i.e., average strain and strain amplitude variations. Each of them was responsible for a single damage development mechanism. The average strain characterized ratcheting effect, which is usually related to local generation of plastic strain surrounding microstructural elements. The second damage mechanism called cyclic plasticity is connected with micro slips preceding slip bands formation. The paper also discusses the results of metallographic and fractographic microscopic (SEM) observations of the tested specimens in order to indicate microstructural aspects of fatigue damage development mechanisms.

Keywords:

fatigue test, steels, fracture, scanning electron microscopy, microstructure

Affiliations:
Kukla D.-IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Grzywna P.-IPPT PAN
Kubiak K.-other affiliation
17.Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Augustyniak B., Piotrowski L., Determination of mechanical properties of P91 steel by means of magnetic Berkhausen emission, JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL AND APPLIED MECHANICS, ISSN: 1429-2955, Vol.52, No.1, pp.181-188, 2014
Abstract:

In this work, an attempt at determination of mechanical properties by means of a method based on magnetic Barkhausen emission measurements was proposed. The specimens made of P91 steel were subjected to creep or plastic flow which were interrupted after a range of selected time periods in order to achieve specimens with an increasing level of strain. Subsequently, measurements of magnetic Barkhausen emission were carried out, and then static tensile tests were performed in order to check variations of basic mechanical parameters. It is shown that evident relationships between the yield point /ultimate tensile strength and some parameters of the Barkhausen emission exist.

Keywords:

mechanical properties, magnetic Barkhausen effect, plastic strain

Affiliations:
Makowska K.-Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Augustyniak B.-Gdansk University of Technology (PL)
Piotrowski L.-other affiliation
18.Moćko W., Kowalewski Z.L., Evolution of tensile properties of the tial6v4 alloy due to the prior cyclic loading history, JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL AND APPLIED MECHANICS, ISSN: 1429-2955, Vol.52, No.3, pp.847-851, 2014
Keywords:

fatigue, metals and alloys, deformation and fracture, cumulative fatigue damage

Affiliations:
Moćko W.-other affiliation
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
19.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Właściwości mechaniczne wybranych kompozytów oraz metody oceny ich zniszczenia, TRANSPORT SAMOCHODOWY, ISSN: 1731-2795, Vol.4, pp.33-54, 2014
Abstract:

W artykule przedstawiono na podstawie dostępnych prac właściwości mechaniczne żywic i włókien powszechnie stosowanych jako składniki materiałów kompozytowych. Omówiono typy zniszczenia tego rodzaju materiałów wynikające z różnej kruchości zbrojenia. Zaprezentowano rodzaje przełomów występujące podczas rozciągania i ściskania kompozytu w zależności od kierunku pobierania próbek. Omówiono kryteria zniszczenia stosowane do oceny odporności materiałów kompozytowych dla różnych wariantów obciążenia.

Affiliations:
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-other affiliation
20.Szolc T., Kowalewski Z.L., An application of longitudinal elastic waves for investigation of materials under high strain rates using the Hopkinson bar, VIBRATIONS IN PHYSICAL SYSTEMS, ISSN: 0860-6897, Vol.26, pp.305-310, 2014
Abstract:

In the paper there is presented a discrete - continuous model of the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) for numerical simulations of a dynamic behaviour of material specimens under high strain - rates. For this purpose several material theories describing visco-elasto-plastic properties of the tested specimens can be applied. Using this model impact-type dynamic responses are sought by means of the longitudinal elastic wave analytical solution of the d’Alembert type. The proposed model enables us theoretical strength investigations for various elasto-plastic materials under great deformation velocities as well as structural parameter de termination of the real SHPB designed to play a role of the laboratory test-rig.

Keywords:

Hopkinson bar, elastic wave propagation, d’Alembert solution, numerical simulation

Affiliations:
Szolc T.-IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
21.Moćko W., Kowalewski Z.L., Application of FEM in the assessment of phenomena associated with dynamic investigations on a miniaturised ICT testing stand, KOVOVE MATERIALY-METALLIC MATERIALS, ISSN: 0023-432X, Vol.51, pp.71-82, 2013
Abstract:

This paper presents the assembly of the miniaturised direct impact compression test method (MDICT) developed at the Institute of Fundamental Technological Research at the Polish Academy of Sciences (IFTR PAS). Additionally, this method was used to investigate the mechanical properties of tantalum at the strain rate of 8×10^5 s−1 .To analyse the phenomena occurring during the tests, a numerical model of the testing stand was developed and validated. The finite element (FEM) model was expanded to estimate the sources of error achieved in the results using the analytical methods. The effects related to friction, inertia, specimen ratio, adiabatic heating, stress equilibration and strain rate on the stress-strain characteristic observed before and after the analytical correction were discussed.

Keywords:

miaturised Hopkinson bar, tantalum, high strain rates, direct impact, finite element method

Affiliations:
Moćko W.-IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
22.Moćko W., Kowalewski Z.L., Perforation test as an accuracy evaluation tool for a constitutive model of austenitic steel, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.2478/amm-2013-0133, Vol.58, No.4, pp.1105-1110, 2013
Abstract:

In this paper, a new method for assessing the accuracy of a constitutive model is proposed. The method uses perforation test done by drop weight tower. The assessment is carried out by comparison of striker velocity curve obtained using experiment and FEM simulation. In order to validate proposed method the various constitutive equations were applied i.e. Johnson-Cook, Zerilli-Armstrong and the extended Rusinek-Klepaczko to model mechanical behaviour of X4CrMnN16-12 austenitic steel. The steel was characterized at wide range of strain and strain rates using servo-hydraulic testing machine and split Hopkinson pressure bar. The relative error calculated as a difference between measured and constitutive model based stress-strain curve was applied as a reference data (classic approach). Subsequently, it was compared with relative error determined on the basis of experimental and FEM calculated striker velocity (new approach). A good correlation between classic and a new method was found. Moreover, a new method of error assessment enables to validate constitutive equation in a wide range of strain rates and temperatures on the basis of a single experiment.

Keywords:

plastic behaviour, fracture properties, constitutive modeling, perforation, austenitic steel

Affiliations:
Moćko W.-other affiliation
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
23.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., An Influence of Step Cyclic Loading Due to Torsion on Tensile Curve Variation, KEY ENGINEERING MATERIALS, ISSN: 1662-9795, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.535-536.181, Vol.535-536, pp.181-184, 2013
Abstract:

The paper presents experimental results of tests carried out at room temperature on power engineering steel: 10H2M (11CrMo9-10) using thin-walled tubular specimens under biaxial stress state. The loading programme comprised different types of deformation, i.e. monotonic tension and cyclic torsion in the form of symmetric or asymmetric step-increasing strain amplitude. The main task of the paper was focused on investigation of an influence of the cyclic loading parameters on tensile curve variations. The magnitudes of axial strain and cyclic shear strain amplitude were small and did not exceed 1%. An analysis of the results showed a significant reduction of the axial stress (even equal 90% for the torsional amplitude ±0.8%, in both cases of cyclic loading). An influence of torsion frequency on the tensile stress curve was discovered within the range from 0.005Hz to 0.5Hz.

Keywords:

Cyclic Loading, Hysteresis Loop, Stress Variation, Tensile Characteristic

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-other affiliation
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
24.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Fracture Toughness Investigations of Metal Matrix Composites Using Compact Specimens, ENGINEERING TRANSACTIONS (ROZPRAWY INŻYNIERSKIE), ISSN: 0867-888X, Vol.61, No.3, pp.219-229, 2013
Abstract:

This paper presents experimental results of the fracture toughness tests carried out on metal matrix composites. The material was produced using the 44200 aluminium alloy reinforced by Al2O3 in the form of Saffil fibres. Three different contents of Al2O3 were taken into account, i.e. 10%, 15%, 20%. The main aim of the research was to examine an influence of the aluminium oxide content on a critical value of the stress intensity factor, KIC. All tests were performed using a miniature compact specimen, which was four times smaller than the typical one. The results of FEA analysis confirmed a typical distribution of the effective stress at the tip of the notch. In each test the composite specimen was mounted in the loading system of the testing machine by applying special grips. Crack tip opening displacement of the specimen notch was measured by means of the clip on knife edge extensometer having 10 mm gauge length. The results in form of tensile force versus crack tip opening displacement show the first mode of fracture. An inspection of the pre-cracked zone of the composite did not exhibit the typical features usually observed on specimen surface after fatigue. An influence of the Al2O3 Saffil fibres content within the range from 10% to 20% on a critical value of the stress intensity factor was negligible small. The KIC of the composites tested in this research achieved the level of 12 MPa m 1/2.

Keywords:

metal matrix composite, fracture toughness test, compact specimen, fatigue zone, stress intensity factor

Affiliations:
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-other affiliation
25.Moćko W., Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Mechanical Properties of AW8S-V Polyester Composite under Various Loading Conditions, ENGINEERING TRANSACTIONS (ROZPRAWY INŻYNIERSKIE), ISSN: 0867-888X, Vol.61, No.4, pp.289-300, 2013
Abstract:

This article presents the results of an analysis of the mechanical properties of the AW8S-V polyester composite reinforced by a roving fabric under tensile loading. The stress-strain curves show an increase of the maximum stress and elastic modulus with increasing strain rate. By contrast, an increase of the temperature led to decrease of the maximum stress and elastic modulus. It is also shown that, failure mechanisms are dependent on the loading type. Shear cracks occurred in the specimens under quasi-static loading whereas composite layers damage was observed under dynamic loading. Temperature increase resulted to stronger fragmentation of the specimens.

Keywords:

polyester composite, Hopkinson bar, high strain rate, damage

Affiliations:
Moćko W.-other affiliation
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
26.Kowalewski Z.L., Miary uszkodzenia w badaniach pełzania materiałów konstrukcyjnych, ENERGETYKA, PROBLEMY ENERGETYKI I GOSPODARKI PALIWOWO-ENERGETYCZNEJ, ISSN: 0013-7294, Vol.66, No.10 (712), pp.757-760, 2013
27.Szymczak T., Grzywna P., Kowalewski Z.L., Nowoczesne metody określania wytrzymałościowych właściwości materiałów konstrukcyjnych, TRANSPORT SAMOCHODOWY, ISSN: 1731-2795, Vol.1, pp.79-104, 2013
Abstract:

W artykule zaprezentowano współczesne maszyny wytrzymałościowe i przyrządy pomiarowe do badania właściwości mechanicznych materiałów. Zamieszczono oraz omówiono ich schematy ideowe, zalety, wady, ograniczenia i zastosowanie. W przypadku niektórych z nich przedstawiono literaturowe i własne wyniki z badań doświadczalnych.

Affiliations:
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Grzywna P.-IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
28.Moćko W., Rodriguez-Martinez J.A., Kowalewski Z.L., Rusinek A., Compressive Viscoplastic Response of 6082-T6 and 7075-T6 Aluminium Alloys Under Wide Range of Strain Rate at Room Temperature: Experiments and Modelling, STRAIN, ISSN: 0039-2103, Vol.48, pp.498-509, 2012
29.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Variations of mechanical parameters and strain energy dissipated during tension-torsion loading, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, Vol.57, No.1, pp.193-197, 2012
Abstract:

The paper presents behaviour of materials under complex loading being combinations of torsion-reverse-torsion cycles superimposed on monotonic tensile deformation. The 2024 aluminium alloy, P91 steel and M1E copper were investigated under plane stress state using thin-walled tubular specimens. All tests were strain controlled and a total strain was less than 1%. An influence of torsion cycles on tensile characteristic was manifested by lowering of the proportional limit and yield point. This effect was increased with magnification of cyclic strain amplitude and in the case of copper a reduction of yield point was equal around 90%. A character of this effect was checked using the yield surface concept after each test. The papers also presents variations of tangential hardening modulus and plastic strain energy dissipation.

Keywords:

complex loading, biaxial stress state, cyclic loading, mechanical parameters

Affiliations:
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
30.Augustyniak B., Piotrowski L., Chmielewski M., Kowalewski Z.L., Comparative study with magnetic techniques of P91 and 13HMF steels properties subjected to fatigue tests, Journal of Electrical Engineering-Elektrotechnicky Casopis, ISSN: 1335-3632, Vol.63, No.7, pp.15-18, 2012
31.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Makowska K., Augustyniak B., A role of destructive and non-destructive tests in creep damage identification, KEY ENGINEERING MATERIALS, ISSN: 1662-9795, Vol.488-489, pp.315-318, 2012
32.Moćko W., Kowalewski Z.L., Dynamic Properties of Aluminium Alloys Used in Automotive Industry, JOURNAL OF KONES, ISSN: 1231-4005, Vol.19, No.2, pp.345-351, 2012
Abstract:

Around 20% of CO2 emitted as a result of human activity on Earth comes from transportation. One of the ideas, which lead to diminishing of the greenhouse gases e mission, is reducing of fuel consumption. It may be achieved by introducing a new powertrain solutions as well as lowering overall vehicle weight. The reduction of vehicle weight may be obtained by both a new design of part and structures and application of a new materials i.e. aluminium alloys. It has to be emphasised that weight reduction is very important for combustion engine driven vehicles and electric driven vehicles as well. Mass lowering is especially desirable in the case of electric vehicles because they typically have a very narrow operational range usually lower than 200 km. Therefore even small weight reduction de creases energy consumption of EV and as a consequence increases its range, which is a crucial parameter for users.
The results presented in this article were focused on high strength aluminium alloys of 6082-T6 and 7075-T6 types. Applying of those materials enables mass lowering of structures up to 50%, maintaining original functionality. Moreover, aluminium alloys may be also used in energy absorbing structures. The goal of tests was to obtain data required in FE analysis. In order to simulate dynamic phenomenon i.e. vehicle crash investigation of the stress-strain curves of alloys were carried out at wide range of strain rates using Hopkinson bar.

Keywords:

road transport, simulation, combustion engines, air pollution, environmental protection

Affiliations:
Moćko W.-IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
33.Moćko W., Kowalewski Z.L., Wojciechowski A., Rudnik D., Badania właściwości mechanicznych staliwa LH556 i stali VP159 pod kątem zastosowania w osłonach balistycznych, BIULETYN WOJSKOWEJ AKADEMII TECHNICZNEJ, ISSN: 1234-5865, Vol.LXI, No.2, pp.449-462, 2012
Abstract:

Praca przedstawia charakterystyki naprężenie-odkształcenie stali austenitycznej VP159 oraz staliwa austenitycznego LH556, o dużej zawartości azotu, przy różnych prędkościach odkształcania. Do badań w zakresie obciążeń statycznych zastosowano serwohydrauliczną maszynę wytrzymałościową, natomiast w zakresie obciążeń dynamicznych metodę pręta Hopkinsona. Otrzymane rezultaty przedstawiono w formie wykresów naprężenia rzeczywistego w funkcji odkształcenia rzeczywistego. Na podstawie statycznej próby rozciągania wyznaczono również podstawowe parametry badanych materiałów, takie jak: E, R0,05, R0,2, Rm. Na podstawie badań stwierdzono, że stal VP159 ma znacznie lepszą ciągliwość niż staliwo LH556, natomiast pozostałe parametry i charakterystyki były zbliżone. Otrzymane wyniki można wykorzystać do wyznaczenia parametrów równań konstytutywnych opisujących termomechaniczne właściwości materiałów na potrzeby symulacji komputerowych.

Keywords:

mechanika, pręt Hopkinsona, duże prędkości odkształcania, stal wysokoazotowa, charakterystyka naprężenie-odkształcenie

Affiliations:
Moćko W.-IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Wojciechowski A.-other affiliation
Rudnik D.-other affiliation
34.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Wpływ cyklicznego skręcania na właściwości mechaniczne materiałów w próbie rozciągania, BIULETYN WOJSKOWEJ AKADEMII TECHNICZNEJ, ISSN: 1234-5865, Vol.61, No.2, pp.437-447, 2012
Abstract:

W pracy zamieszczono wyniki z badań doświadczalnych dotyczących określania wpływu obciążenia skręcającego o charakterze cyklicznym na przebieg wyznaczanej jednocześnie charakterystyki rozciągania następujących materiałów: stali P91, stopu aluminium P a7 oraz miedzi M1E. Testy przeprowadzono na cienkościennych, osiowosymetrycznych próbkach rurkowych w warunkach płaskiego stanu naprężenia przy sterowaniu sygnałami odkształcenia. Wyznaczono zmiany granicy proporcjonalności, plastyczności i stycznego modułu wzmocnienia w zależności od amplitudy odkształcenia postaciowego oraz opracowano przebiegi zmian naprężeń głównych i kąta obrotu ich kierunków.

Keywords:

mechanika eksperymentalna, obciążenie złożone, obciążenie cykliczne, właściwości mechaniczne, rozciąganie, skręcanie

Affiliations:
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
35.Augustyniak B., Piotrowski L., Chmielewski M., Kowalewski Z.L., Właściwości magneto-akustyczne degradowanych próbek stali 13HMF oraz P91, ENERGETYKA, PROBLEMY ENERGETYKI I GOSPODARKI PALIWOWO-ENERGETYCZNEJ, ISSN: 0013-7294, Vol.24, pp.1-7, 2012
36.Kowalewski Z.L., Dietrich L., Kukla D., Grzywna P., Szymczak T., Parametry uszkodzenia w procesie zmęczenia oraz ich miary, ENERGETYKA, PROBLEMY ENERGETYKI I GOSPODARKI PALIWOWO-ENERGETYCZNEJ, ISSN: 0013-7294, Vol.65, No.11 (701), pp.706-710, 2012
37.Moćko W., Kowalewski Z.L., Zastosowanie wybranych równań konstytutywnych do opisu właściwości mechanicznych stali wysokoazotowej typu VP159, MODELOWANIE INŻYNIERSKIE, ISSN: 1896-771X, Vol.12, No.43, pp.203-210, 2012
38.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Efekty Strukturalne oraz Mechanizmy Uszkodzenia Generowane w Materiałach przez Różne Rodzaje Obciążenia, TRANSPORT SAMOCHODOWY, ISSN: 1731-2795, Vol.2, pp.85-96, 2012
39.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Badanie Odporności Kompozytów Metalowo-Ceramicznych Na Kruche Pękanie Przy Użyciu Próbek Kompaktowych (CT), TRANSPORT SAMOCHODOWY, ISSN: 1731-2795, Vol.3, pp.119-131, 2012
40.Rutecka A., Kowalewski Z.L., Pietrzak K., Dietrich L., Rehm W., Creep and Low Cycle Fatigue Investigations of Light Aluminium Alloys for Engine Cylinder Heads, STRAIN, ISSN: 0039-2103, DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-1305.2010.00779.x, Vol.47, No.Suppl. 2, pp.374-381, 2011
Abstract:

An influence of the chemical composition, porosity and ageing on mechanical behaviour of light, multifunctional aluminium alloys (AlSi8Cu3 and AlSi7MgCu0.5) subjected to creep and low cycle fatigue (LCF) was investigated. The materials were tested to verify their applicability as the cylinder heads in car engines. During creep tests, a strain response of the materials was observed under a range of the step-increased stresses and different temperatures. The LCF tests were carried out under strain control in three blocks of 100 cycles each with a constant strain amplitude. The results of creep and LCF tests were analysed with regard to chemical composition, type of porosity and ageing of the materials tested. An influence of porosity on the creep resistance and lifetime was considered. The results of the LCF tests were compared for the materials in the as-received state and after ageing. An experimental evaluation of cyclic behaviour because of the LCF was carried out to check whether the hardening or softening effects can be observed in the materials. Taking into account the various history of loading, a stress response of the materials was investigated.

Keywords:

creep, cylinder heads, fatigue, light alloys

Affiliations:
Rutecka A.-IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Pietrzak K.-other affiliation
Dietrich L.-IPPT PAN
Rehm W.-Daimler AG (DE)
41.Piotrowski L., Augustyniak B., Chmielewski M., Kowalewski Z.L., On the possibility of application of magnetoacoustic emission for the assessment of plastic deformation level in ferrous materials, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, ISSN: 0018-9464, Vol.47, pp.1-5, 2011
42.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Dietrich L., Experimental analysis of creep and fatigue of light multifunctional aluminium alloys, MATERIALS RESEARCH INNOVATIONS, ISSN: 1432-8917, Vol.15, pp.53-56, 2011
Abstract:

The paper presents experimental investigations of two light aluminium alloys (AlSi8Cu3 and AlSi7MgCu0 5) under loading conditions leading to the creep or fatigue processes. During the creep process, the strains were measured under selected tensile stresses and temperatures. An influence of a step loading during creep, at elevated temperature, on steady creep rate and a course of creep curve, was investigated. Moreover, an effect of porosity degree on creep of both aluminium alloys was also analysed. An influence of aging process at the elevated temperature was experimentally evaluated. Fatigue behaviour of materials was checked under strain control using cylindrical samples. The results of LCF tests were analysed for the materials subjected to three-stage sequence of loading at elevated temperature. A resistance to creep and fatigue processes of the AlSi8Cu3 was weaker than that obtained in the case of the AlSi7MgCu0 5.

Keywords:

Creep, Fatigue, Sequence loading, Aluminium alloys

Affiliations:
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Dietrich L.-IPPT PAN
43.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Modification of simple deformation processes of metallic materials by means of cyclic loading, MATERIALS RESEARCH INNOVATIONS, ISSN: 1432-8917, DOI: 10.1179/143307511X12858956847110, Vol.15, pp.73-76, 2011
Abstract:

The paper presents experimental results concerning evaluation of an influence of cyclic loading on material behaviour under monotonic deformation. Tests were carried out on pure copper and P91 steel. The experimental programme contained the torsion–reverse–torsion cycles superimposed on the monotonic tension. It is shown that the torsion–reverse–torsion cycles associated with monotonic tension caused essential variations of the tensile characteristic. For both materials, a significant decrease in the tensile stress can be observed. The effects observed during monotonic and cyclic loading combinations were theoretically described for the 2024 aluminium alloy using the Mróz and Maciejewski model.

Keywords:

Complex loading, Yield point, Yield surface, Mechanical parameters

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
44.Moćko W., Kowalewski Z.L., Dynamic Compression Tests – Current Achievements and Future Development, ENGINEERING TRANSACTIONS (ROZPRAWY INŻYNIERSKIE), ISSN: 0867-888X, Vol.59, No.3, pp.235-248, 2011
45.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Rutecka A., Zmiany właściwości mechanicznych materiałów w warunkach monotonicznej deformacji realizowanej w obecności obciążenia cyklicznego, PRZEGLĄD MECHANICZNY, ISSN: 0033-2259, Vol.LXX, No.2, pp.27-32, 2011
46.Kowalewski Z.L., Szelążek J., Augustyniak B., Piotrowski L., Makowska K., Szymczak T., Interdyscyplinarne techniki oceny stanu uszkodzenia stali stosowanych w energetyce, ENERGETYKA, PROBLEMY ENERGETYKI I GOSPODARKI PALIWOWO-ENERGETYCZNEJ, ISSN: 0013-7294, No.11, pp.23-26, 2011
47.Moćko W., Kowalewski Z.L., Opracowanie i weryfikacja modelu MES zminiaturyzowanego stanowiska do badań metodą bezpośredniego uderzenia pocisku w próbkę, TRANSPORT SAMOCHODOWY, ISSN: 1731-2795, Vol.2, pp.97-105, 2011
48.Kowalewski Z.L., Kierunki rozwoju badań wytrzymałościowych, Dozór Techniczny, Vol.1, pp.9-21, 2011
49.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Wybrane projekty próbek stosowanych w badaniach właściwości mechanicznych materiałów, Dozór Techniczny, Vol.2, pp.30-35, 2011
50.Moćko W., Kowalewski Z.L., Mechanical Properties of the A359/SiCp metal matrix composite at wide range of strain rates, APPLIED MECHANICS AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1662-7482, Vol.82, pp.166-171, 2011
51.Rutecka A., Kowalewski Z.L., Pietrzak K., Dietrich L., Makowska K., Woźniak J., Kostecki M., Bochniak W., Olszyna A., Damage development of Al/SiC metal matrix composite under fatigue, creep and monotonic loading conditions, Procedia Engineering, ISSN: 1877-7058, DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2011.04.236, Vol.10, pp.1420-1425, 2011
Abstract:

A consolidation of powders using the KOBO method at elevated temperature was elaborated for production of Al/SiC metal matrix composite (MMC). The observations of the mean strain and inelastic strain range during the force controlled high cycle fatigue (HCF) tests identified the ratcheting mechanism combined with mechanism characterized by cyclic plasticity. Damage parameters were calculated on the basis of strain signal acquisition during fatigue tests. Fatigue properties, creep resistance and life time of Al/SiC MMC were gradually improved with the increase of the SiC particles content. The microstructural observations of the material before and after tests were also performed.

Keywords:

MMC, KOBO method, fatigue, creep, monotonic loading, microstructure, damage

Affiliations:
Rutecka A.-IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Pietrzak K.-other affiliation
Dietrich L.-IPPT PAN
Makowska K.-Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Woźniak J.-other affiliation
Kostecki M.-other affiliation
Bochniak W.-other affiliation
Olszyna A.-other affiliation
52.Piotrowski L., Augustyniak B., Chmielewski M., Kowalewski Z.L., Multiparameter analysis of the Barkhausen noise signal and its application for the assessment of a plastic deformation level in the 13HMF grade steel, MEASUREMENT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ISSN: 0957-0233, Vol.21, No.11, pp.115702-1-7, 2010
Abstract:

The paper presents the results of multiparameter analysis of Barkhausen noise (BN) signal properties. In addition to the commonly used quantifiers of the BN signal, such as amplitude, integral of the BN envelope or results of pulse count analysis, we propose an additional analysis based on the change in magnetizing current amplitude. As it turns out the character of the change of the BN signal (as a function of the plastic deformation level) measured for various magnetizing currents differs significantly. Being so, a comparison of the results obtained for at least two magnetizing intensities gives a much better description of a plastic deformation level. In addition to that we observe two monotonic changes in the BN signal properties - a systematic shift of the BN signal peak position and the increase in the frequency for which the maximum in the BN FFT spectra occurs.

Keywords:

Barkhausen effect, plastic deformation, nondestructive evaluation

Affiliations:
Piotrowski L.-other affiliation
Augustyniak B.-Gdansk University of Technology (PL)
Chmielewski M.-Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
53.Rutecka A., Dietrich L., Kowalewski Z.L., Evaluation of the heat treatment role for light aluminium alloys subjected to creep and low cycle fatigue, MATERIALS SCIENCE FORUM, ISSN: 0255-5476, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.638-642.455, Vol.638-642, pp.455-460, 2010
Abstract:

The AlSi8Cu3 and AlSi7MgCu0.5 cast aluminium alloy s of different composition and heat treatment were investigated to verify their applicability as cylinder heads in the car engines [1]. Creep tests under the step-increased stresses at different temperatures, and low cycle fatigue (LCF) tests for a range of strain amplitudes and temperatures were carried out. The results exhibit a significant influence of the heat treatment on the mechanical properties of the AlSi8Cu3 and AlSi7MgCu0.5. An interesting fact is that the properties strongly depend on the type of quenching.
Lower creep resistance (higher strain rates) and lower stress response during fatigue tests were observed for the air quenched materials in comparison to those in the water quenched. Cyclic hardening/softening were also observed during the LCF tests due to the heat treatment applied. The mechanical properties determined during the tests can be used to identify new constitutive equations and to verify existing numerical models.

Keywords:

creep, low cycle fatigue, aluminum alloys, heat treatment

Affiliations:
Rutecka A.-IPPT PAN
Dietrich L.-IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
54.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., On the effects associated with control parameters delay during biaxial cyclic loading of engineering materials, MATERIALS SCIENCE FORUM, ISSN: 0255-5476, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.638-642.3913, Vol.638-642, pp.3913-3918, 2010
Abstract:

The paper presents experimental results of investigations carried out on the P91 steel and 2024 aluminium alloy under complex stress states due to various combinations of an axial force and twisting moment. An influence of out-of-phase sinusoidal and trapezoidal strain signals on the mechanical behaviour of tested materials was considered. The experiments enabled identification of the second order effects connected with the non-proportional cyclic loadings such as the phase shift between stress and strain signals during the deformation along the circular strain path, and a significant stress drop of the one of loading components applied in the case of deformation enforced by the trapezoidal signals. The experimental programme also contained the tests of monotonic tensile deformation realized simultaneously with delayed torsional cycles. They enabled to observe a drastic variations of the proportional limit and yield point of the materials in the tensile direction. This fact manifests an important material feature which can be applied to the optimal designing of some metal forming processes like an extrusion or forging for example

Keywords:

cyclic loading, biaxial stress state, circle loading path, square loading path, mechanical parameters, yield surface

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
55.Frąś T., Kowalewski Z.L., Pęcherski R.B., Rusinek A., Applications of Burzyński failure criteria - I. Isotropic materials with asymmetry of elastic range, ENGINEERING TRANSACTIONS (ROZPRAWY INŻYNIERSKIE), ISSN: 0867-888X, Vol.58, pp.1-10, 2010
Abstract:

The main idea of energy-based hypothesis of material effort proposed by Burzyński is briefly presented and the resulting failure criteria are discussed. Some examples, based on the own studies, which depict applications of these criteria are discussed and visualisations of limit surfaces in the space of principal stresses are presented.

Keywords:

Burzyński yield condition, yield surface, strength differential effect, energy-based yield criteria

Affiliations:
Frąś T.-IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Pęcherski R.B.-IPPT PAN
Rusinek A.-National Engineering School of Metz (ENIM) (FR)
56.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., A role of cyclic loading at modification of simple deformation processes of metallic materials, ACTA MECHANICA ET AUTOMATICA, ISSN: 1898-4088, Vol.4, No.4, pp.1-4, 2010
Abstract:

The paper presents experimental results of investigations carried out on the 2024 aluminium alloy and P91 steel under biaxial stress state. The loading programme comprised a monotonic tension assisted by torsion-reverse-torsion cycles. An influence of the cyclic loading and its delay with respect to uniaxial tension on the selected mechanical parameters taken on the basis of tensile characteristics was investigated. Additionally, a relative variation of the proportional limit and yield point due to the loading history applied was analyzed. A permanency of effects observed during combination of tension and cyclic torsion was experimentally assessed on the basis of an initial yield surface evolution

Affiliations:
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
57.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., On the mutual interactions of monotonic and cyclic loading and their effect on the strength of aluminum alloys, APPLIED MECHANICS AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1662-7482, Vol.24-25, pp.213-218, 2010
58.Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Ocena stopnia uszkodzenia stali 40HNMA metodami nieniszczącymi i niszczącymi, TRANSPORT SAMOCHODOWY, ISSN: 1731-2795, Vol.4, pp.1-15, 2010
Abstract:

This work presents an attempt to evaluate a stage of mechanical and structural degradation of 40HNMA steel, used for example in automotive industry, by means of non-destructive and destructive methods. The modern ultrasonic and magnetic investigation were mainly applied

Affiliations:
Makowska K.-Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
59.Kowalewski Z.L., Szelążek J., Mackiewicz S., Augustyniak B., Experimental damage analysis of steel after exploitation loading, EPJ Web of Conferences, ISSN: 2100-014X, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/20100643001, Vol.6, pp.1-8, 2010
Abstract:

Development of creep damage at elevated temperatures and structural degradation due to plastic deformation at room temperature were assessed using destructive and non-destructive methods in steels commonly applied in power plants (40HNMA, 13HMF and P91). As destructive methods the standard tension tests were carried out after every kind of prestraining. Subsequently, an evolution of the selected tension parameters was taken into account for damage identification. In order to assess a damage development during the creep and plastic deformation the tests for the steels were interrupted for a range of the selected strain magnitudes. The ultrasonic and magnetic techniques were used as the non-destructive methods for damage evaluation. The experimental programme also contained microscopic observations.

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Szelążek J.-IPPT PAN
Mackiewicz S.-IPPT PAN
Augustyniak B.-Gdansk University of Technology (PL)
60.Szelążek J., Mackiewicz S., Kowalewski Z.L., New samples with artificial voids for ultrasonic investigation of material damage due to creep, NDT AND E INTERNATIONAL, ISSN: 0963-8695, Vol.42, pp.150-156, 2009
Abstract:

This paper describes the application of acoustic birefringence measurement for evaluation of material degradation due to creep. The problem with ultrasonic investigation of the influence of creep-induced voids on ultrasonic wave velocities is the lack of samples containing well-defined voids. The only way to‘‘produce’’ damaged material with numerous voids is accelerated creep laboratory test or long-term service of material in high temperature and stress. To describe voids it is necessary to perform laborious metallographic examination of damaged material. Paper presents glass samples with artificial semi-flat voids created with laser engraving technique. Results of ultrasonic wave velocities and acoustic birefringence measurements in glass samples proved that laser engraving can be helpful for the experimental investigation of voids influence on solid acoustic properties.

Keywords:

Ultrasound, Birefringence, Creep, Artificial voids

Affiliations:
Szelążek J.-IPPT PAN
Mackiewicz S.-IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
61.Dietrich L., Rutecka A., Kowalewski Z.L., Assessment of exploitation properties of cast aluminium alloys on the basis of creep and LCF investigations, Archive of Mechanical Engineering, ISSN: 0004-0738, Vol.LVI, No.4, pp.405-412, 2009
Abstract:

The paper presents experimental results of creep and low cycle fatigue (LCF) tests carried out on the as-received cast aluminium alloys with different chemical composition and porosity. The test programmes contain creep investigations under step-increased stresses at different temperatures, and cyclic plasticity under different strain amplitudes and temperatures

Keywords:

creep, low cycle fatigue, aluminium alloys

Affiliations:
Dietrich L.-IPPT PAN
Rutecka A.-IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
62.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Variation of mechanical parameters of engineering materials under tension due to cyclic deformation br torsion, ENGINEERING TRANSACTIONS (ROZPRAWY INŻYNIERSKIE), ISSN: 0867-888X, Vol.57, No.2, pp.113-123, 2009
Abstract:

The paper presents experimental results of investigations carried out under complex stress state on the 2024 aluminium alloy (used by aircraft industry) and P91 steel (used at power plants). Second-order effects associated with cyclic loadings enforced by the trapezoidal signals in the two mutually perpendicular directions are identified. It is shown, how the cyclic loading and its parameters (strain amplitude and frequency) influence the simultaneous monotonic loading in the direction perpendicular with respect to the cyclic one. Moreover, the paper presents an analysis of the selected mechanical properties variations on the basis of an initial yield locus evolution.

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
63.Kowalewski Z.L., Mackiewicz S., Szelążek J., Pietrzak K., Augustyniak B., Evaluation of damage in steels subjected to prior deformation - destructive and nondestructive techniques, Journal of Multiscale Modeling, Vol.1, pp.479-499, 2009
64.Augustyniak B., Chmielewski M., Piotrowski L., Kowalewski Z.L., Comparison of properties of magnetoacoustic emission and mechanical Barkhausen effects for P91 steel after plastic flow and creep, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, ISSN: 0018-9464, DOI: 10.1109/TMAG.2008.2002525, Vol.44, pp.3273-3276, 2008
Abstract:

The correlation between magnetoacoustic emission intensity and mechanical Barkhausen effect intensity has been tested in the case of P91 steel having different microstructure states due to either plastic flow at room temperature or speeded-up creep, performed under stress 290 MPa at temperature 773 K. The plastic strain range for the first set of samples has been from 2.0% up to 10.5% and for the second one from 0.85% up to 10.0%. Both effects revealed analogous monotonous decrease of their intensities as a function of resulting plastic strain. The decrease was higher for plastic flow than for creep. Those results are well consistent with results of tensile tests of the as damaged samples.

Keywords:

Magnetic properties, Mechanical factors, Steel, Plastics, Creep, Testing, Temperature distribution, Microstructure, Performance evaluation, Stress

Affiliations:
Augustyniak B.-Gdansk University of Technology (PL)
Chmielewski M.-Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
Piotrowski L.-other affiliation
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
65.Kowalewski Z.L., Mackiewicz S., Szelążek J., Evaluation of damage in steels subjected to exploitation loading - destructive and non-destructive methods, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MODERN PHYSICS B, ISSN: 0217-9792, Vol.22, pp.5533-5538, 2008
66.Rudnik D., Kowalewski Z.L., Pietrzak K., Wojciechowski A., An influence of selected mechanical parameters of MMC on the thermal shock resistance, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MODERN PHYSICS B, ISSN: 0217-9792, Vol.22, pp.5807-5812, 2008
67.Pietrzak K., Klasik A., Kowalewski Z.L., Rudnik D., Quantitative relationships between microstructural and mechanical parameters of steels with different carbon content, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MODERN PHYSICS B, ISSN: 0217-9792, DOI: 10.1142/S0217979208051224, Vol.22, pp.5819-5824, 2008
Abstract:

The steels of different carbon content were tested with respect to their microstructural and selected mechanical parameters variations. The original combinatorial method, based on the phase quanta theory, was applied in the quantitative metallographic assessment. Hence, the adequate geometrical parameters of steel microstructure were possible to be determined. Moreover, the selected mechanical parameters of the materials were evaluated using non-destructive and destructive methods. The results enabled to formulate some significant quantitative relationships between microstructure and mechanical parameters.

Keywords:

Steel, phase composition, quantitative metallography, mechanical behaviour

Affiliations:
Pietrzak K.-other affiliation
Klasik A.-other affiliation
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Rudnik D.-other affiliation
68.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z., Rutecka A., Material responses to the laboratory simulation of complex cyclic loadings, JOURNAL OF KONES, ISSN: 1231-4005, Vol.15, No.3, pp.509-516, 2008
69.Kowalewski Z.L., Klepaczko J.R., Malinowski J.Z., Miniaturized compression test at very high strain rates by direct impact, EXPERIMENTAL MECHANICS, ISSN: 0014-4851, DOI: 10.1007/s11340-006-9007-7, Vol.47, pp.451-463, 2007
Abstract:

A modified miniaturized version of the Direct Impact Compression Test (DICT) technique is described in this paper. The method permits determination of the rate-sensitive plastic properties of materials up to strain rate∼105s−1. Miniaturization of the experimental setup with specimen dimensions: diameter dS=2.0 mm and thicknesslS=1.0 mm, Hopkinson bar diameter 5.2 mm, with application of a novel optical arrangement in measurement of specimen strain, makes possible compression tests at strain rates from∼103s−1to∼105s−1. In order to estimate the rate sensitivity of a low-alloy construction steel, quasi-static, Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) and DICT tests have been performed at room temperature within the rate spectrum ranging from 5*10−4s−1to5*104s−1. A diabatic heating and friction effects are analyzed and the final true stress versus true strain curves at different strain rates are corrected to a constant temperature and zero friction. The results have been analyzed in the form of true stress versus the logarithm of strain rate and they show two regions of a constant rate sensitivity β¼Δσ.log": relatively low up to the strainrate threshold∼50 s−1, and relatively high above the threshold, up to strain rate∼4.5*104s−1.

Keywords:

Direct Impact Compression Test (DICT), Dynamic plasticity, Mild Steel, High strain rate

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Klepaczko J.R.-IPPT PAN
Malinowski J.Z.-IPPT PAN
70.Kowalewski Z.L., Szelążek J., Mackiewicz S., Destructive and ultrasonic investigation of damage identification in metallic materials, KEY ENGINEERING MATERIALS, ISSN: 1662-9795, Vol.340, pp.229-234, 2007
71.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Ocena zmian właściwości mechanicznych stopu aluminium PA7 pod wpływem obciążeń cyklicznych., PRACE NAUKOWE POLITECHNIKI WARSZAWSKIEJ, SERIA: MECHANIKA, ISSN: 0137-2335, Vol.217, pp.55-60, 2007
72.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Wpływ parametrów obciążeń cyklicznych na przebieg deformacji wskutek obciążeń monotonicznie narastających w kierunku ortogonalnym, PRACE NAUKOWE POLITECHNIKI WARSZAWSKIEJ, SERIA: MECHANIKA, ISSN: 0137-2335, Vol.217, pp.61-66, 2007
73.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Laboratoryjne symulacje obciążeń cyklicznych determinujących zmiany właściwości mechanicznych materiałów konstrukcyjnych, PRZEGLĄD MECHANICZNY, ISSN: 0033-2259, Vol.LXV, No.7-8, pp.53-62, 2006
74.Kowalewski Z.L., Deputat J., Metody doświadczalne identyfikacji wad materiałowych na podstawie analizy parametrów mechaniki pękania, Dozór Techniczny, Vol.2, pp.26-31, 2006
75.Kowalewski Z.L., Procesy uszkodzenia i zniszczenia towarzyszące zjawisku pełzania materiałów metalowych, Dozór Techniczny, Vol.6, pp.125-130, 2006
76.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Klasik A., Możliwości oceny jakości materiałów stosowanych w motoryzacji na podstawie badań próbek krzyżowych, Zeszyty ITS, Vol.4, 2006
77.Lin J., Kowalewski Z.L., Cao J., Creep rupture of copper and aluminum alloy under combined loadings - experiments and their various descriptions, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL SCIENCES, ISSN: 0020-7403, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2005.02.010, Vol.47, pp.1038-1058, 2005
Abstract:

Creep tests are carried out under tension, pure torsion, and combined tension and torsion at an elevated temperature of 523K for pure copper and 423K for an aluminium alloy. Different creep and rupture properties of the materials are observed throughout the deformation process under the different stress states. The effects of stress states on primary creep, secondary creep, the failure and lifetime of the materials are analysed. A new set of multiaxial mechanisms-based creep damage constitutive equations has been formulated on the basis of analysis of previous creep models. The proposed unified creep damage constitutive equations are determined using experimental data achieved for both materials at three effective stress levels. Creep tests for each stress level were carried out for three stress states. The comparison of experimental and computed effective creep strain curves is carried out for all the stress states and stress levels tested for both materials. In addition, it has been verified that the determined multi-stress-state creep damage constitutive equations can be used to predict the isochronous surfaces of the materials very precisely. To compare with conventional constitutive descriptions, a set of multiaxial constitutive equations is also determined for the experimental data of the two materials using the same optimisation techniques. The quality of the fittings is compared and further discussion is carried out for the stress-state variable x.

Affiliations:
Lin J.-National Chung Cheng University (CN)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Cao J.-other affiliation
78.Mackiewicz S., Kowalewski Z.L., Szelążek J., Deputat J., Badania mechaniczne i ultradźwiękowe stanu uszkodzenia materiałów wskutek procesu pełzania, PRZEGLĄD MECHANICZNY, ISSN: 0033-2259, Vol.LXIV, No.7-8, pp.15-24, 2005
79.Kowalewski Z.L., Creep analysis of M1E copper and PA6 aluminum alloy subjected to prior plastic deformation, JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL AND APPLIED MECHANICS, ISSN: 1429-2955, Vol.43, No.2, pp.241-256, 2005
80.Kowalewski Z.L., Deputat J., Identyfikacja wad materiałowych w ujęciu mechaniki pękania – podstawy teoretyczne, Dozór Techniczny, ISSN: 0209-1763, pp.105/128-109/134, 2005
81.Kowalewski Z.L., Analiza procesu pełzania oraz jego wpływu na zachowanie metali w jednoosiowym i złożonym stanie naprężenia (Praca habilitacyjna), Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.7, pp.1-250, 1996
82.Dietrich L., Kowalewski Z.L., Rozwój anizotropowych własności miedzi pod wpływem deformacji plastycznej przy pełzaniu i monotonicznym obciążaniu, Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.23, pp.1-42, 1994
83.Kowalewski Z.L., Śliwowski M., Socha G., Wpływ różnokierunkowej deformacji cyklicznej na ewolucję powierzchni plastyczności stali 18G2A, Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.25, pp.1-50, 1994
84.Dietrich L., Kowalewski Z.L., Śliwowski M., Zmiany parametrów anizotropii stopu aluminium pod wpływem deformacji cyklicznej, Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.27, pp.1-48, 1994
85.Dietrich L., Kowalewski Z.L., Śliwowski M., Socha G., Charakterystyka cyklicznych właściwości stopu aluminium na podstawie badań w złożonym stanie naprężenia, Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.29, pp.1-60, 1994
86.Kowalewski Z.L., Zmiany parametrów wytrzymałościowych stali kotłowej 15HM pod wpływem wstępnej deformacji plastycznej przy stałych i monotonicznych obciążeniach, Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.30, pp.1-40, 1994
87.Kowalewski Z.L., Śliwowski M., Socha G., Określanie cyklicznych właściwości stali 18G2A na podstawie krzywych szkieletowych dla płaskiego stanu naprężenia, Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.32, pp.1-53, 1994
88.Kowalewski Z.L., Wpływ wtórnej anizotropii plastycznej na pełzanie metali w złożonym stanie naprężenia (Praca doktorska), Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.36, pp.1-229, 1987

List of recent monographs
1.
318
Kowalewski Z.L., Popielski P., Imiełowski S., Ćwiczenia laboratoryjne z wytrzymałości materiałów, Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Warszawskiej, pp.1-178, 2013
2.
27
Kowalewski Z.L., Podstawy Wytrzymałości Materiałów, Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Warszawskiej, pp.1-376, 2010
3.
119
Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Wpływ rodzaju obciążenia na właściwości mechaniczne materiałów, Instytut Transportu Samochodowego (Warszawa), pp.1-173, 2009
4.
96
Kowalewski Z.L., Kierunki i perspektywy rozwoju badań wytrzymałościowych, Instytut Transportu Samochodowego (Warszawa), pp.1-227, 2008
5.
121
Kowalewski Z.L., Współczesne badania wytrzymałościowe: kierunki i perspektywy rozwoju, Biuro Gamma (Warszawa), pp.1-198, 2008
6.
90
Malinowski J.Z., Kowalewski Z.L., Kruszka L., Doświadczalna metoda oraz badania plastycznego płynięcia metali w zakresie bardzo wysokich prędkości odkształcenia, IPPT PAN (Warszawa), pp.1-88, 2007
7.
89
Kowalewski Z.L., Popielski P., Ćwiczenia laboratoryjne z wytrzymałości materiałów, Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Warszawskiej (Warszawa), pp.1-157, 2006
8.
107
Kowalewski Z.L., Pełzanie metali. Techniki badań, mechanizmy i przykładowe wyniki, Biuro Gamma (Warszawa), pp.1-173, 2005
9.
125
Kowalewski Z.L., Zjawisko pełzania metali, Eksperyment i modelowanie, Biblioteka Mechaniki Stosowanej, Monografie, IPPT PAN, LAPROMAT (Warszawa), pp.1-212, 2005
List of chapters in recent monographs
1.
468
Kowalewski Z.L., Grzywna P., Kukla D., Advances in Mechanics: Theoretical, Computational and Interdisciplinary Issues, rozdział: Experimental attempts for creep and fatigue damage analysis of materials – state of the art and new challenges, CRC Press/Balkema, Taylor & Francis Group, M. Kleiber et al. (Eds.), pp.17-25, 2016
2.
469
Kukla D., Kowalewski Z.L., Advances in Mechanics: Theoretical, Computational and Interdisciplinary Issues, rozdział: Influence of aluminum layer thickness on the fatigue properties of super-nickel alloy and crack detection by non-destructive techniques, CRC Press/Balkema, Taylor & Francis Group, M. Kleiber et al. (Eds.), pp.317-320, 2016
3.
470
Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Brodecki A., Advances in Mechanics: Theoretical, Computational and Interdisciplinary Issues, rozdział: An influence of notch type on material behaviour under monotonic tension, CRC Press/Balkema, Taylor & Francis Group, M. Kleiber et al. (Eds.), pp.567-571, 2016
4.
396
Kowalewski Z.L., Methods for Creep Rupture Analysis – Previous Attempts and New Challenges, rozdział: From Creep Damage Mechanics to Homogenization Methods, Springer, Altenbach H., Matsuda T., Okumura D. (Eds.), pp.163-198, 2015
5.
397
Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Maciejewski J., Experimental and Numerical Investigations of the Effects Associated to Complex Loading Combinations, rozdział: Inelastic Behavior of Materials and Structures Under Monotonic and Cyclic Loading, Springer, Altenbach H., Brunig M. (Eds.), pp.117-142, 2015
6.
319
Kowalewski Z.L., Encyklopedia of Thermal Stresses, rozdział: Thermo-creep damage in Cu/Al alloys, Ed. R. Hetnarski, Springer, 10, pp.5558-5566, 2014
7.
278
Kowalewski Z.L., 4. Konf. Naukowo-Tech. Diagnostyka Materiałów i Urządzeń Technicznych, rozdział: Miary uszkodzenia w badaniach pełzania i zmęczenia materiałów konstrukcyjnych, Politechnika Gdańska, pp.1-15, 2012
8.
227
Wojciechowski A., Kowalewski Z.L., Pietrzak K., Darłak P., Rudnik D., Lasota P., Klasik A., Innowacje w odlewnictwie, rozdział: Wybrane charakterystyki materiałowe nowoczesnych tworzyw z przeznaczeniem dla przemysłu motoryzacyjnego, Instytut Odlewnictwa (Kraków), Sobczak J. (Ed.), 2, pp.249-257, 2008
Editor of monographs
1.
338
Kowalewski Z.L., Ranachowski Z., Widłaszewski J., 39th Solid Mechanics Conference SolMech 2014, Book of Abstracts, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAS, 1, pp.1-336, 2014

Conference papers
1.Grzywna P., Kukla D., Kowalewski Z.L., Kopeć M., Wyszkowski M., Zastosowanie elektronicznej interferometrii plamkowej do  lokalizacji uszkodzeń zmęczeniowych, XXIII Seminarium NIENISZCZĄCE BADANIA MATERIAŁÓW, 2017-03-15/03-17, Zakopane (PL), pp.171-188, 2017
2.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Kraskowski J., Chojnacki A., Mechanika pękania na tropach awarii konstrukcji i defektów materiałowych, XXIII Seminarium NIENISZCZĄCE BADANIA MATERIAŁÓW, 2017-03-15/03-17, Zakopane (PL), pp.39-74, 2017
3.Libura T., Kowalewski Z.L., Dietrich L., Socha G., Anti-buckling system for flat specimens investigations under cyclic tension-compression, Materials Today: Proceedings, ISSN: 2214-7853, DOI: 10.1016/j.matpr.2016.03.045, No.3, pp.1045-1050, 2016
Abstract:

Modern automobile and airplane structures made of sheet metals or composites require usage of thinner and stronger materials. On the other hand, manufacturers are trying to reduce production costs by shortening the fabrication processes and by application of computed simulation for forming operation. Therefore, it is necessary to better understand and more accurately investigate deformation behaviour of sheet alloys. Testing of flat specimens under compression and cyclic tension-compression within large deformation procures a lot of problems. One of them is the buckling phenomenon. A new version of the device mounted in a standard testing machine was developed and geometry of the specimen for validation of the device was proposed. Specimens of DP690 steel with nominal thickness equal to 1.6 mm were investigated at ambient temperature. Tension-compression cyclic tests within a strain range ± 0.04 were executed starting in tension direction. It is shown that the results are repeatable.

Keywords:

Buckling, cyclic loading, fixture, thin sheets

Affiliations:
Libura T.-IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Dietrich L.-IPPT PAN
Socha G.-other affiliation
4.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Brodecki A., Determination of artificial defects in material under monotonic tension by the use of FEM and DIC methods, Materials Today: Proceedings, ISSN: 2214-7853, DOI: 10.1016/j.matpr.2016.03.011, No.3, pp.1171-1176, 2016
Abstract:

The paper concerns numerical and experimental investigations carried out for determination of an influence of holes on material behaviour under monotonic tension. The 40Cr steel commonly applied in automotive and power plant branches of industry was tested. The analysis was performed by the use of analytical and Finite Element Method calculations. It enabled identification of stress concentration/maximum stress versus hole diameter relationships, and the HMH stress distribution. Full-field contactless Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was used for capturing the effective strain variations from the beginning of test up to specimen fracture. It enabled us to indicate the most important stress concentrator, and moreover, distribution of the HMH effective strain in 2D coordinate system. A comparison of tensile characteristic obtained by means of smooth and perforated specimens showed 70% reduction of yield point and 50% lowering of elongation as an effect of the artificial defects introduced.

Keywords:

Monotonic tension, holes, steel, stress concentration factor, maximum stress, yield point, ductility, FEM, DIC

Affiliations:
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Brodecki A.-Motor Transport Institute (PL)
5.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Ocena zachowania materiałów i elementów konstrukcyjnych w międzylaboratoryjnych próbach statycznych i zmęczeniowych z użyciem nowoczesnych technik pomiarowych, IX Międzynarodowa Konferencja „Laboratoria Badawcze – Systemy Jakości w Unii Europejskiej”, Polsko-Niemieckie Forum Badań Materiałowych – Prezentacja Doświadczeń, 2016-06-09/06-11, Saksonia-Drezno-Zamek Kliczków (DE), pp.157-170, 2016
6.Kowalewski Z.L., Dietrich L., Kopeć M., Szymczak T., Grzywna P., Nowoczesne systemy optyczne w badaniach mechanicznych – budowa, działanie, zastosowania, XXII Seminarium NIENISZCZĄCE BADANIA MATERIAŁÓW, 2016-03-16/03-18, Zakopane (PL), pp.5-36, 2016
7.Kowalewski Z.L., Dietrich L., Socha G., Experimental investigation of thin metal sheets under tension-compression cyclic loading, ACAM 8, 8th Australasian Congress on Applied. Mechanics, 2014-11-23/11-26, Melbourne (AU), pp.1-10, 2014
Abstract:

Strength and durability of thin-walled structures are usually calculated with the use of computer simulations. To perform such simulations using Finite Element Method the characteristics of a material subjected to monotonic tension/or compression and tension-compression cyclic loading are necessary for example. Experimental determination of such kind of characteristics is usually performed on specimens cut out from metal or composite thin sheet. Problems associated with material testing on flat specimens under large deformation are discussed in detail by this paper. In the first part, a short review of the antibuckling fixtures developed up to now is given. Several representative solutions including the applied design are discussed, with special emphasis on the technique limitations. In the second part, the results of investigations carried out on steel and brass using the new fixture for the flat specimens testing are presented.

Keywords:

fixture, large deformations, tension-compression tests, thin metal sheet

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Dietrich L.-IPPT PAN
Socha G.-other affiliation
8.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Maciejewski J., Effects observed under monotonic-cyclic loading combinations: experiment and modelling, PACAM, 14th Pan-American Congress of Applied Mechanics, 2014-03-24/03-28, Santiago (CL), pp.1-6, 2014
Abstract:

The effects often taking place during proportional and non-proportional types of loading were identified experimentally and modelled numerically. In the case of non-proportional cyclic loading along circular strain path the second order effects such as: phase shift between stress and strain signals were discovered. An analysis of experimental data from tests under non-proportional cyclic loading along square strain path exhibited a significant reduction of stress independently on direction of deformation. The paper also presents experimental results concerning evaluation of an influence of cyclic loading on mechanical parameters during monotonic deformation carried out on the 2024 aluminium alloy and X10CrMoVNb9-1 steel. All strain-controlled tests were conducted at room temperature using thin-walled tubular specimens. The experimental programme contained selected combinations of monotonic and cyclic loadings, i.e. the torsion-reverse-torsion cycles were superimposed on the monotonic tension. It is shown that such cycles caused essential variations of the tension characteristics. A significant decrease of the tension stress was observed. The effects occured during monotonic and cyclic loading combinations were described using Mróz and Maciejewski model. Reasonable good predictions of: hysteresis loops and stress responses for the square and circular loading paths and tensile curves assisted by torsion cycles were obtained

Keywords:

cyclic loading, hardening, softening, complex stress state

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Maciejewski J.-other affiliation
9.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Makowska K., Pietrzak K., Damage Indicators During Fatigue of Metal Matrix Composites, 4th International Conference on Nonlinear Dynamics, 2013-06-19/06-22, Sevastopol (UA), pp.1-6, 2013
Abstract:

Selected damage measures applied for degradation description of engineering materials subjected to fatigue loading conditions are presented. In addition to well - known measures the new concepts of fatigue damage development are discussed using known mechanisms of cyclic plasticity and ratcheting. Their usefulness was studied on the basis of experimental results for modern metal matrix composites commonly applied in many branches of the industry.

Keywords:

Damage, fatigue, composites

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Makowska K.-Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Pietrzak K.-other affiliation
10.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Podstawy tensometrii elektrooporowej oraz praktyczne jej zastosowania, XIX Seminarium NIENISZCZĄCE BADANIA MATERIAŁÓW, 2013-03-12/03-15, Zakopane (PL), Vol.1, pp.69-91, 2013
11.Moćko W., Kowalewski Z.L., Impact resistance of VP159 high nitrogen steel, ICEM15, 15th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics, 2012-07-22/07-27, Porto (PT), No.1, pp.613-614, 2012
Abstract:

This work presents the impact resistance results of investigation on the VP159 high nitrogen steel. The tests were carried out using the Instron impact system at the projectile velocity equal to 12,5 m/s. The experimental results were compared to the FE predictions. The Rusinek-Klepaczko constitutive model was applied to describe mechanical response of tested material. It was concluded that the FE results were in a good agreement with the experiment.

Affiliations:
Moćko W.-IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
12.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Variation of tensile characteristic and mechanical parameters of power engineering steels due to cyclic loading, ICEM15, 15th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics, 2012-07-22/07-27, Porto (PT), pp.1-9, 2012
Abstract:

This paper presents experimental results of tests carried out at room temperature on power engineering steels: P91 (X10CrMoVNb9-1), 10H2M (11CrMo9-10) using thin-walled tubular specimens under biaxial stress state. The loading programme comprised two different types of deformation obtained by monotonic tension and torsional cycles. The values of axial strain and cyclic shear strain amplitude were small and did not exceed 1%. In the case of both materials tested, a significant reduction of the axial stress was achieved. It was even equal to 90% for the 10H2M steel.

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
13.Pieczyska E.A., Tobushi H., Takeda K., Kulasiński K., Kowalewski Z.L., Moćko W., Luckner J., Temperature assessment of TiNi shape memory alloy subjected to compression at quasistatic and dynamic strain rates, ICEM15, 15th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics, 2012-07-22/07-27, Porto (PT), No.1, pp.1145-1146, 2012
Abstract:

This work compares the thermomechanical behavior of TiNi shape memory alloy subjected to the compression test performed under various strain rates. The mechanical characteristics of the material were elaborated. The specimen temperature changes related to the exothermic martensitic forward and endothermic reverse transformation were measured in a contact-less manner by a very fast and sensitive infrared camera. It has been found that in this experimental conditions the stress-induced transformation and reorientation processes occurred homogeneously, since the temperature distribution observed on the specimen surface was uniform. The obtained temperature variation depends on the strain rate applied. At the higher strain rate the higher temperature changes were obtained, because the heat flow to the surroundings was lower and the process was closer to adiabatic conditions. The temperature changes influence significantly the SMA stress-strain curves and their mechanical properties.

Keywords:

shape memory alloy, various strain rates, compression tests, exothermic martensitic forward, endothermic reverse transformation, fast and sensitive infrared camera

Affiliations:
Pieczyska E.A.-IPPT PAN
Tobushi H.-Aichi Institute of Technology (JP)
Takeda K.-Aichi Institute of Technology (JP)
Kulasiński K.-IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Moćko W.-IPPT PAN
Luckner J.-IPPT PAN
14.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Makowska K., Augustyniak B., Assessment of material degradation of power steels using destructive and non-destructive testing methods, 9th International Congress on Thermal Stresses, 2011-06-05/06-09, Budapest (HU), Vol.1, pp.1-4, 2011
15.Moćko W., Kowalewski Z.L., Application of miniaturized direct impact compression method in characterization of mechanical behavior of materials, Annual International Workshop on Dynamic Behaviour of Structures and Materials, 2011-06-13/06-15, Metz (FR), Vol.1, pp.1-6, 2011
Abstract:

The paper presents the results of tests on polycrystalline tantalum at very high strain rates (7.5x104 s-1). The measurements were carried out using miniaturized Direct Impact Compression Test (DICT) method. The transmitting bar diameter was 3mm, and the tested specimens were cylindrical shape of 1.5 mm diameter and 0.55 mm thickness. A numerical model of the testing stand was developed in the ABAQUS environment to trace the phenomena occurring during specimen deformation and to evaluate their influence on the final result. The test stand dimensions and the test parameters used in the calculations were this same as for DICT experiments. The results of computer simulations demonstrated good agreement with experimental results, which proves that the Finite Element Method (FEM) reproduces well the behavior of the stand and can be applied in analyses performed to find the reasons of errors in plastic stress flow measurements.

Keywords:

Direct Impact Compression Tests, Tantalum, high strain rates, compression tests, Hopkinson bar

Affiliations:
Moćko W.-IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
16.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Makowska K., Augustyniak B., A role of destructive and non-destructive tests in creep damage, FDM 2011, 10th International Conference on Fracture and Damage Mechanics, 2011-09-19/09-21, Dubrovnik (HR), pp.315-318, 2011
17.Kukla D., Dietrich L., Kowalewski Z.L., Grzywna P., Ocena rozwoju uszkodzeń zmęczeniowych w stalach eksploatowanych w energetyce, II Kongres Mechaniki Polskiej, 2011-08-29/09-02, Poznań (PL), pp.1-10, 2011
Abstract:

W pracy dokonano analizy wskaźników rozwoju uszkodzenia zmęczeniowego, opracowanych w oparciu o wyniki testów zmęczeniowych próbek ze stali P91, w stanie dostawy i po 80 000 godzin eksploatacji w warunkach pracy instalacji energetycznej. Wykonano badania zmęczeniowe dla dwóch typów próbek i wyznaczono funkcje zmiany parametrów uszkodzeń w zależności od liczby cykli przy różnych amplitudach naprężenia. Uzyskane wyniki wykorzystano do wyznaczenia klasycznej charakterystyki zmęczeniowej, ale również do wyznaczenia ewolucji uszkodzeń w zależności od liczby cykli. Wyniki wskazały na możliwość jej opisania przy pomocy dwóch makroskopowych wskaźników rozwoju zmęczenia. Pierwszy z nich to średnie odkształcenie w kolejnych cyklach obciążenia przy stałej amplitudzie naprężenia. Drugim, jest odkształcenie niesprężyste w cyklu obrazujące szerokość pętli histerezy w kolejnych fazach obciążenia ostałej amplitudzie naprężenia. Rozwój uszkodzenia wstali P91poddanej obciążeniom zmęczeniowym opisano stosując kombinację wyżej wymienionych wskaźników

Keywords:

badania zmęczeniowe, ewolucja uszkodzeń, wskaźniki uszkodzenia

Affiliations:
Kukla D.-IPPT PAN
Dietrich L.-IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Grzywna P.-IPPT PAN
18.Kowalewski Z.L., Zmęczenie materiałów – podstawy, kierunki badań, ocena stanu uszkodzenia, XVII Seminarium Nieniszczące Badania Materiałów, 2011-03-08/03-11, Zakopane (PL), pp.1-21, 2011
19.Kowalewski Z.L., Szelążek J., Mackiewicz S., Szymczak T., Augustyniak B., An influence of long-term exploitation on material behaviour under constant and monotonically increasing loading, 3rd International Conference on Nonlinear Dynamic, 2010-09-21/09-24, Kharkov (UA), pp.481-486, 2010
Abstract:

The paper is devoted to an analysis of creep damage at elevated temperatures and structural degradation due to plastic deformation at room temperature of selected steels commonly applied in power plants (40HNMA, 13HMF). The materials were tested in the as-received state, however, in the case of the 13HMF steel also after different periods of exploitation (76000h and 144000h at elevated temperature (813K) under internal pressure (14 bars)). Destructive and non-destructive testing methods were applied to assess material degradation. As destructive methods the standard tension tests were carried out after every kind of prestraining. Subsequently, an evolution of the selected tension parameters were taken into account for damage identification. In order to assess a damage development during the creep and plastic deformation the tests for both steels were interrupted for a range of the selected strain magnitudes. The ultrasonic and magnetic techniques were used as the non-destructive methods for damage evaluation. The last step of the experimental programme contained microscopic observations. A good correlation of mechanical and selected non-destructive parameters identifying damage was achieved for the tested steels. It gives very promising tool for degradation assessments appearing in pipelines at power stations.

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Szelążek J.-IPPT PAN
Mackiewicz S.-IPPT PAN
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Augustyniak B.-Gdansk University of Technology (PL)

Conference abstracts
1.Brodecki A., Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z., Digital image corellation technique as a tool for kinematics assessments of structural components, ISMMS, 9th International Symposium on Mechanics of Materials and Structures, 2017-06-04/06-08, Augustów (PL), pp.19-20, 2017
Abstract:

The paper reports results of tests focused on determination of kinematic properties of components under cyclic loading. DIC system called 5M PONTOS was employed to follow variations of displacement and velocity versus time. It was conducted by a use of markers stuck on selected sections of components tested. Results are presented in 2D and 3D coordinate systems expressing behaviour of elements such as: car engine, boat frame and mechanical coupling device. These data enable to capture weak and strong sections of the component tested at various loading conditions.

Keywords:

digital image correlation system, cyclic loading, PONTOS, motion, displacement, 3D coordinate system

Affiliations:
Brodecki A.-Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.-IPPT PAN
2.Ustrzycka A., Kowalewski Z.L., Modelling of fatigue damage mechanisms supported by full-field optical methods, PLASTICITY 2017, INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PLASTICITY, DAMAGE, AND FRACTURE 2017, 2017-01-03/01-09, Puerto Vallarta (MX), pp.91-93, 2017
Abstract:

The aim of this work consists a development of the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model (GNT) of damage evolution in elastic-plastic materials. This model is supported by optical method of stress and strain monitoring (ESPI) for early detection, localization and monitoring of damage in materials under fatigue loading.

Affiliations:
Ustrzycka A.-IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
3.Kowalewski Z.L., Nowak Z., Pęcherski R.B., Investigations of Tantalum at Direct Impact Compression Tests on Miniaturized Specimens, PLASTICITY 2017, INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PLASTICITY, DAMAGE, AND FRACTURE 2017, 2017-01-03/01-09, Puerto Vallarta (MX), pp.100-102, 2017
Abstract:

In the paper the results of experimental and numerical investigations concerning an influence of strain rate on mechanical properties of pure tantalum are presented. Experiments were carried out using Direct Impact Compression Test (DICT) technique (Malinowski et al. [2007]). The Perzyna elasto-viscoplasticity theory (Perzyna [1966]) was applied to predict the dynamic compression yield strength of the tested material at strain rates from 1.0 x10-3 s−1 to 0.5 x106 s−1.

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Nowak Z.-IPPT PAN
Pęcherski R.B.-IPPT PAN
4.Brodecki A., Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Digital Image Correlation Technique InSelected Mechanical Tests, XII Konferencja „Nowe Kierunki Rozwoju Mechaniki”, 2017-03-22/03-25, Białystok - Supraśl (PL), pp.1-2, 2017
Abstract:

The paper shows how modern contactless Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method can be implemented for examination of material behaviour under various types of loading. DIC method was used to evaluate material straining under monotonic tension conducted by the use of flat specimens having artificial defects in the form of U and V notches. This technique was also examined during capturing of strain distribution in dynamic tests on Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. On the basis of DIC results the strain maps at various stages of material deformation were elaborated in order to indicate characteristic features of a material behaviour. It enabled an analysis of damage zone evolution up to specimen fracture.

Keywords:

Digital Image Correlation, specimen, monotonic tension, Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar, strain maps

Affiliations:
Brodecki A.-Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
5.Libura T., Kowalewski Z.L., Kowalczyk-Gajewska K., Dietrich L., Strain-hardening effect in thin-sheet magnesium alloy AZ31B under low cyclic loading, XII Konferencja „Nowe Kierunki Rozwoju Mechaniki”, 2017-03-22/03-25, Białystok - Supraśl (PL), pp.1-2, 2017
Abstract:

Optimization of sheet metal forming processes requires a very good knowledge of material forming ability. During the forming of industrial parts, very complex strain paths are usually observed and can affect the formability of the sheet. Therefore, it is necessary to better understand and more accurately investigate deformation behaviour of sheet alloys. It should be noted that material testing of flat specimens under compression within a large deformation range procures many difficulties, and the buckling phenomenon seems to be the most im-portant. This paper shows the results of tension-compression tests carried out on specimens made of ultralight magnesium alloys AZ31B with nominal thickness equal to 1 mm using the anti-buckling fixture to avoid buckling problem.

Keywords:

Bauschinger effect, cyclic loading, buckling, fixture, thin sheet

Affiliations:
Libura T.-IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Kowalczyk-Gajewska K.-IPPT PAN
Dietrich L.-IPPT PAN
6.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Cruciform specimens for testing of engineering materials, XII Konferencja „Nowe Kierunki Rozwoju Mechaniki”, 2017-03-22/03-25, Białystok - Supraśl (PL), pp.1-2, 2017
Abstract:

The paper presents selected cruciform specimens recommended for static and fatigue tests. Guidelines for cruciform specimens designing and optimization are presented. Numerical data of FEA analysis of Kelly’s cruciform specimen in 3D coordinate systems are shown. Various types of cruciform testing machines and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The project of the cruciform specimen for examination of material behaviour under static and cyclic loading types is proposed.

Keywords:

cruciform specimen, biaxial stress state, specimen optimization, static test, fatigue test, FEA, effective stress

Affiliations:
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
7.Ustrzycka A., Kowalewski Z.L., Grzywna P., Characterization of damage evolution supported by ESPI experimental analysis, XII Konferencja „Nowe Kierunki Rozwoju Mechaniki”, 2017-03-22/03-25, Białystok - Supraśl (PL), pp.1-2, 2017
Abstract:

The problem investigated in the present work concerns the damage evolution in elastic-plastic materials subjected to cyclic loading. The modeling of damage mechanisms is supported by Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) apparatus using coherent laser light. Such a study can help better understanding of the damage and failure mechanism of modern structural materials for practical engineering problems.

Keywords:

damage mechanisms, void growth, optical methods

Affiliations:
Ustrzycka A.-IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Grzywna P.-IPPT PAN
8.Grzywna P., Kukla D., Kowalewski Z.L., Kopeć M., Wyszkowski M., Assessment of fatigue damage development using the espi system, 27EMS, Experimental Mechanics of Solids - 27th Symposium, 2016-10-19/10-22, Jachranka (PL), pp.27, 2016
9.Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Application of Barkhausen Noise for Assessments of Damage in Ferromagnetic Materials with Negative Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy Constant, 27EMS, Experimental Mechanics of Solids - 27th Symposium, 2016-10-19/10-22, Jachranka (PL), pp.40, 2016
10.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Brodecki A., An Influence of Strain Rate and Artificial Defects on Material Behaviour During Tension, 27EMS, Experimental Mechanics of Solids - 27th Symposium, 2016-10-19/10-22, Jachranka (PL), pp.55, 2016
11.Kowalewski Z.L., Dietrich L., Socha G., On the experimental techniques for thin sheets testing at large deformations, 9th German-Greek-Polish Symposium Recent Advances in Mechanics, 2016-09-04/09-09, Kolympari, Chania (GR), pp.41-42, 2016
Abstract:

Problems associated with material testing on flat specimens under large deformation due to compression or cyclic tension-compression are discussed. A short review of the anti-buckling fixtures developed up to now is given with special emphasis on the new fixture elaborated at the Institute of Fundamental Technological Research in Poland.

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Dietrich L.-IPPT PAN
Socha G.-other affiliation
12.Kukla D., Grzywna P., Kopeć M., Kowalewski Z.L., Eddy Current method for thickness assessment of carburized layers, AMT 2016, XXI Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science Conference - Advanced Materials and Technologies, 2016-06-05/06-08, Rawa Mazowiecka (PL), pp.BP7-1-3, 2016
Keywords:

eddy current, hardening, carburizing, layers, non - destructive technique

Affiliations:
Kukla D.-IPPT PAN
Grzywna P.-IPPT PAN
Kopeć M.-IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
13.Kopeć M., Grzywna P., Kukla D., Kowalewski Z.L., Evaluation of the fatigue damage development using ESPI method, AMT 2016, XXI Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science Conference - Advanced Materials and Technologies, 2016-06-05/06-08, Rawa Mazowiecka (PL), pp.E05-1-4, 2016
Abstract:

Fatigue damage process developing in structural materials under long-term cyclic loading is still an unsolved problem of modern engineering. Attempts to assess a degree of materials degradation under fatigue conditions on the basis of changes in the areas of local strain concentration determined by optical methods can be treated as the promising contemporary research direction of majority of scientific centers in the world. In most cases, fatigue damage has a local character and it is based on damage development leading to generation of cracks appearing around structural defects or geometrical notches. An identification of these areas and their subsequent monitoring requires a full-field displacement measurements performed on the objects surfaces. It seems that modern contemporary optical methods for displacement components measuring on the surfaces of structural elements or tested specimens are suitable for such purpose. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) are nowadays the most widely used testing methods in this area. Both of them enable capturing of displacement and strain components distributions. This paper presents an attempt to use the ESPI method for fatigue damage evaluation and its monitoring on specimens ma de of the aluminide coated nickel super-alloys. Flat specimens were subjected to cyclic loading . The fatigue tests were interrupted several times in order to perform a static loading during which the optical measurements were carried out. An analysis of the results captured by the ESPI system allowed indication of places of the greatest stress concentration and demonstration of the damage development process as a function of the increasing number of cycles.

Keywords:

fatigue, damage, super - alloy, Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry

Affiliations:
Kopeć M.-IPPT PAN
Grzywna P.-IPPT PAN
Kukla D.-IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
14.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Damage development in 2024 aluminium alloy due to creep and plastic flow, DAS33, 33rd Danubia-Adria Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 2016-09-20/09-23, Portorož, Slovenia (SI), No.OP-2, pp.64-65, 2016
15.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Stress relaxation in steel subjected to tension-torsion deformation, DAS33, 33rd Danubia-Adria Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 2016-09-20/09-23, Portorož, Slovenia (SI), No.OP-2, pp.100-101, 2016
16.Libura T., Kowalewski Z.L., Kowalczyk-Gajewska K., Dietrich L., Low cycle fatigue of a rolled magnesium alloy using anti-buckling fixture, DYMAT, 10th Workshop, 2016-08-24/08-26, Poznań (PL), pp.59-61, 2016
17.Kowalewski Z.L., Grzywna P., Kukla D., New experimental attempts in fatigue damage analysis, DYMAT, 10th Workshop, 2016-08-24/08-26, Poznań (PL), pp.11-13, 2016
18.Nowak Z., Kowalewski Z.L., Pęcherski R.B., A numerical solution of longitudinal wave propagation in a miniaturized specimens of tantalum at direct impact compression test, DYMAT, 10th Workshop, 2016-08-24/08-26, Poznań (PL), pp.69-71, 2016
Abstract:

The results of experimental and numerical investigations concerning an influence of strain rate on mechanical properties of pure tantalum are presented. Experiments were carried out using Direct Impact Compression Test (DICT) technique. The miniaturization concept of the experimental setup for the dimensions of specimen (diameter dS = 1.5 mm and thickness lS = 0.50 mm), Hopkinson transmitter bar diameter (dH = 3.0 mm) and the striker (diameter dI = 11.5 mm and the length lI =12 mm), together with application of a novel optical arrangement for measurement of striker velocity, enabled compression tests to be executed at strain rates from 1.0 x103 s−1 to 0.5 x106 s−1. The Perzyna elasto-viscoplasticity theory is applied to predict the dynamic compression yield strength of the tested material at different strain rates. In the course of specimens deformation by means of the DICT technique, it was observed that the peak force obtained from the strain gauge mounted on the transmitter Hopkinson bar was lower than the peak force obtained within the framework of the uniaxial stress wave analysis. An explanation of this discrepancy is provided due to the analysis of the localization of deformation in the tested specimens considered as three-dimensional body subjected to high strain rate loading and the resulting stress wave attenuation as it propagates within the specimen.

Keywords:

direct impact test, numerical simulations, tantalum

Affiliations:
Nowak Z.-IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Pęcherski R.B.-IPPT PAN
19.Kowalewski Z.L., Makowska K., On the experimental attempts for creep analysis of materials, ICEM17, 17th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics, 2016-07-03/07-07, Rhodes, Greece (GR), pp.1, 2016
20.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., A role of cyclic loading frequency in establishing of directive lines for technological processes design, ICEM17, 17th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics, 2016-07-03/07-07, Rhodes, Greece (GR), pp.1-2, 2016
21.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., An influence of cyclic loading on stress component reduction in the transversal direction, ICTAM XXIV, 24th International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2016-08-21/08-26, Montréal (CA), pp.2760-2761, 2016
22.Moćko W., Grzywna P., Kowalewski Z.L., Radziejewska J., Constitutive behaviour of DP500 steel exposed to prior cyclic loadings, SolMech 2016, 40th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2016-08-29/09-02, Warszawa (PL), No.P188, pp.1-2, 2016
23.Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Barkhausen noise and magnetoacoustic emission as a potential tools for mechanical properties estimation of ferromagnetic materials, SolMech 2016, 40th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2016-08-29/09-02, Warszawa (PL), No.P240, pp.1-2, 2016
24.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Brodecki A., Determination of Artificial Defects in Material under Monotonic Tension by the use of FEM and DIC Methods, DAS 2015, 32nd Danubia-Adria-Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 2015-09-22/09-25, Smokovec (SK), Vol.1, pp.58-59, 2015
25.Kowalewski Z.L., Socha G., Dietrich L., Libura T., Thin sheet of brass testing under cyclic tension - compression using novel anti-buckling fixture, DAS 2015, 32nd Danubia-Adria-Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 2015-09-22/09-25, Smokovec (SK), Vol.1, pp.128-129, 2015
26.Kukla D., Kowalewski Z.L., Influence of aluminum layer thickness on the fatigue properties of super-nickel alloy, PCM-CMM 2015, 3rd Polish Congress of Mechanics and 21st Computer Methods in Mechanics, 2015-09-08/09-11, Gdańsk (PL), pp.679-680, 2015
Abstract:

The paper presents the results of fatigue tests performed on the super-nickel alloy after Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). CVD process was carried out for the periods of 4 and 12 hours, and as a consequence, a layer of the aluminum of the thickness 20 μm and 40 μm, respectively, was obtained on the surface of nickel alloy. The specimens with layers were tested on the servo-hydraulic testing machine under dynamic loading at high temperature of 900oC. The profiles of micro hardness on the cross-sections of specimens enabled identification of hardness variations. The main aim of this paper was to evaluate the effect of a film thickness on the fatigue properties of the alloy. Additionally, an identification of crack propagation in the layer subjected to cyclic loading was analysed on the basis of deformation changes in the subsequent cycles.

Keywords:

aluminium layer, super nickel alloy, fatigue testing, CVD technique

Affiliations:
Kukla D.-IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
27.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Brodecki A., An influence of notch type on material behaviour under monotonic tension, PCM-CMM 2015, 3rd Polish Congress of Mechanics and 21st Computer Methods in Mechanics, 2015-09-08/09-11, Gdańsk (PL), pp.149-150, 2015
Abstract:

The paper presents results of numerical and experimental investigations conducted in order to determine an influence of notch type on material behaviour under monotonic tension. Two kinds of specimens having U and V notches were applied. Digital image correlation system was used to detect variations of strain/stress state components from beginning of the test up to fracture of the material in question. Assessments of the results enabled identification of stress concentrations in tips of notches. A comparison of tensile characteristics of unnotched and notched specimens exhibited a great reduction of the yield point independently of the geometrical discontinuities applied. In the case of V-notched specimen 50% lowering of elongation was observed.

Keywords:

stress concentration, stress distribution, notches, tensile curve, digital image correlation

Affiliations:
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Brodecki A.-Motor Transport Institute (PL)
28.Kowalewski Z.L., Experimental attempts for creep and fatigue damage analysis of materials – state of the art and new challenges, PCM-CMM-2015, 3rd Polish Congress of Mechanics and 21st Computer Methods in Mechanics, 2015-09-08/09-11, Gdańsk (PL), pp.17-22, 2015
Abstract:

Development of creep and fatigue damage was investigated using destructive and non - destructive methods in materials commonly applied in power plants or automotive industry. In order to assess such kind of damage the tests for a range of different materials were interrupted for selected time periods (creep) and number of cycles (fatigue). As destructive methods the standard tension tests were carried out after prestraining. Subsequently, an evolution of the selected tension parameters was taken into account for damage identification. The ultrasonic and magnetic techniques were used as the non - destructive methods for damage evaluation. In the final step of the experimental programme microscopic observations were performed

Keywords:

creep, fatigue, damage, non - destructive method

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
29.Kowalewski Z.L., Dietrich L., Socha G., Anti-buckling system for flat specimens investigation under cyclic tension-compression, Plasticity 2015, 21st International Symposium on Plasticity and its Current Applications, 2015-01-04/01-09, Montego Bay (JM), pp.127-129, 2015
Abstract:

Problems associated with material testing on flat specimens under large deformation are discussed in this paper. An extensive review of the anti - buckling fixtures developed up to now is given first, and then detailed description of the proposed design is presented. Finally, the results of cyclic tests carried out using new fixture are studied

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Dietrich L.-IPPT PAN
Socha G.-other affiliation
30.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Zastosowanie MES i DIC do oceny wpływu karbu na zniszczenie materiału w teście rozciągania, XI Konferencja Nowe Kierunki Rozwoju Mechaniki, 2015-03-18/03-20, Sarbinowo (PL), pp.87-88, 2015
Abstract:

Wpływ karbów jest określany zarówno od strony badań teoretycznych, jak i doświadczalnych. Pierwsze z nich umożliwiają przewidywanie zniszczenia na podstawie analizy zmian wartości współczynnika koncentracji naprężenia (WKN) i pozwalają zilustrować jego zmiany w zależności od geometrii karbu. Z kolei w eksperymentach próbuje się określać, jakie znaczenie na otrzymywane wyniki ma rodzaj próbki. Najczęściej stosowane są w tych badaniach próbki rurkowe lub płaskie. W strefie pomiarowej nacinane są karby o różnym kształcie i wymiarach [1]. Uzyskiwane rezultaty z badań wskazują na 50% obniżenie liczby cykli do zainicjowania pęknięcia wraz ze wzrostem promienia karbu od 0 do 6.35mm [2]. Podobny efekt uzyskano również przy wzroście wartości WKN od 1 do 2.833 [1, 3]. Wyniki tego rodzaju nie ujawniają jednak wystarczająco wpływu nieciągłości geometrycznych w bliskim otoczeniu karbu. Rozwiązanie tego problemu może nastąpić poprzez wykorzystanie nowoczesnej techniki pomiarowej DIC (cyfrowa korelacja obrazu). Dlatego też głównym celem pracy było określenie wpływu karbów na zachowanie materiału w teście rozciągania do zniszczenia przy użyciu wymienionej techniki pomiarowej

Affiliations:
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
31.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Maciejewski J., Material effects during monotonic-cyclic loading conditions, Plasticity 2014, 20th International Symposium on Plasticity and its Current Applications, 2014-01-03/01-08, Freeport (BS), pp.100-102, 2014
Abstract:

The effects commonly taking place during proportional and non - proportional (circle and square) types of loading were identified experimentally. Experimental results of tests under cyclic loading assisted by monotonic deformation are compared to their predictions using the Mróz - Maciejewski model

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Maciejewski J.-other affiliation
32.Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Microstructural assessment and magnetic structuroscopy of middle-carbon steel after simulated creep, SolMech 2014, 39th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2014-09-01/09-05, Zakopane (PL), pp.131-132, 2014
33.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Analysis of tensile force variation due to application of cyclic torsion for a range of frequency levels, SolMech 2014, 39th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2014-09-01/09-05, Zakopane (PL), pp.143-144, 2014
34.Kukla D., Grzywna P., Kowalewski Z.L., Assessment of damage development due to fatigue of 2017, aluminum alloy on the basis of conductivity measurements, SolMech 2014, 39th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2014-09-01/09-05, Zakopane (PL), pp.307-308, 2014
35.Libura T., Moćko W., Kowalewski Z.L., A new version of Hopkinson bar testing stand for determination of dynamic tensile characteristics, SolMech 2014, 39th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2014-09-01/09-05, Zakopane (PL), pp.311-312, 2014
36.Szymczak T., Brodecki A., Kowalewski Z.L., An effect of technological notches on stress and strain distribution during monotonic tension, SolMech 2014, 39th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2014-09-01/09-05, Zakopane (PL), pp.325-326, 2014
37.Szymczak T., Brodecki A., Eminger A., Kowalewski Z.L., Experimental assessment of ball joints operation using servo-hydraulic testing systems, SolMech 2014, 39th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2014-09-01/09-05, Zakopane (PL), pp.327-328, 2014
38.Kowalewski Z.L., Makowska K., Experimental evaluation of damage in materials under creep and fatigue conditions, 8th German-Greek-Polish Symposium Recent Advances in Mechanics September, 2013-09-09/09-13, Goslar (DE), Vol.1, pp.1-2, 2013
Abstract:

Creep and fatigue damage was investigated in steels commonly applied in power plants (40HNMA, 13HMF and P91) using destructive and non-destructive methods. In order to assess both types of damage the tests for each kind of steel were interrupted for a range of the selected time periods (creep) and number of cycles (fatigue).

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Makowska K.-Motor Transport Institute (PL)
39.Augustyniak B., Piotrowski L., Chmielewski M., Kowalewski Z.L., Makowska K., Case study on damage detection possibility in P91 and 40HNMA steels using magnetic NDT techniques, DAS 30, 30th Danubia-Adria-Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 2013-09-25/09-28, Primosten (HR), Vol.1, pp.87-88, 2013
40.Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Szelążek J., Mackiewicz S., Gutkiewicz P., Assessment of material degradation by means of acoustic birefringence and elastoacoustic coefficient, DAS 30, 30th Danubia-Adria-Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 2013-09-25/09-28, Primosten (HR), Vol.1, pp.95-96, 2013
41.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Fracture toughness investigations of metal matrix composites reinforced by ceramic fibres, DAS 30, 30th Danubia-Adria-Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 2013-09-25/09-28, Primosten (HR), Vol.1, pp.201-202, 2013
42.Kruszka L., Kowalewski Z.L., Moćko W., Grązka M., Experimental analysis of dynamic plastic behavior of materials by the Hopkinson bar technique, Plasticity 2013, 19th International Symposium on Plasticity and Its Current Applications, 2013-01-03/01-08, Nassau (BS), pp.190-192, 2013
Abstract:

In this paper original experimental methodologies of dynamic plastic behavior of various structural materials in a wide range of strain rates up to 10 5 s - 1 , and at selected temperatures are presented. Identification of constitutive models and their verification are also included

Affiliations:
Kruszka L.-Military University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Moćko W.-other affiliation
Grązka M.-other affiliation
43.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., An influence of cyclic torsion strain amplitude on monotonic tension of power plant steel, VII International Symposium on Mechanics of Materials and Structures, 2013-06-03/06-06, Augustów (PL), Vol.1, pp.1-2, 2013
Abstract:

The paper reports the experimental data of tests on the 10H2M steel, carried out under complex loading being combination of monotonic tension and cyclic torsion. Two types of torsion cycles were applied, i.e.: symmetrical and asymmetrical, having four blocks of different shear strain amplitude within a range from ±0.1% to ±0.8%,. All tests were conducted using the tubular specimens at room temperature. The main aim of the experimental procedure was focused on examination of axial stress variations due to torsion cycles of step increasing strain amplitude. An analysis of the results showed a significant reduction of the tensile stress. This effect became stronger when the torsion strain amplitude was increased andit achieved 85% stress drop at highest strain amplitude considered in comparison to the standard tensile characteristic.

Keywords:

complex loading, biaxial stress state, stress reduction, tensile stress, shear stress, tubular specimen

Affiliations:
Szymczak T.-Bialystok University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
44.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Wykorzystanie cyklicznego obciążenia skręcającego i doboru jego parametrów jako sposobu do redukowania siły podczas monotonicznego rozciągania, X Konferencja Nowe Kierunki Rozwoju Mechaniki, 2013-03-21/03-23, Jarnołtówek (PL), Vol.101, No.348, pp.83-84, 2013
45.Kowalewski Z.L., Rutecka A., Pietrzak K., Makowska K., Woźniak J., Kostecki M., Bochniak W., Olszyna A., An influence of SiC content at Al (AlMg) matrix composites on creep characteristics, 15th European Conference on Composite Materials, 2012-06-24/06-29, Wenecja (IT), No.1, pp.1-7, 2012
Abstract:

Creep tests under a range of step-increasing tensile stresses were carried out on the AlMg/SiC composites produced by means of the KOBO method. The content of reinforced phase was equal to 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10%. The AlMg/SiC creep characteristics were compared to those of the Al/SiC composites. Structural assessments of materials in the as-received state and after creep were carried out.

Keywords:

metal-ceramic composites, KOBO method, creep, silicon carbide (SiC)

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Rutecka A.-IPPT PAN
Pietrzak K.-other affiliation
Makowska K.-Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Woźniak J.-other affiliation
Kostecki M.-other affiliation
Bochniak W.-other affiliation
Olszyna A.-other affiliation
46.Rutecka A., Kowalewski Z.L., Pietrzak K., Dietrich L., Makowska K., Grzywna P., Woźniak J., Kostecki M., Bochniak W., Olszyna A., Damage analysis of Al(Mg)/SiC composites under fatigue conditions, 15th European Conference on Composite Materials, 2012-06-24/06-29, Wenecja (IT), No.1, pp.1-6, 2012
Abstract:

Fatigue tests and microstructural observations were carried out to perform damage analysis of Al/SiC and AlMg/SiC metal matrix composites ( MMCs ). The materials were manufactured using a KoBo method. Ratcheting was the dominant damage mechanism for Al/SiC and damage parameter on the basis of mean inelastic strain was calculated. For AlMg/SiC, in most cases, cyclic softening followed by hardening during subsequent cycles were noticed. Microstructural observations identified existence of SiC concentrations which influenced the volumetric fraction of defects after fatigue tests

Keywords:

metal matrix composites, fatigue damage, microstructure, KoBo method

Affiliations:
Rutecka A.-IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Pietrzak K.-other affiliation
Dietrich L.-IPPT PAN
Makowska K.-Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Grzywna P.-IPPT PAN
Woźniak J.-other affiliation
Kostecki M.-other affiliation
Bochniak W.-other affiliation
Olszyna A.-other affiliation
47.Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Qualitative evaluation of structural degradation and mechanical properties by means of Barkhausen and magnetoacoustic emission, 29th Danubia-Adria-Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 2012-09-26/09-29, Belgrad (XS), Vol.1, No.1, pp.90-91, 2012
48.Kowalewski Z.L., Rutecka A., Makowska K., Pietrzak K., Fatigue damage of Al/SiC composites – macroscopic and microscopic analysis, 29th Danubia-Adria-Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 2012-09-26/09-29, Belgrad (XS), Vol.1, No.1, pp.90-91, 2012
49.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., An influence of cyclic torsion parameters on tensile characteristic variation, 29th Danubia-Adria-Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 2012-09-26/09-29, Belgrad (XS), Vol.1, No.1, pp.98-99, 2012
50.Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Structural Degradation and Variation of Mechanical Properties Determined by Means of Magnetic Non-Destructive Techniques, 8th European Solid Mechanics Conference, 2012-07-09/09-13, Graz (AT), No.1, pp.1-2, 2012
Abstract:

In order to elaborate more efficient technological processes enabling a lifetime prolongation of some elements of devices and machines a lot of scientific efforts are focused on searching of the optimal loading combinations. As it has been found by Korbel and Bochniak [1, 2], a significant reduction of tensile or compressive forces in technological processes is possible using twisting moment simultaneously applied. They proposed the so-called KOBO method and successfully applied it to extrusion, forging or rolling processes. Up to now the method was checked for large deformations, what requiredalot of energy. Since the available results of the method validation in the range of small deformations are not sufficiently represented,an experimental programmelimiting maximal strain level below 1% (Fig.1)was elaborated. The strain controlled loading programme enables observation of stress/strain components variation as a function of time (Figs 1 and 2)The loading programme(for the 10H2M steel) contained four subsequent blocks of cyclic shear deformation assisted by tension. As it is illustrated in Fig.2, theaxial stress increases at the beginning of the test (first cyclic strain amplitude). However, for higher cyclic strain amplitudes, its lowering is clearly manifested. Figure 3 shows comparison of tensile characteristics in the case of activated and inactivated torsion cycles. It is seen, that while the torsion cycles were applied a gradual decrease of axial stress can be observed. The maximum drop of it was almost equal to 400 MPa for the highest cyclic strain amplitude used in the programme. The effect of similar order was also achieved for this material tested under monotonic tension and torsion-reverse-torsion cycles ofconstant strain amplitude (0.8%), Fig.4. It means that prior cyclic loading history does not influence a magnitude of the tensile stress drop. A reduction of axial stress due to application of cyclic loading by means of reversible torsion was also observed for other materials, i.e. the P91 steel and M1E copper (Fig.5) [3].

Affiliations:
Makowska K.-Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
51.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Tensile stress variation due to stepwise increase of cyclic torsion amplitude, 8th European Solid Mechanics Conference, 2012-07-09/09-13, Graz (AT), No.1, pp.1-2, 2012
52.Kowalewski Z.L., Makowska K., Szelążek J., Augustyniak B., Damage Development in Steels Subjected to Exploitation Processes: Attempt to Correlate the Parameters of Different Testing Techniques, ICTAM XXIII, 23rd International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2012-08-19/08-24, Beijing (CN), pp.1-2, 2012
Abstract:

Development of damage due to creep at elevated temperatures and fatigue at room temperature was assessed for power engineering steels using destructive and non-destructive methods. The experimental programme contained also microscopic observations to find feedback between macro- and micro-scopic parameters. Three different power engineering steels were tested, i.e. 40HNMA, 13HMF and P91

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Makowska K.-Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Szelążek J.-IPPT PAN
Augustyniak B.-Gdansk University of Technology (PL)
53.Kowalewski Z.L., Makowska K., Szelążek J., Mackiewicz S., Augustyniak B., Damage assessment during creep and fatigue of power plant steels using destructive and nondestructive techniques, Plasticity 2012, 18th International Symposium on Plasticity and its Current Applications, 2012-01-03/01-08, Puerto Rico (US), pp.265-267, 2012
Abstract:

Development of damage due to creep at elevated temperatures and fatigue at room temperature was assessed for power engineering steels using destructive and nondestructive methods. The experimental programme contained also microscopic observations to find feedback between macro and microscopic parameters

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L.-IPPT PAN
Makowska K.-Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Szelążek J.-IPPT PAN
Mackiewicz S.-IPPT PAN
Augustyniak B.-Gdansk University of Technology (PL)
54.Kowalewski Z.L., Nowak Z., Moćko W., Direct impact compression test of tantalum – experimental investigation and model identification, SolMech 2012, 38th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2012-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.128-129, 2012
55.Moćko W., Kowalewski Z.L., Mechanical properties of selected aluminium alloys at wide range of strain rates, SolMech 2012, 38th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2012-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.136-137, 2012
56.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Variations of stress state components during step cyclic loading of power plant steel, SolMech 2012, 38th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2012-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.130-131, 2012
57.Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Szelążek J., Structural and mechanical properties estimated by means of ultrasonic technique, SolMech 2012, 38th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2012-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.134-135, 2012
58.Kowalewski Z.L., Interdisciplinary Methods for Damage Assessment of Materials Subjected to Creep and Fatigue, SolMech 2012, 38th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2012-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.16-17, 2012
59.Rutecka A., Kowalewski Z.L., Pietrzak K., Dietrich L., Makowska K., Woźniak J., Kostecki M., Bochniak W., Olszyna A., AlMg/SiC metal matrix composites under fatigue and creep conditions, SolMech 2012, 38th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2012-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.146-147, 2012
60.Moćko W., Kowalewski Z.L., Compressive behavior of 6082-T6 and 7075-T6 aluminium alloys at very high strain rates, Workshop on Dynamic Behavior of Materials and Stafety Structures, 2012-05-02/05-04, Poznań (PL), pp.x1-x3, 2012
61.Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Augustyniak B., Degradacja struktury oraz zmiany właściwości mechanicznych stali oceniane za pomocą parametrów szumu Barkhausena, XXV Sympozjum Mechaniki Eksperymentalnej Ciała Stałego, 2012-10-17/10-20, Jachranka (PL), pp.62, 2012
62.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Wpływ parametrów cyklicznego obciążenia skręcającego na przebieg rozciągania stali energetycznej, XXV Sympozjum Mechaniki Eksperymentalnej Ciała Stałego, 2012-10-17/10-20, Jachranka (PL), Vol.1, No.1, pp.1-2, 2012
63.Moćko W., Kowalewski Z.L., Wojciechowski A., Numerical modelling of the miniaturized direct impact compression test method, 28th Danubia-Adria-Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 2011-09-28/10-01, Siófok (HU), Vol.1, pp.119-120, 2011
64.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Material effects during monotonic-cyclic loading, 28th Danubia-Adria-Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 2011-09-28/10-01, Siófok (HU), Vol.1, pp.93-94, 2011
65.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Makowska K., Augustyniak B., Correlation of parameters determined using destructive and non-destructive testing methods as a tool of material degradation assessment, Plasticity 2011, 17th International Symposium on Plasticity and its Current Applications, 2011-01-03/01-08, Puerto Vallarta (MX), pp.1-3, 2011
66.Moćko W., Pietrzak K., Kowalewski Z.L., Stoberska K., Sienicki E., An analysis of mechanical behaviour of tantalum over a wide range of strain rate, SolMech 2010, 37th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2010-09-06/09-10, Warszawa (PL), pp.200-201, 2010
67.Stoberska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Damage analysis of 13hmf steel subjected to plastic flow by means of non-destructive techniques, SolMech 2010, 37th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2010-09-06/09-10, Warszawa (PL), pp.204-205, 2010
68.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Behaviour of the 2024 aluminium alloy under non-proportional cyclic loading, SolMech 2010, 37th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2010-09-06/09-10, Warszawa (PL), pp.206-207, 2010
69.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Maciejewski J., On the mutual interactions of monotonic and cyclic loading – experiments and theoretical predictions, Workshop on Constitutive Modeling in Applications for Industrial Processes, 2010-09-01/09-03, Kraków (PL), pp.1-2, 2010
70.Kowalewski Z.L., Skibiński T., Mackiewicz S., Szelążek J., Experimental methods exploatation loading, Plasticity 2006, 12th International Symposium on Plasticity and Its Current Applications, 2006-07-17/07-22, Halifax (CA), pp.619-621, 2006

Patents
Numer/data zgłoszenia patentowego
Ogłoszenie o zgłoszeniu patentowym
Twórca / twórcy
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Ogłoszenie o udzieleniu patentu
pdf
402175
2012-12-21
BUP 13/14
2014-06-23
Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T.
Przyrząd do mocowania cienkościennych próbek rurkowych w uchwytach maszyny wytrzymałościowej
PL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN
223676
WUP 10/16
2016-10-31
398245
2012-02-27
BUP 18/13
2013-09-02
Dietrich L.E., Kowalewski Z.L., Socha G.M.
Przyrząd do badania wytrzymałościowych cienkich, płaskich próbek materiałów konstrukcyjnych, zwłaszcza blach
PL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN
-
-
-
391485
2010-05-18
24/2011
2011-11-21
Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T.
Sposób badania mechanicznych właściwości materiałów w postaci próbek poddawanych jednoczesnemu działaniu monotonicznie narastającej siły osiowej oraz rewersyjnego momentu skręcającego o charakterze cyklicznym
PL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN, Instytut Transportu Samochodowego
224035
11/2016
2016-11-30
391486
2010-05-18
24/2011
2011-11-21
Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T.
Sposób badania mechanicznych właściwości materiałów w postaci próbek poddawanych jednoczesnemu działaniu momentu skręcającego oraz siły osiowej
PL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN, Instytut Transportu Samochodowego
224036
11/2016
2016-11-30
387994
2009-05-11
BUP 24/10
2010-11-22
Kowalewski Z.L., Kowalewski J., Klasik A., Sobczak N.
Przyrząd do badania wytrzymałości na ścinanie próbki połączenia różnorodnych materiałów
PL, Instytut Transportu Samochodowego
215374
WUP 11/13
2013-11-29
363831
2003-12-02
BUP 12/05
2005-06-13
Kowalewski Z.L., Malinowski J., Kowalewski J.
Urządzenie do badania dynamicznej wytrzymałości materiałów konstrukcyjnych
PL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN
200896
WUP 02/09
2009-02-27