Partner: Paulina Szymańska

University of Warsaw (PL)

Ostatnie publikacje
1.Szymańska P., Martin K.R., MacKeigan J.P., Hlavacek W.S., Lipniacki T., Computational analysis of an autophagy/translation switch based on mutual inhibition of mTORC1 and ULK1, PLOS ONE, ISSN: 1932-6203, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0116550, Vol.10, No.3, pp.e0116550-1-34, 2015

Streszczenie:

We constructed a mechanistic, computational model for regulation of (macro)autophagy and protein synthesis (at the level of translation). The model was formulated to study the system-level consequences of interactions among the following proteins: two key components of MTOR complex 1 (MTORC1), namely the protein kinase MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) and the scaffold protein RPTOR; the autophagy-initiating protein kinase ULK1; and the multimeric energy-sensing AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Inputs of the model include intrinsic AMPK kinase activity, which is taken as an adjustable surrogate parameter for cellular energy level or AMP:ATP ratio, and rapamycin dose, which controls MTORC1 activity. Outputs of the model include the phosphorylation level of the translational repressor EIF4EBP1, a substrate of MTORC1, and the phosphorylation level of AMBRA1 (activating molecule in BECN1-regulated autophagy), a substrate of ULK1 critical for autophagosome formation. The model incorporates reciprocal regulation of mTORC1 and ULK1 by AMPK, mutual inhibition of MTORC1 and ULK1, and ULK1-mediated negative feedback regulation of AMPK. Through analysis of the model, we find that these processes may be responsible, depending on conditions, for graded responses to stress inputs, for bistable switching between autophagy and protein synthesis, or relaxation oscillations, comprising alternating periods of autophagy and protein synthesis. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the prediction of oscillatory behavior is robust to changes of the parameter values of the model. The model provides testable predictions about the behavior of the AMPK-MTORC1-ULK1 network, which plays a central role in maintaining cellular energy and nutrient homeostasis.

Afiliacje autorów:

Szymańska P.-University of Warsaw (PL)
Martin K.R.-Van Andel Institute, Grand Rapids, Michigan (US)
MacKeigan J.P.-Van Andel Institute, Grand Rapids, Michigan (US)
Hlavacek W.S.-Los Alamos National Laboratory (US)
Lipniacki T.-IPPT PAN
40p.
2.Nałęcz-Jawecki P., Szymańska P., Kochańczyk M., Miękisz J., Lipniacki T., Effective reaction rates for diffusion-limited reaction cycles, JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, ISSN: 0021-9606, DOI: 10.1063/1.4936131, Vol.143, No.21, pp.215102-1-12, 2015

Streszczenie:

Biological signals in cells are transmitted with the use of reaction cycles, such as the phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle, in which substrate is modified by antagonistic enzymes. An appreciable share of such reactions takes place in crowded environments of two-dimensional structures, such as plasma membrane or intracellular membranes, and is expected to be diffusion-controlled. In this work, starting from the microscopic bimolecular reaction rate constants and using estimates of the mean first-passage time for an enzyme–substrate encounter, we derive diffusion-dependent effective macroscopic reaction rate coefficients (EMRRC) for a generic reaction cycle. Each EMRRC was found to be half of the harmonic average of the microscopic rate constant (phosphorylation c or dephosphorylation d), and the effective (crowding-dependent) motility divided by a slowly decreasing logarithmic function of the sum of the enzyme concentrations. This implies that when c and d differ, the two EMRRCs scale differently with the motility, rendering the steady-state fraction of phosphorylated substrate molecules diffusion-dependent. Analytical predictions are verified using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations on the two-dimensional triangular lattice at the single-molecule resolution. It is demonstrated that the proposed formulas estimate the steady-state concentrations and effective reaction rates for different sets of microscopic reaction rates and concentrations of reactants, including a non-trivial example where with increasing diffusivity the fraction of phosphorylated substrate molecules changes from 10% to 90%.

Słowa kluczowe:

Enzymes, Enzyme kinetics, Diffusion, Reaction rate constants, Membrane biochemistry

Afiliacje autorów:

Nałęcz-Jawecki P.-University of Warsaw (PL)
Szymańska P.-University of Warsaw (PL)
Kochańczyk M.-IPPT PAN
Miękisz J.-University of Warsaw (PL)
Lipniacki T.-IPPT PAN
35p.
3.Szymańska P., Kochańczyk M., Miękisz J., Lipniacki T., Effective reaction rates in diffusion-limited phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycles, PHYSICAL REVIEW E, ISSN: 1539-3755, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.91.022702, Vol.91, pp.022702-1-15, 2015

Streszczenie:

We investigate the kinetics of the ubiquitous phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle on biological membranes by means of kinetic Monte Carlo simulations on the triangular lattice. We establish the dependence of effective macroscopic reaction rate coefficients as well as the steady-state phosphorylated substrate fraction on the diffusion coefficient and concentrations of opposing enzymes: kinases and phosphatases. In the limits of zero and infinite diffusion, the numerical results agree with analytical predictions; these two limits give the lower and the upper bound for the macroscopic rate coefficients, respectively. In the zero-diffusion limit, which is important in the analysis of dense systems, phosphorylation and dephosphorylation reactions can convert only these substrates which remain in contact with opposing enzymes. In the most studied regime of nonzero but small diffusion, a contribution linearly proportional to the diffusion coefficient appears in the reaction rate. In this regime, the presence of opposing enzymes creates inhomogeneities in the (de)phosphorylated substrate distributions: The spatial correlation function shows that enzymes are surrounded by clouds of converted substrates. This effect becomes important at low enzyme concentrations, substantially lowering effective reaction rates. Effective reaction rates decrease with decreasing diffusion and this dependence is more pronounced for the less-abundant enzyme. Consequently, the steady-state fraction of phosphorylated substrates can increase or decrease with diffusion, depending on relative concentrations of both enzymes. Additionally, steady states are controlled by molecular crowders which, mostly by lowering the effective diffusion of reactants, favor the more abundant enzyme.

Afiliacje autorów:

Szymańska P.-University of Warsaw (PL)
Kochańczyk M.-IPPT PAN
Miękisz J.-University of Warsaw (PL)
Lipniacki T.-IPPT PAN
35p.