Tabela A z publikacjami w czasopismach wyróżnionych w Journal Citation Reports (JCR) 
Tabela B z publikacjami w czasopismach zagranicznych i krajowych, wyróżnionych na liście MNSzW
Publikacje konferencyjne indeksowane w bazie Web of Science Core Collection
Inne publikacje w pozostałych czasopismach i wydawnictwach konferencyjnych
Afiliacja IPPT PAN

1.Bil M., Mrówka P., Kołbuk D., Święszkowski W., Multifunctional composite combining chitosan microspheres for drug delivery embedded in shape memory polyester-urethane matrix, Composites Science and Technology, ISSN: 0266-3538, DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108481, Vol.201, pp.108481-1-9, 2021
Bil M., Mrówka P., Kołbuk D., Święszkowski W., Multifunctional composite combining chitosan microspheres for drug delivery embedded in shape memory polyester-urethane matrix, Composites Science and Technology, ISSN: 0266-3538, DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2020.108481, Vol.201, pp.108481-1-9, 2021

Abstract:
Multifunctional composite biomaterials (3b-PU/CH_M) consisting of chitosan microspheres (CH-M) that provide drug release functionality and crosslinked polyester-urethane (3b-PU) matrix responsible for shape memory properties were designed. A series of 3b-PU/CH_M bio-composites with varying weight fraction of CH-M (2.5, 5, and 10 wt %) embedded into 3b-PU matrix were synthesized. The ATR-FTIR confirmed the presence of covalent bonds between 3b-PU matrix and CH-M as well as enhanced hydrogen bonds interaction within bio-composites matrix in comparison to neat 3b-PU. It was found that CH-M had not impaired the shape memory properties of 3b-PU matrix and even slightly improved the shape recovery (Rr %). The Rr value increased to 100% for 3b-PU/CH 2.5% M and 3b-PU/CH 5% M after the third thermo-mechanical cycle. Moreover, the transition temperature (Ttrans) of shape recovery tailored to 30 °C by the chemical composition of the 3b-PU network was not affected by CH-M. Effectiveness of the application of the composites as a controlled drug delivery system at various pH conditions was confirmed in an in vitro release study of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (Cpx-HCl) used as a model drug. In vitro biocompatibility studies revealed that the materials do not alter the cells' ability to proliferate and differentiate.

Keywords:
multifunctional composites, smart materials, shape memory behavior, multifunctional properties, drug release

(140p.)
2.Szewczyk P.K., Gradys A., Kyun Kim S., Persano L., Marzec M., Kryshtal A., Busolo T., Toncelli A., Pisignano D., Bernasik A., Kar-Narayan S., Sajkiewicz P., Stachewicz U., Enhanced piezoelectricity of electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride fibers for energy harvesting, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN: 1944-8244, DOI: 10.1021/acsami.0c02578, Vol.12, No.11, pp.13575-13583, 2020
Szewczyk P.K., Gradys A., Kyun Kim S., Persano L., Marzec M., Kryshtal A., Busolo T., Toncelli A., Pisignano D., Bernasik A., Kar-Narayan S., Sajkiewicz P., Stachewicz U., Enhanced piezoelectricity of electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride fibers for energy harvesting, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN: 1944-8244, DOI: 10.1021/acsami.0c02578, Vol.12, No.11, pp.13575-13583, 2020

Abstract:
Piezoelectric polymers are promising energy materials for wearable and implantable applications for replacing bulky batteries in small and flexible electronics. Therefore, many research studies are focused on understanding the behavior of polymers at a molecular level and designing new polymer-based generators using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). In this work, we investigated the influence of voltage polarity and ambient relative humidity in electrospinning of PVDF for energy-harvesting applications. A multitechnique approach combining microscopy and spectroscopy was used to study the content of the β-phase and piezoelectric properties of PVDF fibers. We shed new light on β-phase crystallization in electrospun PVDF and showed the enhanced piezoelectric response of the PVDF fiber-based generator produced with the negative voltage polarity at a relative humidity of 60%. Above all, we proved that not only crystallinity but also surface chemistry is crucial for improving piezoelectric performance in PVDF fibers. Controlling relative humidity and voltage polarity increased the d33 piezoelectric coefficient for PVDF fibers by more than three times and allowed us to generate a power density of 0.6 μW·cm^–2 from PVDF membranes. This study showed that the electrospinning technique can be used as a single-step process for obtaining a vast spectrum of PVDF fibers exhibiting different physicochemical properties with β-phase crystallinity reaching up to 74%. The humidity and voltage polarity are critical factors in respect of chemistry of the material on piezoelectricity of PVDF fibers, which establishes a novel route to engineer materials for energy-harvesting and sensing applications.

Keywords:
PVDF, polymer crystallinity, electrospinning, piezoelectricity, voltage polarity

(200p.)
3.Ura D.P., Rosell-Llompart J., Zaszczyńska A., Vasilyev G., Gradys A., Szewczyk P.K., Knapczyk-Korczak J., Avrahami R., Šišková A.O., Arinstein A., Sajkiewicz P., Zussman E., Stachewicz U., The role of electrical polarity in electrospinning and on the mechanical and structural properties of as-spun fibers, Materials, ISSN: 1996-1944, DOI: 10.3390/ma13184169, Vol.13, No.18, pp.4169-1-18, 2020
Ura D.P., Rosell-Llompart J., Zaszczyńska A., Vasilyev G., Gradys A., Szewczyk P.K., Knapczyk-Korczak J., Avrahami R., Šišková A.O., Arinstein A., Sajkiewicz P., Zussman E., Stachewicz U., The role of electrical polarity in electrospinning and on the mechanical and structural properties of as-spun fibers, Materials, ISSN: 1996-1944, DOI: 10.3390/ma13184169, Vol.13, No.18, pp.4169-1-18, 2020

Abstract:
Electric field strength and polarity in electrospinning processes and their effect on process dynamics and the physical properties of as-spun fibers is studied. Using a solution of the neutral polymer such as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) we explored the electrospun jet motion issued from a Taylor cone. We focused on the straight jet section up to the incipient stage of the bending instability and on the radius of the disk of the fibers deposited on the collecting electrode. A new correlation formula using dimensionless parameters was found, characterizing the effect of the electric field on the length of the straight jet, L˜E~E˜0.55. This correlation was found to be valid when the spinneret was either negatively or positively charged and the electrode grounded. The fiber deposition radius was found to be independent of the electric field strength and polarity. When the spinneret was negatively charged, L˜E was longer, the as-spun fibers were wider. The positively charged setup resulted in fibers with enhanced mechanical properties and higher crystallinity. This work demonstrates that often-overlooked electrical polarity and field strength parameters influence the dynamics of fiber electrospinning, which is crucial for designing polymer fiber properties and optimizing their collection.

Keywords:
fibers, electrical polarity, charges, electrospinning, PMMA, mechanical properties

(140p.)
4.Górecka Ż., Idaszek J., Kołbuk D., Choińska E., Chlanda A., Święszkowski W., The effect of diameter of fibre on formation of hydrogen bonds and mechanical properties of 3D-printed PCL, Materials Science and Engineering C-Materials for Biological Applications, ISSN: 0928-4931, DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2020.111072, Vol.114, pp.111072-1-11, 2020
Górecka Ż., Idaszek J., Kołbuk D., Choińska E., Chlanda A., Święszkowski W., The effect of diameter of fibre on formation of hydrogen bonds and mechanical properties of 3D-printed PCL, Materials Science and Engineering C-Materials for Biological Applications, ISSN: 0928-4931, DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2020.111072, Vol.114, pp.111072-1-11, 2020

Abstract:
Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) technique has been widely utilized in fabrication of 3D porous scaffolds for tissue engineering (TE) applications. Surprisingly, although there are many publications devoted to the architectural features of the 3D scaffolds fabricated by the FDM, none of them give us evident information about the impact of the diameter of the fibres on material properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate, for the first time, the effect of the diameter of 3D-printed PCL fibres on variations in their microstructure and resulting mechanical behaviour. The fibres made of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) were extruded through commonly used types of nozzles (inner diameter ranging from 0.18 mm to 1.07 mm) by means of FDM technique. Static tensile test and atomic force microscopy working in force spectroscopy mode revealed strong decrease in the Young's modulus and yield strength with increasing fibre diameter in the investigated range. To explain this phenomenon, we conducted differential scanning calorimetry, wide-angle X-ray-scattering, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, infrared and polarized light microscopy imaging. The obtained results clearly showed that the most prominent effect on the obtained microstructures and mechanical properties had different cooling and shear rates during fabrication process causing changes in supramolecular interactions of PCL. The observed fibre size-dependent formation of hydrogen bonds affected the crystalline structure and its stability. Summarising, this study clearly demonstrates that the diameter of 3D-printed fibres has a strong effect on obtained microstructure and mechanical properties, therefore should be taken into consideration during design of the 3D TE scaffolds.

Keywords:
fused deposition modelling, polycaprolactone, mechanical properties, hydrogen bonds, microstructure

(140p.)
5.Pierini F., Guglielmelli A., Urbanek O., Nakielski P., Pezzi L., Buda R., Lanzi M., Kowalewski T.A., De Sio L., Thermoplasmonic‐activated hydrogel based dynamic light attenuator, Advanced Optical Materials, ISSN: 2195-1071, DOI: 10.1002/adom.202000324, Vol.8, No.12, pp.2000324-1-7, 2020
Pierini F., Guglielmelli A., Urbanek O., Nakielski P., Pezzi L., Buda R., Lanzi M., Kowalewski T.A., De Sio L., Thermoplasmonic‐activated hydrogel based dynamic light attenuator, Advanced Optical Materials, ISSN: 2195-1071, DOI: 10.1002/adom.202000324, Vol.8, No.12, pp.2000324-1-7, 2020

Abstract:
This work describes the morphological, optical, and thermo‐optical properties of a temperature‐sensitive hydrogel poly(N‐isopropylacrylamide‐co‐N‐isopropylmethacrylamide) [P(NIPAm‐co‐NIPMAm]) film containing a specific amount of gold nanorods (GNRs). The light‐induced thermoplasmonic heating of GNRs is used to control the optical scattering of an initially transparent hydrogel film. A hydrated P(NIPAm‐co‐NIPMAm) film is optically clear at room temperature. When heated to temperatures over 37 °C via light irradiation with a resonant source (λ = 810 nm) to the GNRs, a reversible phase transition from a swollen hydrated state to a shrunken dehydrated state occurs. This phenomenon causes a drastic and reversible change in the optical transparency from a clear to an opaque state. A significant red shift (≈30 nm) of the longitudinal band can also be seen due to an increased average refractive index surrounding the GNRs. This change is in agreement with an ad hoc theoretical model which uses a modified Gans theory for ellipsoidal nanoparticles. Morphological analysis of the composite film shows the presence of well‐isolated and randomly dispersed GNRs. Thermo‐optical experiments demonstrate an all‐optically controlled light attenuator (65% contrast ratio) which can be easily integrated in several modern optical applications such as smart windows and light‐responsive optical attenuators.

Keywords:
active plasmonics, gold nanorods, hydrogels, optical attenuators, optical transparency, plasmonic nanoparticles, polymers

(140p.)
6.Budnicka M., Kołbuk D., Ruśkowski P., Gadomska‐Gajadhur A., Poly‐L ‐lactide scaffolds with super pores obtained by freeze‐extraction method, Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, ISSN: 1552-4973, DOI: 10.1002/jbm.b.34642, Vol.108, No.8, pp.3162-3173, 2020
Budnicka M., Kołbuk D., Ruśkowski P., Gadomska‐Gajadhur A., Poly‐L ‐lactide scaffolds with super pores obtained by freeze‐extraction method, Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, ISSN: 1552-4973, DOI: 10.1002/jbm.b.34642, Vol.108, No.8, pp.3162-3173, 2020

Abstract:
A nonplanar polylactide scaffold to be used in tissue engineering was obtained by freeze‐extraction method. Properties of the scaffold were modified by adding Eudragit® E100. The impact of the modification on morphology, porosity and pore size, mass absorbability, mechanical properties was determined. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), hydrostatic weighing test, static compression test was used to this end. The chemical composition of the scaffold was defined based on infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and energy‐dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy (EDX). Biocompatibility was confirmed by quantitative tests and microscopic observation. The obtained results show that the obtained scaffolds may be applied as a carrier of hydrophilic cellular growth factors for more efficient tissue regeneration.

Keywords:
cellular studies, Eudragit® E100, freeze-extraction, poly-L-lactide

(140p.)
7.Zaszczyńska A., Sajkiewicz P., Gradys A., Piezoelectric scaffolds as smart materials for neural tissue engineering, Polymers, ISSN: 2073-4360, DOI: 10.3390/polym12010161, Vol.12, No.1, pp.161-1-25, 2020
Zaszczyńska A., Sajkiewicz P., Gradys A., Piezoelectric scaffolds as smart materials for neural tissue engineering, Polymers, ISSN: 2073-4360, DOI: 10.3390/polym12010161, Vol.12, No.1, pp.161-1-25, 2020

Abstract:
Injury to the central or peripheral nervous systems leads to the loss of cognitive and/or sensorimotor capabilities, which still lacks an effective treatment. Tissue engineering in the post-injury brain represents a promising option for cellular replacement and rescue, providing a cell scaffold for either transplanted or resident cells. Tissue engineering relies on scaffolds for supporting cell differentiation and growth with recent emphasis on stimuli responsive scaffolds, sometimes called smart scaffolds. One of the representatives of this material group is piezoelectric scaffolds, being able to generate electrical charges under mechanical stimulation, which creates a real prospect for using such scaffolds in non-invasive therapy of neural tissue. This paper summarizes the recent knowledge on piezoelectric materials used for tissue engineering, especially neural tissue engineering. The most used materials for tissue engineering strategies are reported together with the main achievements, challenges, and future needs for research and actual therapies. This review provides thus a compilation of the most relevant results and strategies and serves as a starting point for novel research pathways in the most relevant and challenging open questions.

Keywords:
neural tissue engineering, piezoelectric scaffolds, smart materials, polymers

(100p.)
8.Kołbuk D., Heljak M., Choińska E., Urbanek O., Novel 3D hybrid nanofiber scaffolds for bone regeneration, Polymers, ISSN: 2073-4360, DOI: 10.3390/polym12030544, Vol.12, No.3, pp.544-1-18, 2020
Kołbuk D., Heljak M., Choińska E., Urbanek O., Novel 3D hybrid nanofiber scaffolds for bone regeneration, Polymers, ISSN: 2073-4360, DOI: 10.3390/polym12030544, Vol.12, No.3, pp.544-1-18, 2020

Abstract:
Development of hybrid scaffolds and their formation methods occupies an important place in tissue engineering. In this paper, a novel method of 3D hybrid scaffold formation is presented as well as an explanation of the differences in scaffold properties, which were a consequence of different crosslinking mechanisms. Scaffolds were formed from 3D freeze-dried gelatin and electrospun poly(lactide-co-glicolide) (PLGA) fibers in a ratio of 1:1 w/w. In order to enhance osteoblast proliferation, the fibers were coated with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAp) using sonochemical processing. All scaffolds were crosslinked using an EDC/NHS solution. The scaffolds' morphology was imaged using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chemical composition of the scaffolds was analyzed using several methods. Water absorption and mass loss investigations proved a higher crosslinking degree of the hybrid scaffolds than a pure gelatin scaffold, caused by additional interactions between gelatin, PLGA, and HAp. Additionally, mechanical properties of the 3D hybrid scaffolds were higher than traditional hydrogels. In vitro studies revealed that fibroblasts and osteoblasts proliferated and migrated well on the 3D hybrid scaffolds, and also penetrated their structure during the seven days of the experiment.

Keywords:
hybrid scaffolds, electrospinning, freeze-drying, gelatin, hydroxyapatite, sonochemical covering/grafting

(100p.)
9.Kowalczyk T., Functional micro- and nanofibers obtained by nonwoven post-modification, Polymers, ISSN: 2073-4360, DOI: 10.3390/polym12051087, Vol.12, No.5, pp.1087-1-20, 2020
Kowalczyk T., Functional micro- and nanofibers obtained by nonwoven post-modification, Polymers, ISSN: 2073-4360, DOI: 10.3390/polym12051087, Vol.12, No.5, pp.1087-1-20, 2020

Abstract:
Micro- and nanofibers are historically-known materials that are continuously reinvented due to their valuable properties. They display promise for applications in many fields, from tissue engineering to catalysis or sensors. In the first application, micro- and nanofibers are mainly produced from a limited library of biomaterials with properties that need alteration before use. Post-modification is a very effective method for attaining on-demand features and functions of nonwovens. This review summarizes and presents methods of functionalization of nonwovens produced by electrostatic means. The reviewed modifications are grouped into physical methods, chemical modification, and mixed methods.

Keywords:
nanofiber post-modification, functional nanofibers, tissue engineering

(100p.)
10.Kołbuk D., Jeznach O., Wrzecionek M., Gadomska-Gajadhur A., Poly(glycerol succinate) as an eco-friendly component of PLLA and PLCL fibres towards medical applications, Polymers, ISSN: 2073-4360, DOI: 10.3390/polym12081731, Vol.12, No.8, pp.1731-1-17, 2020
Kołbuk D., Jeznach O., Wrzecionek M., Gadomska-Gajadhur A., Poly(glycerol succinate) as an eco-friendly component of PLLA and PLCL fibres towards medical applications, Polymers, ISSN: 2073-4360, DOI: 10.3390/polym12081731, Vol.12, No.8, pp.1731-1-17, 2020

Abstract:
This study was conducted as a first step in obtaining eco-friendly fibres for medical applications using a synthesised oligomer poly(glycerol succinate) (PGSu) as an additive for synthetic poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly (L-lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLCL). The effects of the oligomer on the structure formation, morphology, crystallisation behaviour, and mechanical properties of electrospun bicomponent fibres were investigated. Nonwovens were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and mechanical testing. The molecular structure of PLLA fibres is influenced by the presence of PGSu mainly acting as an enhancer of molecular orientation. In the case of semicrystalline PLCL, chain mobility was enhanced by the presence of PGSu molecules, and the crystallinity of bicomponent fibres increased in relation to that of pure PLCL. The mechanical properties of bicomponent fibres were influenced by the level of PGSu present and the extent of crystal formation of the main component. An in vitro study conducted using L929 cells confirmed the biocompatible character of all bicomponent fibres.

Keywords:
poly(glycerol succinate), plasticiser, eco-friendly polymer, electrospinning, hyperbranched polyester

(100p.)
11.Niemczyk-Soczyńska B., Gradys A., Sajkiewicz P., Hydrophilic surface functionalization of electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds in tissue engineering, Polymers, ISSN: 2073-4360, DOI: 10.3390/polym12112636, Vol.12, No.11, pp.2636-1-20, 2020
Niemczyk-Soczyńska B., Gradys A., Sajkiewicz P., Hydrophilic surface functionalization of electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds in tissue engineering, Polymers, ISSN: 2073-4360, DOI: 10.3390/polym12112636, Vol.12, No.11, pp.2636-1-20, 2020

Abstract:
Electrospun polymer nanofibers have received much attention in tissue engineering due to their valuable properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradation ability, appropriate mechanical properties, and, most importantly, fibrous structure, which resembles the morphology of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. However, they are usually hydrophobic and suffer from a lack of bioactive molecules, which provide good cell adhesion to the scaffold surface. Post-electrospinning surface functionalization allows overcoming these limitations through polar groups covalent incorporation to the fibers surface, with subsequent functionalization with biologically active molecules or direct deposition of the biomolecule solution. Hydrophilic surface functionalization methods are classified into chemical approaches, including wet chemical functionalization and covalent grafting, a physiochemical approach with the use of a plasma treatment, and a physical approach that might be divided into physical adsorption and layer-by-layer assembly. This review discusses the state-of-the-art of hydrophilic surface functionalization strategies of electrospun nanofibers for tissue engineering applications. We highlighted the major advantages and drawbacks of each method, at the same time, pointing out future perspectives and solutions in the hydrophilic functionalization strategies.

Keywords:
surface functionalization, electrospinning, polymers, nanofiber, immobilization, tissue engineering

(100p.)
12.Zaszczyńska A., Gradys A., Sajkiewicz P., Progress in the applications of smart piezoelectric materials for medical devices, Polymers, ISSN: 2073-4360, DOI: 10.3390/polym12112754, Vol.12, No.11, pp.2754-1-19, 2020
Zaszczyńska A., Gradys A., Sajkiewicz P., Progress in the applications of smart piezoelectric materials for medical devices, Polymers, ISSN: 2073-4360, DOI: 10.3390/polym12112754, Vol.12, No.11, pp.2754-1-19, 2020

Abstract:
Smart piezoelectric materials are of great interest due to their unique properties. Piezoelectric materials can transform mechanical energy into electricity and vice versa. There are mono and polycrystals (piezoceramics), polymers, and composites in the group of piezoelectric materials. Recent years show progress in the applications of piezoelectric materials in biomedical devices due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. Medical devices such as actuators and sensors, energy harvesting devices, and active scaffolds for neural tissue engineering are continually explored. Sensors and actuators from piezoelectric materials can convert flow rate, pressure, etc., to generate energy or consume it. This paper consists of using smart materials to design medical devices and provide a greater understanding of the piezoelectric effect in the medical industry presently. A greater understanding of piezoelectricity is necessary regarding the future development and industry challenges.

Keywords:
polymers, smart materials, piezoelectric materials, inorganic materials, organic materials, biomedical devices

(100p.)
13.Pawłowska S., Rinoldi C., Nakielski P., Ziai Y., Urbanek O., Li X., Kowalewski T.A., Ding B., Pierini F., Ultraviolet light‐assisted electrospinning of core–shell fully cross‐linked P(NIPAAm‐co‐NIPMAAm) hydrogel‐based nanofibers for thermally induced drug delivery self‐regulation, Advanced Materials Interfaces, ISSN: 2196-7350, DOI: 10.1002/admi.202000247, Vol.7, No.12, pp.2000247-1-13, 2020
Pawłowska S., Rinoldi C., Nakielski P., Ziai Y., Urbanek O., Li X., Kowalewski T.A., Ding B., Pierini F., Ultraviolet light‐assisted electrospinning of core–shell fully cross‐linked P(NIPAAm‐co‐NIPMAAm) hydrogel‐based nanofibers for thermally induced drug delivery self‐regulation, Advanced Materials Interfaces, ISSN: 2196-7350, DOI: 10.1002/admi.202000247, Vol.7, No.12, pp.2000247-1-13, 2020

Abstract:
Body tissues and organs have complex functions which undergo intrinsic changes during medical treatments. For the development of ideal drug delivery systems, understanding the biological tissue activities is necessary to be able to design materials capable of changing their properties over time, on the basis of the patient's tissue needs. In this study, a nanofibrous thermal‐responsive drug delivery system is developed. The thermo‐responsivity of the system makes it possible to self‐regulate the release of bioactive molecules, while reducing the drug delivery at early stages, thus avoiding high concentrations of drugs which may be toxic for healthy cells. A co‐axial electrospinning technique is used to fabricate core–shell cross‐linked copolymer poly(N‐isopropylacrylamide‐co‐N‐isopropylmethacrylamide) (P(NIPAAm‐co‐NIPMAAm)) hydrogel‐based nanofibers. The obtained nanofibers are made of a core of thermo‐responsive hydrogel containing a drug model, while the outer shell is made of poly‐l‐lactide‐co‐caprolactone (PLCL). The custom‐made electrospinning apparatus enables the in situ cross‐linking of P(NIPAAm‐co‐NIPMAAm) hydrogel into a nanoscale confined space, which improves the electrospun nanofiber drug dosing process, by reducing its provision and allowing a self‐regulated release control. The mechanism of the temperature‐induced release control is studied in depth, and it is shown that the system is a promising candidate as a "smart" drug delivery platform.

Keywords:
biomimetic nanomaterials, electrospun core–shell nanofibers, hierarchical nanostructures, smart drug delivery, thermo‐responsive hydrogels

(100p.)
14.Zaszczyńska A., Sajkiewicz P.Ł., Gradys A., Tymkiewicz R., Urbanek O., Kołbuk D., Influence of process-material conditions on the structure and biological properties of electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride fibers, BULLETIN OF THE POLISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES: TECHNICAL SCIENCES, ISSN: 0239-7528, DOI: 10.24425/bpasts.2020.133368, Vol.68, No.3, pp.627-633, 2020
Zaszczyńska A., Sajkiewicz P.Ł., Gradys A., Tymkiewicz R., Urbanek O., Kołbuk D., Influence of process-material conditions on the structure and biological properties of electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride fibers, BULLETIN OF THE POLISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES: TECHNICAL SCIENCES, ISSN: 0239-7528, DOI: 10.24425/bpasts.2020.133368, Vol.68, No.3, pp.627-633, 2020

Abstract:
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is one of the most important piezoelectric polymers. Piezoelectricity in PVDF appears in polar β and ɣ phases. Piezoelectric fibers obtained by means of electrospinning may be used in tissue engineering (TE) as a smart analogue of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). We present results showing the effect of rotational speed of the collecting drum on morphology, phase content and in vitro biological properties of PVDF nonwovens. Morphology and phase composition were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. It was shown that increasing rotational speed of the collector leads to an increase in fiber orientation, reduction in fiber diameter and considerable increase of polar phase content, both b and g. In vitro cell culture experiments, carried out with the use of ultrasounds in order to generate electrical potential via piezoelectricity, indicate a positive effect of polar phases on fibroblasts. Our preliminary results demonstrate that piezoelectric PVDF scaffolds are promising materials for tissue engineering applications, particularly for neural tissue regeneration, where the electric potential is crucial.

Keywords:
scaffolds, electrospinning, polyvinylidene fluoride, tissue engineering

(100p.)
15.Gadomska‐Gajadhur A., Kruk A., Ruśkowski P., Sajkiewicz P., Dulnik J., Chwojnowski A., Original method of imprinting pores in scaffolds for tissue engineering, Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN: 1042-7147, DOI: 10.1002/pat.5091, pp.1-13, 2020
Gadomska‐Gajadhur A., Kruk A., Ruśkowski P., Sajkiewicz P., Dulnik J., Chwojnowski A., Original method of imprinting pores in scaffolds for tissue engineering, Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN: 1042-7147, DOI: 10.1002/pat.5091, pp.1-13, 2020

Abstract:
Results of the preparation of biodegradable porous scaffolds using an original modification of a wet phase inversion method were presented. Influence of gelatin non‐woven as a non‐classic pore precursor and polyvinylpyrrolidone, Pluronic as classic pore precursors on the structure of obtained scaffolds was analyzed. It was shown that the addition of gelatin non‐wovens enables the preparation of scaffolds, which allow for the growth of cells (size, distribution, and shape of pores). Mechanical properties of the obtained cell scaffolds were determined. The influence of pore precursors on mass absorption of scaffolds against isopropanol and plasma was investigated. Interaction of scaffolds with a T‐lymphocyte line (Jurkat) and with fibroblasts (L929) was investigated. Obtained scaffolds are not cytotoxic and can be used as implants, for example, the regeneration of cartilage tissue.

Keywords:
cell cultures, cytotoxic, fibroblasts, imprinted scaffolds

(70p.)
16.Kruk A., Gadomska-Gajadhur A., Dulnik J., Ruśkowski P., The influence of the molecular weight of polymer on the morphology, functional properties and L929 fibroblasts growth on polylactide membranes for tissue engineering, International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials, ISSN: 0091-4037, DOI: 10.1080/00914037.2020.1798440, pp.1-13, 2020
Kruk A., Gadomska-Gajadhur A., Dulnik J., Ruśkowski P., The influence of the molecular weight of polymer on the morphology, functional properties and L929 fibroblasts growth on polylactide membranes for tissue engineering, International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials, ISSN: 0091-4037, DOI: 10.1080/00914037.2020.1798440, pp.1-13, 2020

Abstract:
The main goal of tissue engineering (TE) is supporting the regeneration of damaged tissues that are difficult to regenerate. The experimental results of the preparation of semi-permeable membranes for cell cultures are presented. The effect of the PLA molecular weight and addition of pore precursors on the morphology of the membranes was studied. The pore precursor of choice was polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). It was found that semi-permeable membranes for application in tissue engineering can be prepared with polylactides of molecular weight more significant than 37,000 g/mol. Moreover, it was observed that the growth of the molecular weight of the polymer, the porosity, the size of the pores, the Young modulus and maximum tensile increased. Additionally, to obtain a better morphology of the membranes, PVP should be added to the polymeric solution. Positive growth of L929 fibroblast cells on the obtained scaffolds was shown.

Keywords:
biodegradable polymers, cell cultures, L929 fibroblasts, polylactide, scaffolds, tissue engineering

(70p.)
17.Gadomska‐Gajadhur A., Kruk A., Dulnik J., Chwojnowski A., New polyester biodegradable scaffolds for chondrocyte culturing: preparation, properties, and biological activity, JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, ISSN: 0021-8995, DOI: 10.1002/app.50089, pp.e50089-1-14, 2020
Gadomska‐Gajadhur A., Kruk A., Dulnik J., Chwojnowski A., New polyester biodegradable scaffolds for chondrocyte culturing: preparation, properties, and biological activity, JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, ISSN: 0021-8995, DOI: 10.1002/app.50089, pp.e50089-1-14, 2020

Abstract:
An innovative modification of the wet inversion phase method, consisting in the use of a polymer nano‐nonwoven as a nonclassic pore precursor. Mechanical properties of the obtained scaffolds were determined, their hydrophilic properties (serum absorbability) were tested, and the content of residues of materials used in the scaffold preparation was determined. Nontoxicity of the developed scaffolds toward T lymphocyte cells was proved. Cultures of primary chondrocytes were obtained successfully. It was proved that an addition of a polymer nano‐nonwoven changes the properties of the scaffolds favorably in respect of their subsequent application in tissue engineering.

Keywords:
cartilage regeneration, chondrocytes, nano-nonwoven, polyvinylpyrrolidone, T lymphocytes

(70p.)
18.Neisiany R.E., Enayati M.S., Sajkiewicz P., Pahlevanneshan Z., Ramakrishna S., Insight into the current directions in functionalized nanocomposite hydrogels, Frontiers in Materials, ISSN: 2296-8016, DOI: 10.3389/fmats.2020.00025, Vol.7, pp.25-1-8, 2020
Neisiany R.E., Enayati M.S., Sajkiewicz P., Pahlevanneshan Z., Ramakrishna S., Insight into the current directions in functionalized nanocomposite hydrogels, Frontiers in Materials, ISSN: 2296-8016, DOI: 10.3389/fmats.2020.00025, Vol.7, pp.25-1-8, 2020

Abstract:
Since the introduction of tissue engineering as an encouraging method for the repair and regeneration of injured tissue, there have been many attempts by researchers to construct bio-mimetic scaffolds which mimic the native extracellular matrix, with the aim of promoting cell growth, cell proliferation, and restoration of the tissue's native functionality. Among the different materials and methods of scaffold fabrication, one particularly promising class of materials, hydrogels, has been extensively studied, with the inclusion of nano-scaled materials into hydrogels leading to the creation of an exciting new generation of nanocomposites, known as nanocomposite hydrogels. To closely mimic the native tissue behavior, scientists have recently focused on the functionalization of incorporated nanomaterials via chiral biomolecules, with reported results showing great potential. The current article aims to introduce a perspective of nano-scaled cellulose as a promising nanomaterial which can be multi-functionalized for the fabrication of nanocomposite hydrogels with applications in tissue engineering and drug delivery systems. This article also briefly reviews the recently reported literature on nanocomposite hydrogels incorporated with chiral functionalized nanomaterials. Such knowledge paves the path for the development of tailored hydrogels toward practical applications.

Keywords:
scaffold, nanocomposite hydrogels, biodegradable hydrogels, chiral biomolecules, self-healing

(70p.)
19.Yakymechko Y., Lutsyuk I., Jaskulski R., Dulnik J., Kropyvnytska T., The effect of vibro-activation time on the properties of highly active calcium hydroxide, Buildings, ISSN: 2075-5309, DOI: 10.3390/buildings10060111, Vol.10, No.6, pp.111-1-8, 2020
Yakymechko Y., Lutsyuk I., Jaskulski R., Dulnik J., Kropyvnytska T., The effect of vibro-activation time on the properties of highly active calcium hydroxide, Buildings, ISSN: 2075-5309, DOI: 10.3390/buildings10060111, Vol.10, No.6, pp.111-1-8, 2020

Abstract:
The results of studying the effect of the vibration processing time on the size of calcium hydroxide particles are given. The physicochemical processes affecting the size and morphology of calcium hydroxide particles have been studied. A stage-by-stage mechanism of the process of the carbonation of lime, depending on its specific surface, is established. The results show that the optimal period for the vibration treatment of lime to obtain the most active material is 20 min. A longer period of vibration results in the merging of particles into larger agglomerates.

Keywords:
lime, portlandite, vibration treatment, carbonation, crystallization

(70p.)
20.Auguścik-Królikowska M., Ryszkowska J., Szczepkowski L., Kwiatkowski D., Kołbuk-Konieczny D., Szymańska J., Viscoelastic polyurethane foams with the addition of mint, POLIMERY, ISSN: 0032-2725, DOI: 10.14314/polimery.2020.3.4, Vol.65, No.3, pp.196-207, 2020
Auguścik-Królikowska M., Ryszkowska J., Szczepkowski L., Kwiatkowski D., Kołbuk-Konieczny D., Szymańska J., Viscoelastic polyurethane foams with the addition of mint, POLIMERY, ISSN: 0032-2725, DOI: 10.14314/polimery.2020.3.4, Vol.65, No.3, pp.196-207, 2020

Abstract:
The article presents an assessment of the possibilities of producing viscoelastic open cell polyurethane (PUR) foams produced with a natural filler in the form of mint leaves. PUR foams containing from 10 to 30 wt % of mint were produced. Chemical structure, thermal and mechanical properties of the foams were assessed. It was found that the filler containing 7 wt % of water caused significant changes in the foam characteristics. In composite foams, the content of urea and hydrogen bonds increased with higher mint contents. The hardness and comfort factor of composite foams also increased. The introduction of a filler containing a significant amount of water caused a change in the porosity and wall thickness of composite foams resulting in a significant increase in their permanent deformations.

Keywords:
open cell viscoelastic polyurethane foams, mint, cytocompatibility

(40p.)