dr hab. inż. Katarzyna KowalczykGajewska 

Doktorat
2001  Ewolucja anizotropii plastycznej silnie deformowanych metali
 559 
Habilitacja
Promotor prac doktorskich
1.  20190425  Majewski Michał  Reprezentacja cech morfologicznych mikrostruktury w mikromechanicznych modelach materiałów kompozytowych  1285  
2.  20171026  Frydrych Karol  Modelowanie ewolucji mikrostruktury metali o wysokiej wytrzymałości właściwej w procesach intensywnej deformacji plastycznej  1258 
Ostatnie publikacje
1.  KowalczykGajewska K., Pieczyska E.A., Golasiński K., Maj M., Kuramoto S.^{♦}, Furuta T.^{♦}, A finite strain elasticviscoplastic model of Gum Metal, International Journal of Plasticity, ISSN: 07496419, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijplas.2019.02.017, Vol.119, pp.85101, 2019 Streszczenie: A hyperelasticviscoplastic model of Gum Metal is presented. The model is formulated in the large strain framework. The free energy function is postulated consisting of the hyperelastic and viscoplastic components. Original extension of the NeoHooke model with a power law component is proposed for hyperelasticity, which enables to describe a relatively large nonlinear elastic regime observed for the alloy. Viscoplastic strain follows the Perzynatype law with an overstress function. The model is implemented into the finite element method and used to simulate the Gum Metal response in multiple tension loadingunloading cycles. The results are compared with experimental outcomes. Good accordance of the simulation results and the available experimental data is obtained. Słowa kluczowe: Large strain, Hyperelastoviscoplasticity, Gum metal, Cyclic deformation Afiliacje autorów:
 200p.  
2.  KowalczykGajewska K., Maździarz M., Effective stiffness tensor of nanocrystalline materials of cubic symmetry: The coreshell model and atomistic estimates, International Journal of Engineering Science, ISSN: 00207225, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijengsci.2019.103134, Vol.144, No.103134, pp.124, 2019 Streszczenie: Anisotropic coreshell model of a nanograined polycrystal, proposed recently for nanocrystalline copper, is applied to estimate elastic effective properties for a set of crystals of cubic symmetry. Materials selected for analysis differ in the lattice geometry (facecentered cubic vs. bodycentered cubic) as well as the value of a Zener factor: a ratio of two shear moduli defining elastic anisotropy of a cubic crystal. The predictions are verified by means of the atomistic simulations. The dependence of the overall bulk and shear moduli on the average grain diameter is analysed. In the meanfield approach the thickness of the shell is specified by the cutoff radius of a corresponding atomistic potential, while the grain shell is isotropic and its properties are identified by molecular simulations performed for very small grains with approximately all atoms belonging to the grain boundary zone. It is shown that the coreshell model provides predictions of satisfactory qualitative and quantitative agreement with atomistic simulations. Performed study indicates that the variation of the bulk and shear moduli with the grain size changes qualitatively when the Zener anisotropy factor is smaller or greater than one. Słowa kluczowe: Molecular statics, Elasticity, Polycrystal, Effective medium, Cubic symmetry Afiliacje autorów:
 200p.  
3.  Mercier S.^{♦}, KowalczykGajewska K., Czarnota C.^{♦}, Effective behavior of composites with combined kinematic and isotropic hardening based on additive tangent Mori–Tanaka scheme, COMPOSITES PART BENGINEERING, ISSN: 13598368, DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2019.107052, Vol.174, pp.107052121, 2019 Streszczenie: The goal of the present work is to propose a multiscale approach for composite materials which accounts for kinematic hardening in the phases. For that purpose, the additive/sequential interaction rule and tangent linearization of viscoplastic response proposed for elastic–viscoplastic material can be extended in a straightforward manner. A two phase composite where each phase is elastic–viscoplastic is considered. The viscoplastic flow is governed by a ?2 flow theory with an overstress. To find the overall behavior of the composite, a Mori–Tanaka model is applied. Numerical validation of the proposition is carried out by considering a representative volume element with 30 inclusions. Various configurations have been tested: hard or soft inclusion cases with or without isotropic hardening. It is shown that the quality of the model predictions is not affected by the introduction of the kinematic hardening component in the local constitutive behavior. Namely, in most cases considered in the paper the overall stress–strain response as well as the average stress–strain response per phase is accurately estimated. It has been also verified that the obtained backstress components are consistent with the ones predicted by Finite element calculations with ABAQUS Software. Słowa kluczowe: Elasticviscoplasticity, Homogenization, Finite element, Metal matrix composite, Mori–Tanaka scheme, Kinematic hardening Afiliacje autorów:
 140p.  
4.  Frydrych K., KowalczykGajewska K., Prakash A.^{♦}, On solution mapping and remeshing in crystal plasticity finite element simulations: application to equal channel angular pressing, MODELLING AND SIMULATION IN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, ISSN: 09650393, DOI: 10.1088/1361651X/ab28e3, Vol.27, No.075001, pp.127, 2019 Streszczenie: Microstructure evolution in crystalline materials subjected to different loading conditions is regularly studied using crystal plasticity finite element simulations. Accurate and reliable description of the microstructure, particularly in the case of large deformations, requires the usage of remeshing procedures and the mapping of the material state from the distorted mesh onto a new mesh. In this work, we evaluate three different solution mapping schemes, viz. closest point projection (CPP), sequential spherical linear interpolation (SLERP), and weighted spherical averages, all of which are based on the mapping of crystal plasticity variables. The results show that the mapping with CPP is generally acceptable, whilst the sequential SLERP is a more robust method with little additional computing effort. Słowa kluczowe: crystal plasticity, solution mapping, remeshing, severe plastic deformation SPD, equal channel angular pressing ECAP Afiliacje autorów:
 70p.  
5.  Kursa M., KowalczykGajewska K., Lewandowski M.J., Petryk H., Elasticplastic properties of metal matrix composites: Validation of meanfield approaches, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MECHANICS ASOLIDS, ISSN: 09977538, DOI: 10.1016/j.euromechsol.2017.11.001, Vol.68, pp.5366, 2018 Streszczenie: Several micromechanical and numerical approaches to estimating the effective properties of heterogeneous media are analyzed. First, micromechanical meanfield estimates of elastic moduli for selected metal matrix composite systems are compared with the results of finite element calculations performed for two simplified unit cells: spherical and cylindrical. Advantages and deficiencies of such numerical verification of analytical homogenization schemes are indicated. Next, predictions of both approaches are compared with available experimental data for two composite systems for tension and compression tests in the elasticplastic regime using tangent and secant linearization procedures. In the examined range of strain and ceramic volume content, both the MoriTanaka averaging scheme and the generalized selfconsistent scheme lead to reliable predictions when combined with the tangent linearization, while the use of secant moduli results in a too stiff response. It is also found that the meanfield predictions for a small ceramic volume content are very close to the results obtained from the finiteelement analysis of a spherical unit cell. Słowa kluczowe: Metalmatrix composites, Effective properties, Analytical estimates, Numerical homogenization, Nonlinear analysis Afiliacje autorów:
 40p.  
6.  KowalczykGajewska K., Maździarz M., Atomistic and meanfield estimates of effective stiffness tensor of nanocrystalline copper, International Journal of Engineering Science, ISSN: 00207225, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijengsci.2018.04.004, Vol.129, pp.4762, 2018 Streszczenie: The full elasticity tensor for nanocrystalline copper is derived in molecular simulations by performing numerical tests for a set of generated samples of the polycrystalline material. The results are analysed with respect to the anisotropy degree of the overall stiffness tensor resulting from the limited number of grain orientations and their spatial distribution. The dependence of the overall bulk and shear moduli of an isotropized polycrystal on the average grain diameter is analysed. It is found that while the shear modulus decreases with grain size, the bulk modulus shows negligible dependence on the grain diameter and is close to the bulk modulus of a single crystal. A closedform meanfield model of effective elastic properties for a bulk nanograined polycrystal with cubic grains, i.e. made of a material with cubic symmetry, is formulated. In the model all parameters are based on the data for a single crystal and on the averaged grain size without any need for additional fitting. It is shown that the proposed model provides predictions of satisfactory qualitative and quantitative agreement with atomistic simulations. Słowa kluczowe: Molecular statics, Elasticity, Polycrystal, Effective medium, Nanocrystalline copper Afiliacje autorów:
 40p.  
7.  Frydrych K., KowalczykGajewska K., Microstructure Evolution in ColdRolled Pure Titanium: Modeling by the ThreeScale Crystal Plasticity Approach Accounting for Twinning, METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS APHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, ISSN: 10735623, DOI: 10.1007/s1166101846762, Vol.49, No.8, pp.36103623, 2018 Streszczenie: A threescale crystal plasticity model is applied to simulate microstructure evolution in hcp titanium subjected to cold rolling. Crystallographic texture and misorientation angle development, as an indicator of grain refinement, are studied. The impact of twinning activity on both phenomena is accounted for by combining the original threescale formulation with the probabilistic twinvolume consistent (PTVC) reorientation scheme. The modeling results are compared with available experimental data. It is shown that the simulated textures are in accordance with the experimental measurements. The basic components of misorientation angle distribution, especially in the range of high angle boundaries, are also well reproduced. Afiliacje autorów:
 35p.  
8.  Frydrych K., KowalczykGajewska K., Grain refinement in the equal channel angular pressing process: simulations using the crystal plasticity finite element method, MODELLING AND SIMULATION IN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, ISSN: 09650393, DOI: 10.1088/1361651X/aad46d, Vol.26, No.6, pp.065015132, 2018 Streszczenie: Grain refinement due to severe plastic deformation is simulated using the crystal plasticity finite element method in the total Lagrangian setting. A rateindependent model with the regularized Schmid law is applied. As an example, a single pass of the equal channel angular pressing process is considered. Texture evolution, misorientation angle distributions and maps of new grains are presented. A special algorithm for tracking the creation of new grains in finite element simulations is developed. The results are analysed with respect to experimental data available in the literature. The possible mechanisms leading to the fragmentation of grains in a face centred cubic material are discussed. The influence of the quality of the microstructure representation on the simulation results is assessed Słowa kluczowe: crystal plasticity, severe plastic deformation, grain refinement, finite element method Afiliacje autorów:
 35p.  
9.  Mucha M.^{♦}, Wcisło B.^{♦}, Pamin J.^{♦}, KowalczykGajewska K., Instabilities in membrane tension: Parametric study for large strain thermoplasticity, ARCHIVES OF CIVIL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, ISSN: 16449665, DOI: 10.1016/j.acme.2018.01.008, Vol.18, No.4, pp.10551067, 2018 Streszczenie: This paper deals with the numerical analysis of localized deformation for a rectangular plate in membrane tension, modelled with large strain thermoplasticity. The aim is to determine the influence of selected factors on the localization phenomena, which can result from geometrical, material, and thermal softening. Two types of boundary conditions are considered: plane stress and plane strain, as well as two yield functions, Huber–Mises–Hencky and Burzyński–Drucker–Prager, with selected values of friction angle. First, isothermal conditions are considered and next, a conductive case with thermal softening is studied. Moreover, three types of plastic behaviour are analysed: strain hardening (with different values of hardening modulus), ideal plasticity, and strain softening. Numerical tests, performed using AceGen/FEM packages, are carried out for the rectangular plate under tension with an imperfection, using three finite element discretizations. The results for plane strain in the isothermal model show that with the decrease of linear hardening modulus, we can observe stronger mesh sensitivity, while for plane stress, mesh sensitivity is visible for all cases. Furthermore, for the thermomechanical model the results also depend on the mesh density due to insufficient heat conduction regularization Słowa kluczowe: Thermoplasticity, Large strains, Strain localization, Parametric study Afiliacje autorów:
 30p.  
10.  Majewski M., Kursa M., Hołobut P., KowalczykGajewska K., Micromechanical and numerical analysis of packing and size effects in elastic particulate composites, COMPOSITES PART BENGINEERING, ISSN: 13598368, DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2017.05.004, Vol.124, pp.158174, 2017 Streszczenie: Effects of particle packing and size on the overall elastic properties of particulate random composites are analyzed. In order to account for the two effects the meanfield Morphologically Representative Pattern (MRP) approach is employed and an additional interphase surrounding inclusions (coating) is introduced. The analytical meanfield estimates are compared with the results of computational homogenization performed using the finite element (FE) method. Periodic unit cells with cubic crystaltype arrangements and representative volume elements with random distributions of particles are used for verification purposes. The validity of the MRP estimates with respect to the FE results is assessed. Słowa kluczowe: Composite materials, Elasticity, Micromechanics, Packing and size effects Afiliacje autorów:
 45p.  
11.  Sadowski P., KowalczykGajewska K., Stupkiewicz S., Consistent treatment and automation of the incremental Mori–Tanaka scheme for elastoplastic composites, COMPUTATIONAL MECHANICS, ISSN: 01787675, DOI: 10.1007/s004660171418z, Vol.60, pp.493511, 2017 Streszczenie: A consistent algorithmic treatment of the incremental Mori–Tanaka (MT) model for elastoplastic composites is proposed. The aim is to develop a computationally efficient and robust micromechanical constitutive model suitable for largescale finiteelement computations. The resulting overall computational scheme is a doublynested iterationsubiteration scheme. The Newton method is used to solve the nonlinear equations at each level involved. Exact linearization is thus performed at each level so that a quadratic convergence rate can be achieved. To this end, the automatic differentiation (AD) technique is used, and the corresponding ADbased formulation is provided. Excellent overall performance of the present MT scheme in threedimensional finiteelement computations is illustrated. Słowa kluczowe: Mori–Tanaka method, Composite materials, Elastoplasticity, Finite element method, Automatic differentiation Afiliacje autorów:
 45p.  
12.  Pieczyska E.A., Staszczak M., KowalczykGajewska K., Maj M., Golasiński K., Golba S.^{♦}, Tobushi H.^{♦}, Hayashi S.^{♦}, Experimental and numerical investigation of yielding phenomena in a shape memory polymer subjected to cyclic tension at various strain rates, POLYMER TESTING, ISSN: 01429418, DOI: 10.1016/j.polymertesting.2017.04.014, Vol.60, pp.333342, 2017 Streszczenie: This paper presents experimental and numerical results of a polyurethane shape memory polymer (SMP) subjected to cyclic tensile loading. The goal was to investigate the polymer yielding phenomena based on the effects of thermomechanical coupling. Mechanical characteristics were obtained with a testing machine, whereas the SMP temperature accompanying its deformation process was simultaneously measured in a contactless manner with an infrared camera. The SMP glass transition temperature was approximately 45oC; therefore, when tested at room temperature, the polymer is rigid and behaves as solid material. The stress and related temperature changes at various strain rates showed how the SMP yield limit evolved in subsequent loadingunloading cycles under various strain rates. A twophase model of the SMP was applied to describe its mechanical response in cyclic tension. The 3D Finite Element model of a tested specimen was used in simulations. Good agreement between the model predictions and experimental results was observed for the first tension cycle. Słowa kluczowe: Shape memory polymer, Tension cyclic loading, Thermomechanical coupling, Yield limit, Thermoelastic effect, Constitutive model Afiliacje autorów:
 40p.  
13.  Sadowski P., KowalczykGajewska K., Stupkiewicz S., Response discontinuities in the solution of the incremental Mori–Tanaka scheme for elastoplastic composites, ARCHIVES OF MECHANICS, ISSN: 03732029, Vol.69, No.1, pp.327, 2017 Streszczenie: The incremental Mori–Tanaka model of elastoplastic composites is discussed, and the corresponding finitestep formulation is shown to lead to discontinuities in the overall response at the instant of elastictoplastic transition in the matrix. Specifically, two situations may be encountered: the incremental equations may have two solutions or no solution. In the former situation, switching between the two solutions is associated with a jump in the overall stress. Response discontinuities are studied in detail for a special case of proportional deviatoric loading. The discontinuities constitute an undesirable feature of the incremental Mori–Tanaka scheme that apparently has not been discussed in the literature so far. Remedies to the related problems are briefly discussed. Słowa kluczowe: meanfield homogenization, Mori–Tanaka method, incremental scheme, composite materials, elastoplasticity Afiliacje autorów:
 25p.  
14.  Pamin J.^{♦}, Wcisło B.^{♦}, KowalczykGajewska K., Gradientenhanced large strain thermoplasticity with automatic linearization and localization simulations, JOURNAL OF MECHANICS OF MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, ISSN: 15593959, DOI: 10.2140/jomms.2017.12.123, Vol.12, No.1, pp.123146, 2017 Streszczenie: The paper deals with the thermomechanical extension of a large strain hyperelastoplasticity model and focuses on algorithmic aspects and localization simulations. The formulation includes the degradation of the yield strength due to the increase of an averaged plastic strain measure and temperature, thus, three sources for loss of stability are included in the description. A gradientenhancement of the model is incorporated through an additional differential equation, but localization is also influenced by heat conduction. The finite element analysis is performed for an elongated plate in plane strain conditions, using different finite elements and values of material parameters related to regularization (internal length scales are related to gradient averaging as well as heat conduction). In particular, the influence of the Fbar enrichment on the simulation results is studied. All computational tests are performed using selfprogrammed user subroutines prepared within a symbolicnumerical tool AceGen which is equipped with automatic differentiation options, allowing for automatic linearization of the governing equations. Słowa kluczowe: thermoplasticity, softening, gradient averaging, strain localization, automatic linearization, AceGen package Afiliacje autorów:
 20p.  
15.  Pieczyska E.A., Staszczak M., Maj M., KowalczykGajewska K., Golasiński K., Cristea M.^{♦}, Tobushi H.^{♦}, Hayashi S.^{♦}, Investigation of thermomechanical couplings, strain localization and shape memory properties in a shape memory polymer subjected to loading at various strain rates, SMART MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, ISSN: 09641726, DOI: 10.1088/09641726/25/8/085002, Vol.25, No.8, pp.085002115, 2016 Streszczenie: This paper presents experimental and modeling results of the effects of thermomechanical couplings occurring in a polyurethane shape memory polymer (SMP) subjected to tension at various strain rates within large strains. The SMP mechanical curves, recorded using a testing machine, and the related temperature changes, measured in a contactless manner using an IR camera, were used to investigate the polymer deformation process at various loading stages. The effects of thermomechanical couplings allowed the determination of the material yield point in the initial loading stage, the investigation of nucleation and development of the strain localization at larger strains and the estimation of the effects of thermoelastic behavior during the unloading process. The obtained stress–strain and thermal characteristics, the results of the dynamic mechanical analysis and estimated values of the shape fixity and shape recovery parameters confirmed that the shape memory polymer (T g = 45°C) is characterized by good mechanical and shape memory properties, as well as high sensitivity to the strain rate. The mechanical response of the SMP subjected to tension was simulated using the finite element method and applying the large strain, twophase model. Strain localization observed in the experiment was well reproduced in simulations and the temperature spots were correlated with the accumulated viscoplastic deformation of the SMP glassy phase. Słowa kluczowe: shape memory polymer, thermomechanical coupling, infrared camera, tension test, strain rate, strain localization, constitutive model Afiliacje autorów:
 40p.  
16.  Frydrych K., KowalczykGajewska K., A threescale crystal plasticity model accounting for grain refinement in fcc metals subjected to severe plastic deformations, MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING ASTRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING, ISSN: 09215093, DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2016.01.101, Vol.658, pp.490502, 2016 Streszczenie: A new threescale model of polycrystal accounting for grain refinement is proposed. The model is embedded into the crystal plasticity framework. With the experimental reference to the development of the dislocation induced cell substructure, a single crystallite in the representative grain aggregate is initially subdivided into subdomains with the crystallographic orientations slightly misoriented with respect to the nominal orientation of a parent grain. The predicted misorientation evolution of subgrains with respect to the reference orientation of a crystallite is an indicator of grain refinement. The correlation between the increase of a misorientation angle and a slip activity pattern is analyzed. The model predictions are compared with available experimental data. Słowa kluczowe: Crystal plasticity, Severe plastic deformation, Grain refinement Afiliacje autorów:
 35p.  
17.  Sadowski P., KowalczykGajewska K., Stupkiewicz S., Classical estimates of the effective thermoelastic properties of copper–graphene composites, COMPOSITES PART BENGINEERING, ISSN: 13598368, DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2015.06.007, Vol.80, pp.278290, 2015 Streszczenie: Significant research effort is concentrated worldwide on development of graphenebased metalmatrix composites with enhanced thermomechanical properties. In this work, we apply two classical micromechanical meanfield theories to estimate the effective thermoelastic properties that can be achieved in practice for a copper–graphene composite. In the modelling, graphene is treated as an anisotropic material, and the effect of its outofplane properties, which are less recognized than the inplane properties, is studied in detail. To address the severe difficulties in processing of graphenebased metalmatrix composites, the copper–graphene composite is here assumed to additionally contain, due to imperfect processing, particles of graphite and voids. It is shown quantitatively that the related imperfections may significantly reduce the expected enhancement of the effective properties. The present predictions are also compared to the experimental data available in the literature. Słowa kluczowe: Metalmatrix composites (MMCs), Mechanical properties, Thermal properties, Micromechanics, Graphene Afiliacje autorów:
 40p.  
18.  Czarnota C.^{♦}, KowalczykGajewska K., Salahouelhadj A.^{♦}, Martiny M.^{♦}, Mercier S.^{♦}, Modeling of the cyclic behavior of elastic–viscoplastic composites by the additive tangent Mori–Tanaka approach and validation by ﬁnite element calculations, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES, ISSN: 00207683, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2014.12.002, Vol.5657, pp.96117, 2015 Streszczenie: This work deals with the prediction of the macroscopic behavior of twophase composites, based on the Mori–Tanaka scheme combined with an additive/sequential interaction rule and tangent linearization of viscoplastic response. Cyclic tension compression loadings are considered to further validate the approach. The composite is made of spherical inclusions dispersed in a matrix. Both materials have an elastic–viscoplastic behavior. In a second part, finite element calculations are performed using ABAQUS/STANDARD software in order to validate the proposed homogenization technique. A representative volume element is analyzed with 30 randomly distributed inclusions. Comparisons between the additive tangent Mori–Tanaka scheme and finite element calculations are made for different volume fractions of inclusions, different contrasts in elastic and viscous properties and different strain rates and strain amplitudes. These comparisons demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed homogenization scheme. The effect of isotropization of the viscoplastic tangent stiffness is also investigated. It is concluded that quality of predictions does not benefit from such simplification, contrary to the known result for elastic–plastic case. Słowa kluczowe: Elastoviscoplasticity, Homogenization, Finite element, Composite, Mori–Tanaka scheme Afiliacje autorów:
 40p.  
19.  Pieczyska E.A., Maj M., KowalczykGajewska K., Staszczak M., Gradys A., Majewski M., Cristea M.^{♦}, Tobushi H.^{♦}, Hayashi S.^{♦}, Thermomechanical properties of polyurethane shape memory polymer–experiment and modelling, SMART MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, ISSN: 09641726, DOI: 10.1088/09641726/24/4/045043, Vol.24, pp.045043116, 2015 Streszczenie: In this paper extensive research on the polyurethane shape memory polymer (PUSMP) is reported, including its structure analysis, our experimental investigation of its thermomechanical properties and its modelling. The influence of the effects of thermomechanical couplings on the SMP behaviour during tension at room temperature is studied using a fast and sensitive infrared camera. It is shown that the thermomechanical behaviour of the SMP significantly depends on the strain rate: at a higher strain rate higher stress and temperature values are obtained. This indicates that an increase of the strain rate leads to activation of different deformation mechanisms at the microscale, along with reorientation and alignment of the molecular chains. Furthermore, influence of temperature on the SMP's mechanical behaviour is studied. It is observed during the loading in a thermal chamber that at the temperature 20°C below the glass transition temperature (Tg) the PUSMP strengthens about six times compared to the material above Tg but does not exhibit the shape recovery. A finitestrain constitutive model is formulated, where the SMP is described as a twophase material composed of a hyperelastic rubbery phase and elasticviscoplastic glassy phase. The volume content of phases is governed by the current temperature. Finally, model predictions are compared with the experimental results. Słowa kluczowe: shape memory polyurethane, thermomechanical couplings, infrared camera, temperature change, dynamic mechanical analysis, strain rate, constitutive model Afiliacje autorów:
 40p.  
20.  KowalczykGajewska K., Sztwiertnia K.^{♦}, Kawałko J.^{♦}, Wierzbanowski K.^{♦}, Wroński M.^{♦}, Frydrych K., Stupkiewicz S., Petryk H., Texture evolution in titanium on complex deformation paths: Experiment and modelling, MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING ASTRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING, ISSN: 09215093, DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2015.04.040, Vol.637, pp.251263, 2015 Streszczenie: Texture evolution in commercially pure titanium deformed by equalchannel angular pressing (ECAP) and extrusion with forward–backward rotating die (KoBo) is studied both experimentally and numerically. New results are provided that demonstrate the effects of distinct and complex deformation paths on the texture in the ultrafine grained (UFG) material obtained after severe plastic deformation (SPD). The numerical simulations are based on the selfconsistent viscoplastic method of graintopolycrystal scale transition. A recently proposed modification of the probabilistic scheme for twinning is used that provides consistent values of the twin volume fraction in grains. The basic components of the experimentally observed texture are reasonably well reproduced in the modelling. The numerical simulations provide an insight into the internal mechanisms of plastic deformation, revealing substantial activity of mechanical twinning in addition to the basal and prismatic slip in titanium processed by ECAP. Słowa kluczowe: Texture evolution, UFG materials, SPD processes, Crystal plasticity, Twinning Afiliacje autorów:
 35p.  
21.  Kursa M., KowalczykGajewska K., Petryk H., Multiobjective optimization of thermomechanical properties of metalceramic composites, COMPOSITES PART BENGINEERING, ISSN: 13598368, DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2014.01.009, Vol.60, pp.586596, 2014 Streszczenie: The optimization procedure is worked out for finding an optimal content of phases in metal–ceramic composites in case of conflicting objectives regarding thermomechanical properties of the material for a specific target application. Relationships between the material composition and effective properties of the composite are calculated by employing several methods of continuum micromechanics. A constrained minimization problem is solved for a single objective function based on the weighted squared distances from the best available thermomechanical properties for the material system selected. A compound block diagram is proposed for quick assessment of the consequences of deviating from the optimal composition. The developed procedure is applied to practical examples of Al2O3–Cu composites for brake disks and Al2O3–NiAl composites for valves of potential use in automotive industry. Słowa kluczowe: Metal–matrix composites (MMCs), Thermomechanical, Plastic deformation, Micromechanics, Multicriteria optimization Afiliacje autorów:
 40p.  
22.  Pieczyska E.A., Maj M., KowalczykGajewska K., Staszczak M., Urbański L., Tobushi H.^{♦}, Hayashi S.^{♦}, Cristea M.^{♦}, Mechanical and Infrared Thermography Analysis of Shape Memory Polyurethane, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, ISSN: 10599495, DOI: 10.1007/s1166501409632, Vol.23, No.7, pp.25532560, 2014 Streszczenie: Multifunctional new material—polyurethane shape memory polymer (PUSMP)—was subjected to tension carried out at room temperature at various strain rates. The influence of effects of thermomechanical couplings on the SMP mechanical properties was studied, based on the sample temperature changes, measured by a fast and sensitive infrared camera. It was found that the polymer deformation process strongly depends on the strain rate applied. The initial reversible strain is accompanied by a small drop in temperature, called thermoelastic effect. Its maximal value is related to the SMP yield point and increases upon increase of the strain rate. At higher strains, the stress and temperature significantly increase, caused by reorientation of the polymer molecular chains, followed by the stress drop and its subsequent increase accompanying the sample rupture. The higher strain rate, the higher stress, and temperature changes were obtained, since the deformation process was more dynamic and has occurred in almost adiabatic conditions. The constitutive model of SMP valid in finite strain regime was developed. In the proposed approach, SMP is described as a twophase material composed of hyperelastic rubbery phase and elasticviscoplastic glassy phase, while the volume content of phases is specified by the current temperature. Słowa kluczowe: constitutive model, dynamic mechanical analysis, shape memory polyurethane, strain rate, temperature change, thermomechanical couplings Afiliacje autorów:
 20p.  
23.  Pieczyska E.A., KowalczykGajewska K., Maj M., Staszczak M., Tobushi H.^{♦}, Thermomechanical investigation of TiNi shape memory alloy and PU shape memory polymer subjected to cyclic loading, Procedia Engineering, ISSN: 18777058, DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2014.06.264, Vol.74, pp.287292, 2014 Streszczenie: In applications to sensors, actuators, guide wires, special grips for handicapped people, a shape memory alloy (SMA) or shape memory polymer (SMP) are used as working elements that perform cyclic motions. In order to evaluate the reliability of the shape memory materials (SMM), cycling and fatigue deformation properties are investigated. Since the SMM are very sensitive to temperature, not only mechanical properties but also their related temperature changes accompanying the deformation process should be taken into account. The presented paper embraces experimental investigation of effects of thermomechanical couplings occurring in shape memory alloy and shape memory polymer subjected to various kinds of cycling loading. The deformation was carried out on MTS 858 Testing machine. The strain was measured by a mechanical extensometer, so the stressstrain characteristics were elaborated with high accuracy. Furthermore, a fast and sensitive FLIR Co Phoenix infrared (IR) measurement system was used in order to record infrared radiation from the sample surface. It enables obtaining temperature distribution of the sample as a function of the deformation parameters. For each strain cycle, an increase in temperature during the loading and the temperature decrease during the unloading processes was observed. It was found that the temperature increment recorded during the cyclic deformation depends on the strain rate, the kind of the material and the test conditions. The higher the strain rate the higher the stress and temperature changes were obtained, since the deformation process was more dynamic and has occurred in almost adiabatic conditions. It was shown that various deformation mechanisms are active during various loading stages. Słowa kluczowe: shape memory alloy, shape memory polymer, cyclic deformation, thermomechanical coupling, infrared camera Afiliacje autorów:
 
24.  Wcisło B.^{♦}, Pamin J.^{♦}, KowalczykGajewska K., Gradientenhanced damage model for large deformations of elasticplastic materials, ARCHIVES OF MECHANICS, ISSN: 03732029, Vol.65, No.5, pp.407428, 2013 Streszczenie: This paper deals with the development of a family of gradientenhanced elasticitydamageplasticity models for the simulation of failure in metallic and composite materials. The model incorporates finite deformations and is developed with the assumption of isotropy and isothermal conditions. The gradient enhancement applied to the damage part of the model aims at removing pathological sensitivity to the finite element discretization which can occur due to material softening. Słowa kluczowe: arge strains, damage, plasticity, gradientenhancement, AceGen package Afiliacje autorów:
 20p.  
25.  KowalczykGajewska K., Stupkiewicz S., Modelling of Texture Evolution in Kobo Extrusion Process, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 17333490, DOI: 10.2478/v101720120160y, Vol.58, No.1, pp.113118, 2013 Streszczenie: The paper is aimed at modelling of evolution of crystallographic texture in KOBO extrusion which is an unconventional process of extrusion assisted by cyclic torsion. The analysis comprises two steps. In the first step, the kinematics of the KOBO extrusion process is determined using the finite element method. A simplifying assumption is adopted that the material flow is not significantly affected by plastic hardening, and thus a rigidviscoplastic material model with no hardening is used. In the second step, evolution of crystallographic texture is modelled along the trajectories obtained in the first step. A micromechanical model of texture evolution is used that combines the crystal plasticity model with a selfconsistent graintopolycrystal scale transition scheme, and the VPSC code is used for that purpose. Since each trajectory corresponds to a different deformation path, the resulting pole figures depend on the position along the radius of the extruded rod. Słowa kluczowe: plasticity, microstructure, crystallographic texture, KOBO extrusion Afiliacje autorów:
 20p.  
26.  KowalczykGajewska K., Crystal plasticity models accounting for twinning, COMPUTER METHODS IN MATERIALS SCIENCE / INFORMATYKA W TECHNOLOGII MATERIAŁÓW, ISSN: 16418581, Vol.13, No.4, pp.436451, 2013 Streszczenie: Different approaches to account for twinning in crystal plasticity models are discussed. In particular, three main issues related to this mechanism of plastic deformation are addressed: modelling of texture evolution in the presence of twinning, impact of sliptwin interactions on hardening laws formulation and influence of layered substructure on the macroscopic response of materials. Some of the discussed modelling tools are illustrated with an example of titanium aluminide Słowa kluczowe: crystal plasticity, twinning, texture evolution, hardening Afiliacje autorów:
 10p.  
27.  KowalczykGajewska K., Estimation of overall properties of random polycrystals with the use of invariant decompositions of Hooke’s tensor, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES, ISSN: 00207683, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2012.06.002, Vol.49, No.21, pp.30223037, 2012 Streszczenie: In the paper the theoretical analysis of bounds and selfconsistent estimates of overall properties of linear random polycrystals composed of arbitrarily anisotropic grains is presented. In the study two invariant decompositions of Hooke’s tensors are used. The applied method enables derivation of novel expressions for estimates of the bulk and shear moduli, which depend on invariants of local stiffness tensor. With use of these expressions the materials are considered for which at the local level constraints are imposed on deformation or some stresses are unsustained Słowa kluczowe: Creep, Anisotropic material, Polycrystalline material, Invariant decompositions Afiliacje autorów:
 40p.  
28.  KowalczykGajewska K., Petryk H., Sequential linearization method for viscous/elastic heterogeneous materials, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MECHANICS ASOLIDS, ISSN: 09977538, Vol.30, No.5, pp.650664, 2011 Streszczenie: The paper addresses the problem of suitable approximation of the interaction between phases in heterogeneous materials that exhibit both viscous and elastic properties. A novel approach is proposed in which linearized subproblems for an inhomogeneitymatrix system with viscous or elastic interaction rules are solved sequentially within one incremental step. It is demonstrated that in the case of a selfconsistent averaging scheme, an additional accommodation subproblem, besides purely viscous and elastic subproblems, is to be solved in order to estimate the material response satisfactorily. By examples of an isotropic twophase material it is shown that the proposed approach provides acceptable predictions in comparison with the existing models. Słowa kluczowe: Micromechanics, Viscoelasticity, Viscoplasticity, Homogenization, Selfconsistent scheme Afiliacje autorów:
 30p.  
29.  KowalczykGajewska K., Micromechanical model of polycrystalline materials with lamellar substructure, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 17333490, Vol.56, No.2, pp.509522, 2011 Streszczenie: Micromechanical model of polycrystalline materials with lamellar substructure is presented. The lamellar microstructure of grains is accounted for using the wellestablished framework developed for layered composites. Within the approach different scale transition rules between the level of lamellar grain and the polycrystalline sample can be employed. The model capabilities are tested using the example of TiAl intermetallic. Elastic properties and the initial yield surface for the lamellar grain (PST crystal) and for the untextured polycrystal are estimated. Elastic and plastic anisotropy degree is analyzed Słowa kluczowe: micromechanics, homogenization, lamellar substructure, anisotropic material, anisotropy degree Afiliacje autorów:
 20p.  
30.  KowalczykGajewska K., Modelling of texture evolution in metals accounting for lattice reorientation due to twinning, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MECHANICS ASOLIDS, ISSN: 09977538, Vol.29, No.1, pp.2841, 2010 Streszczenie: Twinning has been incorporated into a crystal plasticity model with the regularized Schmid law. In order to account for the appearance of twinrelated orientations, a new probabilistic twin reorientation scheme that maintains the number of reoriented grains consistent with the accumulated deformation by twinning within the polycrystalline element, has been developed. A hardening rule describing slip–twin interactions has been also proposed. Model predictions concerning material response and texture evolution have been analyzed for fcc materials of low stacking fault energy. Słowa kluczowe: Crystal plasticity, Twinning, Hardening, Texture, Anisotropic material, Polycrystal model Afiliacje autorów:
 32p.  
31.  KowalczykGajewska K., Bounds and selfconsistent estimates of overall properties for random polycrystals described by linear constitutive laws, ARCHIVES OF MECHANICS, ISSN: 03732029, Vol.61, No.6, pp.475503, 2009 Streszczenie: Analytical solutions for bounds of overall properties are derived for singlephase polycrystalline materials of random texture, composed of grains with arbitrary anisotropy and described by the linear constitutive law. Selfconsistent estimates are found for these materials and they are studied in more details when anisotropic grains are volumetrically isotropic. Reduction of the above solutions for incompressible materials or materials with constraint modes of deformation is also derived. Existence and uniqueness of the obtained solutions are discussed. In order to obtain the solutions, simultaneously the spectral and harmonic decomposition of fourth order Hooke’s tensor are used. Utility of the obtained results is demonstrated on the examples of metals and alloys of high specific strength and stiffness Słowa kluczowe: anisotropic materials, selfconsistent estimates, polycrystals Afiliacje autorów:
 27p.  
32.  KowalczykGajewska K., Pęcherski R.B., Phenomenological description of the effect of microshear banding in micromechanical modelling of polycrystal plasticity, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 17333490, Vol.54, pp.717730, 2009 Streszczenie: The rigidplastic crystal plasticity model accounting for the effect of microshear banding mechanism on the reduction of the global strain hardening rate is presented. The instantaneous contribution of microshear bands in the rate of plastic deformation is described by means of the constitutive function that depends on the type of strain path specified by the current direction of strain rate tensor. The capabilities of the model are explored by studying the strainstress behavior of polycrystalline material together with the crystallographic texture evolution in the polycrystalline element Słowa kluczowe: Crystallographic texture, Anisotropic material, Crystal plasticity, Polycrystalline material, Microshear banding Afiliacje autorów:
 20p.  
33.  KowalczykGajewska K., OstrowskaMaciejewska J.^{♦}, Review on spectral decomposition of Hooke's tensor for all symmetry groups of linear elastic materials, ENGINEERING TRANSACTIONS (ROZPRAWY INŻYNIERSKIE), ISSN: 0867888X, Vol.57, pp.145183, 2009 Streszczenie: The spectral decomposition of elasticity tensor for all symmetry groups of a linearly elastic material is reviewed. In the paper it has been derived in nonstandard way by imposing the symmetry conditions upon the orthogonal projectors instead of the stiffness tensor itself. The numbers of independent Kelvin moduli and stiffness distributors are provided. The corresponding representation of the elasticity tensor is specified Słowa kluczowe: linear elasticity, anisotropy, symmetry group, spectral decomposition Afiliacje autorów:
 6p.  
34.  Żebro T.^{♦}, KowalczykGajewska K., Pamin J.^{♦}, A geometrically nonlinear model of scalar damage coupled to plasticity, Czasopismo Techniczne. Mechanika, ISSN: 00114561, Vol.20, No.105, pp.251262, 2008  
35.  KowalczykGajewska K., Pamin J.^{♦}, Żebro T.^{♦}, Development of gradientenhanced damageplasticity formulations for large deformations, Czasopismo Techniczne. Mechanika, ISSN: 00114561, Vol.20, No.105, pp.4758, 2008  
36.  Gambin W., KowalczykGajewska K., Kudrjavceva L.T.^{♦}, Micunovic M.V.^{♦}, Twoscale approach to dynamic localization failure of AISI 316H stainless steel sheets, Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, ISSN: 14505584, DOI: 10.2298/TAM0803093G, Vol.35, No.13, pp.93104, 2008 Streszczenie: Dynamic localization failure of a thin sheet made of AISI 316H steel is considered on the macroscopic and mesoscopic level for proportional and nonproportional stress paths. On the macroscopic level, we propose: (1) the replacement of time as independent variable by a function of plastic dissipation and (2) dependence of the initial equivalent yield stress on stress rate. On the mesoscopic level  the regularized Schmid model for description of the single grain behavior is used and the polycrystalline yield surface generated by the texture development enables to improve the Forming Limit Diagrams for the sheet element. Słowa kluczowe: dynamic localization failure, Forming Limit Diagrams, regularized Schmid law, sheet textures Afiliacje autorów:
 
37.  KowalczykGajewska K., Mróz Z., Pęcherski R.B., Micromechanical modelling of polycrystalline materials under nonproportional deformation paths, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 17333490, Vol.52, pp.181192, 2007 Streszczenie: The rigidplastic crystal plasticity model with single yield surface of 2ndegree is applied to simulate the polycrystalline behaviour and the crystallographic texture development under nonproportional deformation paths. The role of two controlling parameters: the amplitude and frequency for the processes of tension or compression assisted by cyclic torsion of thinwalled tubes made of copper is analysed. The effect of microshear bands on the reduction of global hardening rate is described by means of the contribution function of shear banding in the rate of plastic deformation. The conclusions drawn from the study can find also application in the extension of the analysis for high strength and hard deformable materials. Słowa kluczowe: micromechanics, modelling of materials, rigidplastic solids, crystal plasticity, texture, cyclic torsion, nonproportional deformation path, microshear bands Afiliacje autorów:
 
38.  Mróz Z., KowalczykGajewska K., Maciejewski J., Pęcherski R.B., Tensile or compressive plastic deformation of cylinders assisted by cyclic torsion, ARCHIVES OF MECHANICS, ISSN: 03732029, Vol.58, No.6, pp.497527, 2006 Streszczenie: Technological metal forming processes of extrusion, forging and rolling with imposed cyclic torsion or shear deformation have been recently studied in view of their advantages with respect to monotonic loading processes, cf. Bochniak and Korbel [2–4]. The present work is aimed to analyze such process in the case of simple tension or compression of a cylindrical tube with imposed cyclic torsional deformation. The material element response is assumed to be rigidperfectly plastic or elasticperfectly plastic. For these models, the analytical solutions can be provided for the steady cyclic responses and the effect of two process parameters, namely the ratio of shear and axial strain rates η and the amplitude of shear strain γm , can be clearly demonstrated. Three different regimes of cyclic response can be visualized in the plane η, γm. The cyclic response of a cylinder under combined axial compression and cyclic torsion is predicted by considering a simplified model of a set of concentric tubes and neglecting their radial stress interaction. The axial force and torsional moment are then specified by averaging the responses of consecutive tubes. The cyclic response diagrams for the cylinder are then generated in terms of axial force and torsional moment related to axial deformation and angle of twist Słowa kluczowe: cyclic torsion, plastic deformation of cylinders, elasticperfectly plastic model, rigidperfectly plastic model, analytical solutions of cyclic response of a cylinder Afiliacje autorów:
 
39.  KowalczykGajewska K., OstrowskaMaciejewska J.^{♦}, Energybased limit criteria for anisotropic elastic materials with constraints, ARCHIVES OF MECHANICS, ISSN: 03732029, Vol.57, pp.133155, 2005  
40.  KowalczykGajewska K., Gambin W., Pęcherski R.B., OstrowskaMaciejewska J.^{♦}, Modelling of crystallographic texture development in metals accounting for microshearbands, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 17333490, Vol.50, No.3, pp.575593, 2005 Streszczenie: The rigidplastic model for the single grain is developed in which the velocity gradient is split into two parts connected with crystallographic slip and microshear bands respectively. For crystallographic slip the regularized Schmid law proposed by Gambin is used. For the microshear bands the model developed by Pęcherski, which accounts for the contribution of this mechanism in the rate of plastic deformation by means of a function fms is applied. Different constitutive equations for the plastic spin due to two considered mechanisms of plastic deformation are used. The present model is applied to simulate crystallographic texture evolution in the polycrystalline element. Słowa kluczowe: crystallographic texture, modelling of texture, microshear bands, regularized Schnid law, plastic spin Afiliacje autorów:
 
41.  Kowalczyk K., Gambin W., Model of plastic anisotropy evolution with texturedependent yield surface, International Journal of Plasticity, ISSN: 07496419, DOI: 10.1016/S07496419(03)00010X, Vol.20, No.1, pp.1954, 2004 Streszczenie: Model of evolution of plastic anisotropy due to crystallographic texture development, in metals subjected to large deformation processes, is presented. The model of single grain with the regularized Schmid law proposed by Gambin is used. Evolution of crystallographic texture during drawing, rolling and pure shear is calculated. Phenomenological texturedependent yield surface for polycrystalline sheets is proposed. Evolution of this yield surface is compared with evolution of phenomenological higher order yield surfaces proposed by Hill and Barlat with Lian for drawing, rolling and pure shear processes. The change of the Hill yield surface and the Barlat–Lian yield surface is obtained by replacing material parameters present in these conditions by texturedependent functions. Słowa kluczowe: Crystallographic texture, Anisotropic material, Crystal plasticity, Polycrystalline material Afiliacje autorów:
 
42.  Kowalczyk K., Mróz Z., Description of anisotropy of textured metals using macro and micro models, JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE IV, ISSN: 11554339, DOI: 10.1051/jp4:20030188, Vol.105, pp.199206, 2003 Streszczenie: In the paper description of anisotropy of textured metals using macro and micro models is compared. In the present macroapproach the texture anisotropy is described by introducing a second order microstructure tensor whose principal directions specify the orthotropy axes. A scalar orientation parameter $\eta$ is introduced in order to specify the relative orientation of the generalized traction vector with respect to anisotropy axes. The yield stress is assumed to depend on the parameter $\eta$ with specific forms introduced in order to provide quantitative description of yield stress variation with loading orientation. The phenomenological approach is next confronted with the microstructural approach based on the analysis of crystallographic slip and induced lattice reorientation in a representative grain aggregate. The resulting yield surface for polycrystalline aggregate is then compared with the macroscopic description based on the orientational variation of the yield stress. The proposed macro description seems much simpler from microapproach and could prove convenient in the analysis of technological processes for textured materials. Afiliacje autorów:

Lista ostatnich monografii
1. 314  OstrowskaMaciejewska J.^{♦}, KowalczykGajewska K., Rachunek tensorowy w mechanice ośrodków ciągłych, Biblioteka Mechaniki Stosowanej. Seria A: Monografie, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN, pp.1397, 2013 
2. 34  KowalczykGajewska K., Micromechanical modelling of metals and alloys of high specific strength, IPPT Reports on Fundamental Technological Research, 1, pp.1299, 2011 
Lista rozdziałów w ostatnich monografiach
1. 334  KowalczykGajewska K., Encyclopedia of Thermal Stresses, rozdział: Thermoplasticity of Polycrystals, Springer, Dordrecht, Holland, edit. by R.B. Hetnarski, LXXXIII (11 vols.), 11, pp.60646079, 2014 
Prace konferencyjne
1.  Wcisło B.^{♦}, Pamin J.^{♦}, KowalczykGajewska K., Menzel A.^{♦}, Numerical analysis of ellipticity condition for large strain plasticity, CMM 2017, 22nd International Conference on Computer Methods in Mechanics, 20170913/0916, Lublin (PL), DOI: 10.1063/1.5019150, Vol.1922, No.1, pp.14000818, 2018 Streszczenie: This paper deals with the numerical investigation of ellipticity of the boundary value problem for isothermal finite strain elastoplasticity. Ellipticity can be lost when softening occurs. A discontinuity surface then appears in the considered material body and this is associated with the illposedness of the boundary value problem. In the paper the condition for ellipticity loss is derived using the deformation gradient and the first PiolaKirchhoff stress tensor. Next, the obtained condition is implemented and numerically tested within symbolicnumerical tools AceGen and AceFEM using the benchmark of an elongated rectangular plate with imperfection in plane stress and plane strain conditions. Afiliacje autorów:
 15p.  
2.  Pieczyska E.A., Staszczak M., Maj M., KowalczykGajewska K., Cristea M.^{♦}, Tobushi H.^{♦}, Hayashi S.^{♦}, Thermomechanical analysis of shape memory polyurethane PUSMP, 6th International Conference on Mechanics and Materials in Design, 20150726/0730, Ponta Delgada (PT), pp.783786, 2015 Streszczenie: Experimental results of effects of thermomechanical couplings occurring in polyurethane shape memory polymer (PUSMP) during tension at different strain rates are presented. Stressstrain curves were recorded by MTS 858 testing machine. The temperature changes were estimated by using a fast and sensitive infrared camera (Phoenix FLIR IR System). The stress and temperature vs. strain characteristics obtained during the tension enable to investigate the SMP deformation process and distinguish 3 different stages: the first, accompanied by a drop in temperature called thermoelastic effect, related to a limit of the material reversible deformation, the second plastic stage, associated with change of the material structure and significant increase in temperature, and the third  related to the mechanisms of damage  a breaking of the polymer chains, leading to the specimen rupture. Słowa kluczowe: shape memory polymer, thermomechanical coupling, tension, infrared camera Afiliacje autorów:
 15p.  
3.  Staszczak M., Pieczyska E.A., Maj M., KowalczykGajewska K., Kukla D., Tobushi H.^{♦}, Hayashi S.^{♦}, Infrared thermography analysis of thermomechanical shape memory polymer behavior – initial loading stage, AITA, 13th International Workshop on Advanced Infrared Technology and Applications, 20150929/1002, Pisa (IT), pp.115118, 2015 Streszczenie: Experimental results of effects of thermomechanical couplings occurring in polyurethane shape memory polymer (PUSMP) subjected to cyclic loading at various strain rates are presented. Stressstrain characteristics were recorded by the testing machine, whereas the specimen temperature changes were measured by a fast and sensitive infrared camera. The influence of strain rate on the polymer thermomechanical behaviour was studied. It was found that the SMP is very sensitive to the strain rate. The higher the strain rate, the higher the values of the stress and temperature changes were obtained. In the initial stage of deformation a drop in temperature called thermoelastic effect, determining a limit of the material reversible deformation, was investigated. Słowa kluczowe: thermomechanical couplings, polyurethane shape memory polymer, cyclic loading, various strain rates, sensitive infrared camera, thermoelastic effect, thermoelastic effect, reversible deformation Afiliacje autorów:
 
4.  KowalczykGajewska K., Stupkiewicz S., Frydrych K., Petryk H., Modelling of Texture Evolution and Grain Refinement on Complex SPD Paths, JOURNAL OF PHYSICS: CONFERENCE SERIES, ISSN: 17426588, DOI: 10.1088/1757899X/63/1/012040, No.63, pp.012040110, 2014 Streszczenie: A computationally efficient procedure for modelling of microstructural changes on complex and spatially nonuniform deformation paths of severe plastic deformation (SPD) is presented. The analysis follows a twostep procedure. In the first step, motivated by saturation of material hardening at large accumulated strains, the steadystate kinematics of the process is generated for a nonhardening viscoplastic model by using the standard finite element method for a specified SPD scheme. In the second step, microstructural changes are investigated along the deformationgradient trajectories determined in the first step for different initial locations of a material element. The aim of this study is to predict texture evolution and grain refinement in a nonconventional process of cold extrusion assisted by cyclic rotation of the die, called KOBO process, which leads to an ultrafine grain structure. The texture evolution is calculated for fcc and hcp metals by applying crystal viscoplasticity combined with the selfconsistent scale transition scheme. In parallel, by applying the simplified phenomenological model of microstructure evolution along the trajectories, grain refinement is modelled. The results are compared with available experimental data. Słowa kluczowe: SPD processes, Texture evolution, UFG materials, Crystal plasticity, Grain refinement Afiliacje autorów:
 10p.  
5.  Pieczyska E., Maj M., KowalczykGajewska K., Staszczak M., Tobushi H.^{♦}, Hayashi S.^{♦}, Thermomechanical properties of shape memory alloys and polymers studied by advanced infrared techniques, PACAM, 14th PanAmerican Congress of Applied Mechanics, 20140324/0328, Santiago (CL), pp.16, 2014 Streszczenie: The paper presents experimental evaluation and modelling of effects of thermomechanical couplings in shape memory alloy (SMA) and shape memory polymer (SMP). TiNi SMA and polyurethane PUSMP are subjected to tension on MTS Testing machine. Fast infrared camera (IR) Phoenix FLIR System enable obtaining temperature distribution and average temperature changes of the specimens during the deformation process. Mechanical and infrared characteristics recorded during the SMA loading show that after initial, macroscopically homogeneous deformation a localized transformation develops, accompanied by significant temperature changes. Inclined bands of higher temperature accompanying exothermic forward transformation are recorded during the loading, whereas bands of lower temperature related to endothermic reverse transformation are observed during the unloading process. The infrared imaging and average temperature of the SMA sample compared to their mechanical characteristics allow to investigate the current stage of the stressinduced transformation process. A decrease of the specimen temperature reveals the saturation stage of the transformation. Both mechanical and thermal effects significantly depend on the strain rate; the higher the strain rate, the higher the temperature and stress are obtained. Similar experimental methodology is applied to investigate effects of thermomechanical couplings in shape memory polyurethane subjected to tension at various strain rates. Constitutive model valid in finite strain regime is proposed, where the SMP is described as a twophase material composed of hyperelastic rubbery phase and elasticviscoplastic glassy phase, while the volume content of phases is specified by the current temperature. Experimental results and modelling show that the SMP deformation process strongly depends on the strain rate, much stronger than for metals and alloys. At higher strain rate higher stress and temperature changes are obtained, since the deformation process is more dynamic and occurs in almost adiabatic conditions. It is shown that during the SMP loading process various deformation mechanisms are active at various strain rates. Słowa kluczowe: shape memory alloy, transformation bands, infrared camera, constitutive model, shape memory polymers, elastic modulus, yield stress, glass transition temperature, shape fixity, shape recovery Afiliacje autorów:
 
6.  Staszczak M., Pieczyska E.A., Maj M., KowalczykGajewska K., Cristea M.^{♦}, Tobushi H.^{♦}, Hayashi S.^{♦}, Mechanical and infrared thermography analysis of shape memory polymer  focus on thermoelastic effect, QIRT 2014, 12th International Conference on Quantitative Infrared Thermography, 20140707/0711, Bordeaux (FR), pp.18319, 2014 Streszczenie: Experimental results of effects of thermomechanical couplings occurring in polyurethane shape memory polymer (PUSMP) subjected to cyclic loading at , are presented. Stressstrain characteristics were recorded by the testing machine, whereas the specimen temperature changes were measured by a fast and sensitive infrared camera. The influence of strain rate on the polymer thermomechanical behaviour is studied. It was found that PUSMP is very sensitive to the strain rate. The higher the strain rate, the higher the values of stress and temperature changes were obtained. In the initial stage of deformation a drop in temperature called thermoelastic effect was recorded determining a limit of the material reversible deformation. Słowa kluczowe: thermomechanical couplings, polyurethane shape memory polymer, cyclic loading, different strain rates, infrared camera, thermoelastic effect Afiliacje autorów:
 
7.  Kursa M., KowalczykGajewska K., Petryk H., Multiobjective optimization of effective thermomechanical properties of metalceramic composites, ECCOMAS 2012, 6th European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering, 20120910/0914, Wiedeń (AT), Vol.1, pp.19, 2012 Streszczenie: Micromechanical modelling of metalceramic composites has been carried out to obtain a material of required thermomechanical properties. Quantitative transition from phase properties and morphology to macroscopic properties of a composite has been modelled by meanfield approaches, including the selfconsistent scheme. An optimization method has been developed for the objective function that expresses a distance between the required values of macrovariables and those determined for a given set of microstructural parameters. The presented example concerns application of Al2O3Cu composite to brake disks. Słowa kluczowe: multiobjective optimization, composite selection, metal matrix composites Afiliacje autorów:
 
8.  Wcisło B.^{♦}, Żebro T.^{♦}, KowalczykGajewska K., Pamin J.^{♦}, Finite strain inelastic models with gradient averaging and AceGen implementation, ECCOMAX 2012, 6th European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering, 20120910/0914, Wiedeń (AT), Vol.1, pp.115, 2012 Streszczenie: This paper deals with the development of a family gradientenhanced elasticitydamageplasticity models for the simulation of failure in metallic and composite materials. The model incorporates finite deformations and is developed with the assumption of isotropy and isothermal conditions. The gradient enhancement applied to the damage part of the model aims at removing pathological sensitivity to the finite element discretization which can occur due to material softening. The attention is focused on the algorithmic aspects and on the implementation of the model using AceGen tool for automatic code generation, thus circumventing the cumbersome derivation of the consistent tangent for the Newton’s method. Numerical verification tests of the described model are performed with the Mathematicabased package AceFEM. Particularly, uniaxial tension test for a bar with a variable crosssection and tension of a perforated plate are examined. Słowa kluczowe: large strain, damage, plasticity, gradientenhancement, AceGen package Afiliacje autorów:
 
9.  Pęcherski R.B., KowalczykGajewska K., Nowak Z., Opis udziału pasm ścinania w płynięciu plastycznym polikrystalicznych metali z uwzględnieniem wpływu zmiany drogi odkształcenia, Niejednorodności odkształcenia w procesach przeróbki plastycznej i rekrystalizacji, Seminarium poświęcone 70. rocznicy urodzin Profesora Z. Jasieńskiego, 20050121/0121, Kraków (PL), pp.191202, 2005 
Abstrakty konferencyjne
1.  Majewski M., KowalczykGajewska K., Hołobut P., Kursa M., Micromechanical modelling of packing and size effects in particulate elastoplastic composites, ESMC, 10th European Solid Mechanics Conference, 20180702/0706, Bologna (IT), pp.1, 2018 Słowa kluczowe: meanfield modelling, numerical homogenization, elastoplasticity Afiliacje autorów:
 
2.  KowalczykGajewska K., Maździarz M., Twophase meanfield estimate for the effective stiffness tensor of nanocrystalline materials of cubic symmetry, SES2018, 55th Annual Technical Meeting of the Society of Engineering Science, 20181010/1012, Madrid (ES), pp.1, 2018  
3.  Majewski M., KowalczykGajewska K., Inclusion shape in meanfield micromechanical models, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 20180827/0831, Warszawa (PL), pp.5859, 2018  
4.  Kursa M., KowalczykGajewska K., Lewandowski M.J., Petryk H., Validation of meanfield approaches for the description of elasticplastic twophase composites, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 20180827/0831, Warszawa (PL), pp.7071, 2018  
5.  Sadowski P., KowalczykGajewska K., Stupkiewicz S., Micromechanical modelling of elastoplastic composites: efficient and robust finiteelement implementation of MoriTanaka model, CNM, 5th Conference on Nano and Micromechanics, 20170704/0706, Wrocław (PL), No.O08, pp.3133, 2017 Słowa kluczowe: Meanfield homogenization, MoriTanaka method, Composite materials, Finite element method Afiliacje autorów:
 
6.  Libura T., Kowalewski Z.L., KowalczykGajewska K., The Bauschinger Effect in thin sheet magnesium alloy using antibuckling fixture, DAS 2017, 34th DanubiaAdria Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 20170919/0922, Trieste (IT), pp.12, 2017  
7.  Libura T., Kowalewski Z.L., KowalczykGajewska K., Dietrich L., Strainhardening effect in thinsheet magnesium alloy AZ31B under low cyclic loading, XII Konferencja „Nowe Kierunki Rozwoju Mechaniki”, 20170322/0325, Białystok  Supraśl (PL), pp.12, 2017 Streszczenie: Optimization of sheet metal forming processes requires a very good knowledge of material forming ability. During the forming of industrial parts, very complex strain paths are usually observed and can affect the formability of the sheet. Therefore, it is necessary to better understand and more accurately investigate deformation behaviour of sheet alloys. It should be noted that material testing of flat specimens under compression within a large deformation range procures many difficulties, and the buckling phenomenon seems to be the most important. This paper shows the results of tensioncompression tests carried out on specimens made of ultralight magnesium alloys AZ31B with nominal thickness equal to 1 mm using the antibuckling fixture to avoid buckling problem. Słowa kluczowe: Bauschinger effect, cyclic loading, buckling, fixture, thin sheet Afiliacje autorów:
 
8.  Libura T., Kowalewski Z.L., KowalczykGajewska K., Dietrich L., Low cycle fatigue of a rolled magnesium alloy using antibuckling fixture, DYMAT, 10th Workshop, 20160824/0826, Poznań (PL), pp.5961, 2016  
9.  Frydrych K., KowalczykGajewska K., Modelling microstructure evolution in SPD processes in the framework of crystal plasticity theory, ICTAM XXIV, 24th International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 20160821/0826, Montréal (CA), pp.12, 2016  
10.  KowalczykGajewska K., The selfconsistent sequential averaging scheme for modelling elasticviscoplastic polycrystals: validation by finite element calculations, MTDM, 10th International Conference on Mechanics of Time Dependent Materials, 20160517/0520, Paris (FR), pp.6364, 2016 Słowa kluczowe: Micromechanics, Sequential linearization, SelfConsistent Scheme, Polycrystals, Finite Element Afiliacje autorów:
 
11.  Majewski M., Hołobut P., Kursa M., KowalczykGajewska K., Micromechanical modelling of packing and size effects in particulate elasticplastic composites, SolMech 2016, 40th Solid Mechanics Conference, 20160829/0902, Warszawa (PL), No.P099, pp.12, 2016  
12.  Sadowski P., KowalczykGajewska K., Stupkiewicz S., Efficient algorithmic treatment of the incremental Mori–Tanaka scheme for elastoplastic composites, SolMech 2016, 40th Solid Mechanics Conference, 20160829/0902, Warszawa (PL), No.P070, pp.12, 2016  
13.  Wcisło B.^{♦}, Mucha M.^{♦}, KowalczykGajewska K., Pamin J.^{♦}, Large strain thermoelastoplasticity: simulation of shear banding for different stress states, SolMech 2016, 40th Solid Mechanics Conference, 20160829/0902, Warszawa (PL), No.P169, pp.12, 2016  
14.  KowalczykGajewska K., Frydrych K., Modelling of microstructure evolution in metals and alloys of high specific strength, SolMech 2016, 40th Solid Mechanics Conference, 20160829/0902, Warszawa (PL), No.P196, pp.12, 2016  
15.  Czarnota C.^{♦}, KowalczykGajewska K., Martiny M.^{♦}, Mercier S.^{♦}, Modeling of the cyclic behaviour of elastic viscoplastic composites by an additive tangent Mori Tanaka approach, ESMC 2015, 9th European Solid Mechanics Conference, 20150706/0710, LeganésMadrid (ES), pp.#21812, 2015 Streszczenie: This work deals with the prediction of the macroscopic behavior of twophase composites, based on the MoriTanaka scheme combined with an additive/sequential interaction rule and tangent linearization of viscoplastic response. Cyclic tension compression loadings are considered to further evaluate the approach. The composite is made of spherical inclusions dispersed in a matrix. Both materials have an elasticviscoplastic behavior. In the second part, finite element calculations are performed using ABAQUS/STANDARD software in order to validate the proposed homogenization technique. A representative volume element is analyzed with 30 randomly distributed inclusions. Słowa kluczowe: Multiscale Modeling, Elastoviscoplasticity, Mori Tanaka Scheme, Composite Afiliacje autorów:
 
16.  KowalczykGajewska K., Petryk H., The sequential selfconsistent scheme for modelling elasticviscoplastic polycrystals, ESMC 2015, 9th European Solid Mechanics Conference, 20150706/0710, LeganésMadrid (ES), pp.#21612, 2015 Streszczenie: The application of the sequential method for estimating the mechanical response of elasticviscoplastic polycrystals of high viscous anisotropy is discussed. The results are compared with other averaging schemes. Since the anisotropy of viscous response is high the estimated overall response is dramatically different for different averaging schemes. Additionally the effect of different linearization procedure for the viscous part is studied, denoted as secant, affine and tangent. The results are compared to the recent FFT analysis available in the literature. For the studied example the tangent variant provides the overall response that agrees best with the FFT predictions. Słowa kluczowe: Micromechanics, Sequential linearization, SelfConsistent Scheme, Polycrystals Afiliacje autorów:
 
17.  Frydrych K., KowalczykGajewska K., Modelling of texture evolution and grain refinement in metals and alloys of high specific strength in SPD processes, EUROMAT 2015, European Congress and Exhibition on Advanced Materials and Processes, 20150920/0924, Warszawa (PL), pp.C1.112, 2015 Streszczenie: Texture evolution and grain refinement in materials subjected to severe plastic deformation (SPD), in particular the ECAP and KoBo extrusion processes are examined in this work. The well known ECAP process consists in extruding a billet through an angular channel. In the KOBO process material is extruded with assistance of cyclic rotation of a die. Both processes lead to considerable grain refinement and often to strong texture evolution [2,5]. The VPSC code itself provides different variants of selfconsistent (SC) micromacro transition scheme. It was combined with the proposed crystal plasticity framework and has been used to simulate texture evolution. However, this model is twoscale and does not predict the grain refinement. In order to examine the latter phenomenon threescale model of microstructure evolution was developed. The model is able to combine two micromacro transition schemes to simulate the evolution of orientations inside a grain and decide if the formation of subgrains has occurred. Słowa kluczowe: texture evolution, grain refinement, SPD processes, crystal plasticity, micromechanics Afiliacje autorów:
 
18.  Staszczak M., Pieczyska E., Maj M., KowalczykGajewska K., Cristea M.^{♦}, Tobushi H.^{♦}, Hayashi S.^{♦}, Shape memory polymer – shape fixity and recovery in cyclic loading, PCMCMM 2015, 3rd Polish Congress of Mechanics and 21st Computer Methods in Mechanics, 20150908/0911, Gdańsk (PL), pp.147148, 2015 Streszczenie: The paper concerns investigation of polyurethane shape memory polymer (SMP) properties. Shape fixity and shape recovery, important parameters for the SMP applications, were quantitatively estimated in thermomechanical cyclic loading; three subsequent thermomechanical loading cycles were performed. It was observed that the shape fixity is proper and does not depend on the cycle number. The obtained mean values of shape fixity parameters are 9798 %. Although the shape recovery is poor (=83 %) in the first cycle of the thermomechanical loading, it is excellent in the subsequent cycles (=99100 %). The evaluated parameters confirm good shape memory properties of the SMP. Słowa kluczowe: Shape memory polyurethane, shape fixity, shape recovery, thermomechanical loading, cyclic loading Afiliacje autorów:
 
19.  Majewski M., Hołobut P., Kursa M., KowalczykGajewska K., Description of packing and size effects in particulate composites by micromechanical averaging schemes and computational homogenization, PCMCMM 2015, 3rd Polish Congress of Mechanics and 21st Computer Methods in Mechanics, 20150908/0911, Gdańsk (PL), pp.571572, 2015 Streszczenie: Different approaches to model packing and size effects are studied to model overall properties of particulate composites of different morphological features of phase distribution. The micromechanical schemes originating in the composite sphere model and its extension by morphologicallybased pattern approach are taken as a basis. Analytical predictions are compared with results of computational homogenization performed on the generated representative volume elements of prescribed statistical characteristics. Słowa kluczowe: micromechanics, morphologically representative pattern, computational homogenization, size and scale effect Afiliacje autorów:
 
20.  KowalczykGajewska K., Frydrych K., Maj M., Urbański L., Micromechanical modelling of magnesium alloy and its experimental verification, PCMCMM 2015, 3rd Polish Congress of Mechanics and 21st Computer Methods in Mechanics, 20150908/0911, Gdańsk (PL), pp.677678, 2015 Streszczenie: Micromechanical modelling of magnesium alloys is presented. The applied model combines the crystal plasticity framework accounting for twinning with the selfconsistent graintopolycrystal scale transition scheme. The mechanical response of the material in the experiments involving the strain path changes is studied, together with the prediction of the accompanying texture evolution. It is demonstrated that the evolution of microstructure has an important impact on the overall material behaviour. The model predictions will be verified in experiments performed on the rolled sheets made of AZ31B alloy Słowa kluczowe: micromechanics, crystal plasticity, twinning, texture evolution Afiliacje autorów:
 
21.  Pieczyska E., Staszczak M., Maj M., KowalczykGajewska K., Tobushi H.^{♦}, Właściwości termomechaniczne i zastosowania polimerów z pamięcią kształtu, XI Konferencja Nowe Kierunki Rozwoju Mechaniki, 20150318/0320, Sarbinowo (PL), pp.7576, 2015 Streszczenie: Polimery z pamięcią kształtu, podobnie jak niektóre stopy metali, wykazują efekt pamięci kształtu. Wykorzystuje się w nich różnicę właściwości termomechanicznych poniżej i powyżej temperatury zeszklenia Tg, w której polimer radykalnie zmienia swe własności, m.in. wartość modułu sprężystości. Materiały te posiadają możliwość szybkiej zmiany właściwości fizycznych w zależności od temperatury. Stają się miękkie po podgrzaniu powyżej Tg i pozwalają się łatwo formować, a podczas schłodzenia poniżej tej temperatury odzyskują poprzednią sztywność. Nadal pamiętają swój oryginalny kształt i wracają do niego podczas ponownego podgrzania powyżej Tg. Umożliwia to ich różnorodne praktyczne zastosowania, m.in. w przemyśle medycznym i farmaceutycznym, tekstylnym, spożywczym, lotniczym i kosmicznym. Słowa kluczowe: Polimery z pamięcią kształtu, temperatura zeszklenia, wartość modułu sprężystości, kamera termowizyjna Afiliacje autorów:
 
22.  Pieczyska E.A., Maj M., KowalczykGajewska K., Staszczak M., Tobushi H.^{♦}, Hayashi S.^{♦}, Cristea M.^{♦}, Thermomechanical analysis of shape memory polymer under cyclic loading and relaxation conditions, ICEM16, 16th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics, 20140707/0711, Cambridge (GB), pp.12, 2014 Streszczenie: Experimental evaluation and modeling of a new polyurethane shape memory polymer (SMP) subjected to cyclic tension and stressrelaxation tests are presented. The influence of effects of thermomechanical couplings on the SMP thermomechanical behaviour for various strain rates was studied, basing on the sample temperature changes measured by a fast and sensitive infrared camera. The constitutive model valid in finite strain regime was developed following [5]. In the proposed approach SMP is described as a twophase material composed of hyperelastic rubbery phase and elasticviscoplastic glassy phase while the volume content of phases is specified by the current temperature. Słowa kluczowe: Experimental evaluation, constitutive modeling, polyurethane shape memory polymer, cyclic tension, stressrelaxation tests, effects of thermomechanical couplings, thermomechanical behaviour, various strain rates, temperature changes, sensitive infrared camera, hyperelastic rubbery phase, elasticviscoplastic glassy phase Afiliacje autorów:
 
23.  Frydrych K., KowalczykGajewska K., Stupkiewicz S., Modelling of microstructure evolution in hcp polycrystals on nonproportional strain paths, SolMech 2014, 39th Solid Mechanics Conference, 20140901/0905, Zakopane (PL), pp.207208, 2014 Streszczenie: Microstructure evolution in hcp polycrystals subjected to severe plastic deformation, in particular in the KOBO extrusion and the equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) processes, are examined in this work, using the crystal plasticity framework. Modelling approach combines the large strain crystal plasticity model accounting for twinning and the tangent variant of the selfconsistent (SC) scale transition scheme. Słowa kluczowe: hcp polycrystals, twinning, SPD processes, crystal plasticity, selfconsistent model, microstructure evolution Afiliacje autorów:
 
24.  KowalczykGajewska K., Pieczyska E.A., Maj M., Staszczak M., Majewski M., Cristea M.^{♦}, Tobushi H.^{♦}, Twophase model of shape memory polymers at finite strains: formulation and experimental verification, SolMech 2014, 39th Solid Mechanics Conference, 20140901/0905, Zakopane (PL), pp.259260, 2014 Streszczenie: A constitutive model of SMP, formulated at large strain format, is developed. SMP is described as a twophase material composed of a soft rubbery phase and a hard glassy phase. The volume fraction of each phase is postulated as a logistic function of temperature. Identification of model parameters has been performed using the experimental tensile loadingunloading tests with different strain rates conducted at thermal chamber at different temperatures. Słowa kluczowe: shapememory polymers, twophase model, large strain framework Afiliacje autorów:
 
25.  Staszczak M., Pieczyska E.A., Maj M., KowalczykGajewska K., Cristea M.^{♦}, Tobushi H.^{♦}, Hayashi S.^{♦}, Estimation of shape fixity and shape recovery – crucial parameters for shape memory polymer applications, SolMech 2014, 39th Solid Mechanics Conference, 20140901/0905, Zakopane (PL), pp.267268, 2014 Streszczenie: Shape memory polymers (SMP) are new unique and attractive materials which demonstrate shape memory properties. It means that the materials, as a result of an external stimulus such as temperature, can recover their original (permanent) shape from deformed (temporary) shape. The mechanical characteristics of SMP, e.g. the elastic modulus and the yield stress, change significantly below and above their glass transition temperature Tg. It can be explained by differences of molecular motion of the polymer chains below and above Tg [1, 2]. Two phenomena due to this can be observed in the SMP. The first one is a shape fixity which means that it is possible to fix a temporary shape by cooling the deformed SMP below Tg. The second phenomenon, called a shape recovery, denotes the property that the original shape, changed due to deformation, is recovered during subsequent heating above the SMP Tg temperature. Preliminary estimation of these two parameters, crucial to assess SMP potential applications, is the subject of this paper [1]. Słowa kluczowe: Shape memory polymers, elastic modulus, yield stress, glass transition temperature, shape fixity, shape recovery Afiliacje autorów:
 
26.  Pieczyska E., Tobushi H.^{♦}, Hayashi S.^{♦}, Maj M., KowalczykGajewska K., Staszczak M., Cristea M.^{♦}, Thermomechanical Analysis of Shape Memory Polyurethane, 4th Integrity, Reliability and Failure of Mechanical Systems, 20130623/0627, Funchal (PT), pp.12, 2013 Streszczenie: This paper presents experimental evaluation of a new polyurethane shape memory polymer (PUSMP) produced by SMP Technologies Inc. It discusses mechanical characteristics and temperature changes of the SMP specimens subjected to tension test performed at room temperature with various strain rates. Basing on the mechanical data and the relevant temperature changes, we have studied the thermomechanical properties of the PUSMP and influence of the strain rate on the strain localization behavior. Finally, we have identified the material parameters for the onedimensional rheological model of the SMP. Słowa kluczowe: shape memory polyurethane, tension test, dynamic mechanical analysis, infrared camera, temperature change, thermomechanical properties, rheological model Afiliacje autorów:
 
27.  Pieczyska E.A., Maj M., KowalczykGajewska K., Staszczak M., Mechanical and Infrared Thermography Analysis of Shape Memory Polyurethane, International Conference on Shape Memory and Superelastic Technologies, 20130520/0524, Praga (CZ), pp.282283, 2013 Streszczenie: Initial experimental evaluation of a new polyurethane shape memory polyner (PUSMP) subjected to uniaxial tension carrięd out at different stlain rates is presented. The stress and strain data were recorded and temperature changes from the SMP specimen surface was deternrined using fast and sensitive infrared camera. Basing on themechanical characteristics and their relevant temperature changes, the SMP thernromechanical properties have been stLrdied. lnfluence of the strain rate on the SMP temperature, its structure and behaviour are discussed. Identification of the PUSMP parameters for oncdimensional rheological model proposed by Tobushi et. ttl. will be performed. Słowa kluczowe: Shape memory polymers, elastic modulus, yield stress, glass transition temperature Afiliacje autorów:
 
28.  KowalczykGajewska K., Micromechanical modelling of metallic materials of high specific strength accounting for sliptwin interactions, SolMech 2008, 36th Solid Mechanics Conference, 20080909/0912, Gdańsk (PL), pp.236237, 2008  
29.  KowalczykGajewska K., Pęcherski R.B., Micromechanical modeling of polycrystalline materials, Plasticity 2006, 12th International Symposium on Plasticity and Its Current Applications, 20060717/0722, Halifax (CA), Vol.CD ROM, pp.556558, 2006  
30.  KowalczykGajewska K., Mróz Z., Pęcherski R.B., Micromechanical modeling of polycrystalline materials under nonproportional deformation paths, SolMech 2006, 35th Solid Mechanics Conference, 20060904/0908, Kraków (PL), pp.213214, 2006 