prof. dr hab. inż. Michał Basista 

Doktorat
1985  Równania konstytutywne i ocena nośności granicznej ośrodków ze wstępną anizotropią struktury
 418 
Habilitacja
2002  Micromechanical and lattice modeling of brittle damage 
Profesura
20191128  Nadanie tytułu naukowego profesora 
Promotor prac doktorskich
1.  20180125  Poniżnik Zuzanna  Modelling of effective properties and fracture of metalceramic interpenetrating phase composites  698  
2.  20170616  Pandi Pitachi (POLIMI)  Computational micromechanical analysis of metal ceramic composites  
3.  20090122  Węglewski Witold  Modelowanie zniszczenia betonu wywołanego korozją siarczanową  623 
Ostatnie publikacje
1.  Węglewski W., Pitchai P.^{♦}, Bochenek K., Bolzon G.^{♦}, Konetschnik R.^{♦}, Sartory B.^{♦}, Ebner R.^{♦}, Kiener D.^{♦}, Basista M., Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Deformation and Fracture Mode of Microcantilever Beams Made of Cr(Re)/Al2O3 Metal–Matrix Composite, METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS APHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, ISSN: 10735623, DOI: 10.1007/s11661020056873, pp.114, 2020 Streszczenie: This work presents a combined experimental and computational study of the deformation and fracture of microcantilever specimens made of chromium(rhenium)alumina metal–matrix composite (MMC), with a particular focus on the failure properties of the metal–ceramic interfaces. The obtained experimental results show that the bending strength of microcantilevers containing alumina particles in critical crosssections near specimen’s fixed end is considerably higher than that of unreinforced chromium(rhenium) samples. Brittle cracking along chromium–alumina interfaces is the dominant fracture mode of the composite microcantilevers. The interface characteristics are determined in an indirect way by numerical simulations of the experiment with account of the actual specimen microstructure from the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. A parametric study demonstrates that the overall material response may be reproduced by different sets of model parameters, whereas the actual failure mode permits to discriminate among the possible alternatives. Using this approach, the in situ values of the chromium–alumina interface cohesive strength and the fracture energy are estimated. Afiliacje autorów:
 200p.  
2.  Węglewski W., Krajewski M., Bochenek K., Denis P., Wysmołek A.^{♦}, Basista M., Anomalous size effect in thermal residual stresses in pressure sintered aluminachromium composites, MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING ASTRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING, ISSN: 09215093, DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2019.138111, Vol.762, pp.138111110, 2019 Streszczenie: This paper explores an anomalous size effect in thermal residual stresses occurring in the alumina matrix of Al2O3/Cr sintered composite upon varying the particle size of the chromium reinforcement. When a coarse chromium powder (45 µm mean particle size) is used the average residual stress in the alumina phase after cooling is compressive in accordance with the classical Eshelby solution. However, in the case of a fine chromium (5 µm mean particle size) it switches to tension. This effect, detected by photoluminescence piezospectroscopy, is also confirmed by Xray and neutron diffraction experiments. As the classical micromechanics models are incapable to capture it, a finite element model is developed with the actual composite microstructure being reconstructed from the microtomography images. It is shown by numerical simulations that the anomalous size effect is associated with the complex microstructure of the composite fabricated with the fine chromium powder. It is also pointed out that the temperature dependence of the coefficients of thermal expansion of the matrix and the reinforcement affects the residual stress levels. Słowa kluczowe: thermal residual stress; metalceramic composites; size effect; microcomputed tomography, finite element analysis Afiliacje autorów:
 140p.  
3.  Krajewski M., Węglewski W., Bochenek K., Wysmołek A.^{♦}, Basista M., Optical measurements of thermal residual stresses in alumina reinforced with chromium, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, ISSN: 00218979, DOI: 10.1063/1.5083115, Vol.125, pp.135104110, 2019 Streszczenie: This work describes optical measurements of processinginduced thermal residual stresses in an alumina matrix reinforced with chromium particles. This ceramicmetal composite is manufactured by the powder metallurgy method comprising powder mixing in a planetary ball mill and consolidation by hot pressing. Two different chromium powders (5 μm and 45 μm mean particle size) are used, while the average Afiliacje autorów:
 70p.  
4.  Maj J., Basista M., Węglewski W., Bochenek K., StrojnyNędza A.^{♦}, Naplocha K.^{♦}, Panzner T.^{♦}, Tatarkova M.^{♦}, Fiori F.^{♦}, Effect of microstructure on mechanical properties and residual stresses in interpenetrating aluminumalumina composites fabricated by squeeze casting, MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING ASTRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING, ISSN: 09215093, DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2017.12.091, Vol.715, pp.154162, 2018 Streszczenie: Aluminumalumina composites with interpenetrating network structure are interesting structural materials due to their high resistance to elevated temperature and frictional wear, good heat conductivity, enhanced mechanical strength and fracture toughness. In this paper aluminumalumina bulk composites and FGMs are manufactured by pressure infiltration of porous alumina preforms with molten aluminium alloy (EN AC44200). Influence of the interpenetrating microstructure on the macroscopic bending strength, fracture toughness, hardness and heat conduction is examined. Special focus is on processinginduced thermal residual stresses in aluminiumalumina composites due to their potentially detrimental effects on material performance in structural elements under inservice conditions. The residual stresses are measured experimentally in the ceramic phase by neutron diffraction and simulated numerically using a microCT based Finite Element model, which takes into account the actual interpenetrating microstructure of the composite. The model predictions for two different volume fractions of alumina agree fairly well with the neutron diffraction measurements Słowa kluczowe: A. stress measurements, Xray analysis, finite element analysis, B. composites, C. casting methods Afiliacje autorów:
 35p.  
5.  Bochenek K., Węglewski W., Morgiel J.^{♦}, Basista M., Influence of rhenium addition on microstructure, mechanical properties and oxidation resistance of NiAl obtained by powder metallurgy, MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING ASTRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING, ISSN: 09215093, DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2018.08.032, Vol.735, pp.121130, 2018 Streszczenie: The search for new materials capable of replacing nickelbased superalloys in aerospace applications has increased rapidly in the recent years. One of the candidates for this purpose is nickel aluminide NiAl provided that its main drawback, namely the inferior fracture toughness at room temperature is overcome. We propose rhenium as an addition to NiAl to improve its mechanical properties without compromising on the oxidation resistance. Two powder metallurgy techniques (HP and SPS) were used to obtain NiAl/Re sinters. Small amounts of rhenium (0.6 at.%; 1.25at.%; 1.5 at.%) almost doubled the flexural strength of NiAl and improved its fracture toughness by 60%. Microscopic investigations revealed rhenium particles at the boundaries of NiAl grains resulting in an enhanced fracture toughness. Mass changes during oxidation at 900 oC, 1100 oC and 1300 oC were relatively low. Plausible mechanisms of the fracture toughness enhancement and the oxidation behavior are discussed. Słowa kluczowe: nickel aluminide, rhenium, fracture toughness, oxidation resistance, powder metallurgy, grain boundary strengthening Afiliacje autorów:
 35p.  
6.  Poniżnik Z., Nowak Z., Basista M., Numerical modeling of deformation and fracture of reinforcing fibers in ceramic–metal composites, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DAMAGE MECHANICS, ISSN: 10567895, DOI: 10.1177/1056789515611945, Vol.26, No.5, pp.711734, 2017 Streszczenie: This paper is concerned with numerical modeling of deformation and fracture of a metal ligament bridging the crack faces in ceramic–metal composites, as a prerequisite for the determination of the J integral for composites with interpenetrating microstructure. A finite element model is proposed of an elastoplastic crackreinforcing fiber undergoing large plastic deformations and progressive debonding from the elastic matrix through a cohesive matrix–fiber interface. The σu relationships are derived first in the case of pullout of an elastoplastic fiber embedded in an elastic matrix and then in uniaxial tension of the elastoplastic fiber bridging the crack faces in elastic matrix. The obtained numerical results are discussed and compared with the theoretical predictions reported by other authors. Słowa kluczowe: Ceramic–metal composites, fracture modeling, crack bridging, fiber pullout, cohesive interface, fiber debonding, finite element simulations Afiliacje autorów:
 35p.  
7.  Kuśnierczyk K., Basista M., Recent advances in research on magnesium alloys and magnesium – calcium phosphate composites as biodegradable implant materials, JOURNAL OF BIOMATERIALS APPLICATIONS, ISSN: 08853282, DOI: 10.1177/0885328216657271, Vol.31, No.6, pp.878900, 2017 Streszczenie: Magnesium alloys are modern biocompatible materials suitable for orthopaedic implants due to their biodegradability in biological environment. Many studies indicate that there is a high demand to design magnesium alloys with controllable in vivo corrosion rates and required mechanical properties. A solution to this challenge can be sought in the development of metal matrix composites based on magnesium alloys with addition of relevant alloying elements and bioceramic particles. In this study, the corrosion mechanisms along with corrosion protection methods in magnesium alloys are discussed. The recently developed magnesium alloys for biomedical applications are reviewed. Special attention is given to the newest research results in metal matrix composites composed of magnesium alloy matrix and calcium phosphates, especially hydroxyapatite or tricalcium phosphate, as the second phase with emphasis on the biodegradation behavior, microstructure and mechanical properties in view of potential application of these materials in bone implants. Słowa kluczowe: Biomaterials, biodegradable, metal matrix composites, magnesium alloys, corrosion, hydroxyapatite, bone repair Afiliacje autorów:
 30p.  
8.  Basista M., Węglewski W., Bochenek K., Poniżnik Z., Nowak Z., MicroCT Finite Element Analysis of Thermal Residual Stresses and Fracture in MetalCeramic Composites, Advanced Engineering Materials, ISSN: 14381656, DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600725, Vol.19, No.8, pp.160072519, 2017 Streszczenie: This paper presents a simple way of using Xray microcomputed tomography (microCT) in numerical modeling of material properties of metalceramic composites. It shows step by step the proposed methodology with details of the finite element mesh creation, so that it can easily be reproduced by interested researchers. Two case studies are considered to show the proposed approach at work: i) determination of processinginduced residual stresses in hot pressed Cr/Al2O3 and NiAl/Al2O3 particulate composites and ii) determination of Jintegral for an interpenetrating phase composite made of porous alumina preform infiltrated with molten copper. The method is straightforward and effective but has its limitations that are pointed out. Afiliacje autorów:
 30p.  
9.  Basista M., Jakubowska J., Węglewski W., Processing Induced Flaws in Aluminum–Alumina Interpenetrating Phase Composites, Advanced Engineering Materials, ISSN: 14381656, DOI: 10.1002/adem.201700484, Vol.19, No.12, pp.1700484114, 2017 Streszczenie: This review paper deals with flaws in aluminum–alumina composites and FGMs induced by their manufacturing processes. Aluminum–alumina composites have been studied for many years as potentially interesting materials for applications, for example, in the automotive sector due to their enhanced mechanical strength, wear resistance, good heat conductivity and low specific weight. The focus here is on the interpenetrating phase composites (IPCs) manufactured by infiltration of porous alumina preforms with molten aluminum alloys. The primary objective is to provide an updated overview of research findings on a variety of flaws occurring at different stages of the manufacturing processes. Some precautions on how to avoid processing induced flaws in aluminum–alumina bulk composites and FGMs are mentioned. Afiliacje autorów:
 30p.  
10.  StrojnyNędza A.^{♦}, Pietrzak K.^{♦}, Teodorczyk M.^{♦}, Basista M., Węglewski W., Chmielewski M.^{♦}, Influence of Material Ccating on the heat Transfer in a layered CuSiCCu Systems, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 17333490, DOI: 10.1515/amm20170199, Vol.62, No.2B, pp.13111314, 2017 Streszczenie: This paper describes the process of obtaining CuSiCCu systems by way of spark plasma sintering. A monocrystalline form of silicon carbide (6HSiC type) was applied in the experiment. Additionally, silicon carbide samples were covered with a layer of tungsten and molybdenum using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. Microstructural examinations and thermal properties measurements were performed. A special attention was put to the metalceramic interface. During annealing at a high temperature, copper reacts with silicon carbide. To prevent the decomposition of silicon carbide two types of coating (tungsten and molybdenum) were applied. The effect of covering SiC with the aforementioned elements on the composite’s thermal conductivity was analyzed. Results were compared with the numerical modelling of heat transfer in CuSiCCu systems. Certain possible reasons behind differences in measurements and modelling results were discussed. Słowa kluczowe: copper matrix composites, silicon carbide, interface, thermal conductivity, modelling Afiliacje autorów:
 30p.  
11.  Chmielewski M.^{♦}, Pietrzak K.^{♦}, Basista M., Węglewski W., Rhenium doped chromium–alumina composites for hightemperature applications, International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, ISSN: 02634368, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2015.07.012, Vol.54, pp.196202, 2016 Streszczenie: Dense chromium–alumina composites doped with rhenium have been developed by the hot pressing method (bulk composite) and plasma spraying (composite coating). The obtained materials show superior mechanical properties, insensitivity to chemically aggressive environment, good resistance to frictional wear and oxidation at elevated temperature. These enhanced properties make the Cr/Re/Al2O3 composites interesting structural materials for energy and transport applications operating in demanding service conditions, e.g. fluidal boilers in power plants or valve seats in combustion engines. Słowa kluczowe: Metal–ceramic composites, Powder technology, Mechanical properties, Coatings Afiliacje autorów:
 35p.  
12.  Bochenek K., Basista M., Advances in processing of NiAl intermetallic alloys and composites for high temperature aerospace applications, PROGRESS IN AEROSPACE SCIENCES, ISSN: 03760421, DOI: 10.1016/j.paerosci.2015.09.003, Vol.79, pp.136146, 2015 Streszczenie: Over the last few decades intermetallic compounds such as NiAl have been considered as potential high temperature structural materials for aerospace industry. A large number of investigations have been reported describing complex fabrication routes, introducing various reinforcing/alloying elements along with theoretical analyses. These research works were mainly focused on the overcoming of main disadvantage of nickel aluminides that still restricts their application range, i.e. brittleness at room temperature. In this paper we present an overview of research on NiAl processing and indicate methods that are promising in solving the low fracture toughness issue at room temperature. Other material properties relevant for high temperature applications are also addressed. The analysis is primarily done from the perspective of NiAl application in aero engines in temperature regimes from room up to the operating temperature (over 1150 °C) of turbine blades. Słowa kluczowe: Nickel aluminide, Intermetallics, Turbine blades, Fracture toughness, Manufacturing techniques Afiliacje autorów:
 50p.  
13.  Basista M., KMMVIN AISBL Europejski Instytut Wirtualny Materiałów Wielofunkcyjnych, Materiały Kompozytowe, ISSN: 20841949, Vol.4, pp.4851, 2015 Streszczenie: Współczesne modele prowadzenia badań naukowych i prac rozwojowych w dziedzinie zaawansowanych materiałów konstrukcyjnych i funkcjonalnych wymagają współpracy i integracji zespołów badawczych o uzupełniających się kompetencjach w zakresie metod wytwarzania materiałów, charakteryzacji mikrostruktury, badań właściwości i modelowania. Aby można było myśleć o praktycznym wykorzystaniu wyników badań i innowacjach przemysłowych z nich wynikających konieczny jest aktywny udział przemysłu już na wczesnym etapie powstawania koncepcji projektu, następnie podczas jego realizacji, a zwłaszcza na etapie weryfikacji uzyskanych wyników na demonstratorach i liniach pilotażowych. Słowa kluczowe: Europejski Instytut Wirtualny KMMVIN AISBL, zaawansowane materiały, współpraca europejska Afiliacje autorów:
 
14.  Węglewski W., Basista M., Manescu A.^{♦}, Chmielewski M.^{♦}, Pietrzak K.^{♦}, Schubert Th.^{♦}, Effect of grain size on thermal residual stresses and damage in sintered chromium–alumina composites: Measurement and modeling, COMPOSITES PART BENGINEERING, ISSN: 13598368, DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2014.06.027, Vol.67, pp.119124, 2014 Streszczenie: In this paper we present the results of experimental measurements and numerical modeling of the effect of particle size on the residual thermal stresses arising in sintered metal–matrix composites after cooling down from the fabrication temperature. On example of novel Cr(Re)/Al2O3 composites processed by (i) spark plasma sintering and (ii) hot pressing the residual thermal stresses are measured by neutron diffraction technique and determined by a FEM model based on microCT scans of the material microstructure. Then numerical model of microcracking induced by residual stresses is applied to predict the effective Young modulus of the damaged composite. Comparison of the numerical results with the measured data of the residual stresses and Young’s modulus is presented and fairly good agreement is noted. Słowa kluczowe: Metal–matrix composites (MMC), Residual/internal stress, Finite element analysis (FEA), Sintering Afiliacje autorów:
 40p.  
15.  Węglewski W., Bochenek K., Basista M., Schubert Th.^{♦}, Jehring U.^{♦}, Litniewski J., Mackiewicz S., Comparative assessment of Young’s modulus measurements of metalceramic composites using mechanical and nondestructive tests and microCT based computational modeling, COMPUTATIONAL MATERIALS SCIENCE, ISSN: 09270256, DOI: 10.1016/j.commatsci.2013.04.007, Vol.77, pp.1930, 2013 Streszczenie: It is commonly known that the available nondestructive and mechanical methods of the Young modulus measurement yield different results. This paper presents comparison of the results of experimental determination and numerical modeling of the Young modulus of Cr–Al2O3–Re composites (MMC) processed by a powder metallurgical method (SPS). In the computational model a finite element analysis is combined with images of the real material microstructure obtained from microcomputed tomography (microCT). Experimental measurements were carried out by four testing methods: threepoint bending, resonance frequency damping analysis (RFDA), ultrasonic pulseecho technique, and scanning acoustic microscopy. The paper also addresses the issue which of the four experimental methods at hand gives results closest to the theoretical predictions of the microCT based FEM model. Słowa kluczowe: Finite element analysis (FEA), MicroCT based FE model, Metal matrix composites, Elastic modulus, Mechanical and nondestructive techniques Afiliacje autorów:
 30p.  
16.  Basista M., Pietrzak K.^{♦}, Węglewski W., Chmielewski M.^{♦}, Kompozyty spiekane CrAl2O3 z dodatkiem renu. Wytwarzanie, właściwości, modelowanie, zastosowania, RUDY I METALE NIEŻELAZNE, ISSN: 00359696, Vol.R58, No.10, pp.556563, 2013 Streszczenie: Celem pracy było zbadanie wpływu dodatku renu na właściwości termomechaniczne i użytkowe kompozytów CrAl2O3 wytwarzanych metodą spiekania pod ciśnieniem w prasie HP oraz metodą Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). Uzyskano kompozyty o gęstości przekraczającej 98% gęstości teoretycznej. Właściwości mechaniczne (m.in. moduł Younga, wytrzymałość na zginanie, twardość, odporność na pękanie, granica plastycznośći) oraz odporność na utlenianie wytworzonych materiałów są obiecujące. Zbudowano model numeryczny do obliczeń wielkości naprężeń resztkowych obecnych w materiałach faz kompozytu po procesie spiekania oraz modułów sprężystości. Wykorzystano w tym celu obrazy rzeczywistej mikrostruktury kompozytu otrzymane z tomografii komputerowej. Uzyskano dobrą zgodność wyników modelu z wynikami pomiarów naprężeń metodą XRD. Przedstawiono ponadto porównanie wyników obliczeń numerycznych i pomiarów modułu Younga przy zastosowaniu różnych metod Słowa kluczowe: kompozyty MMC, metalurgia proszków, modelowanie MES, mikrotomografia komputerowa, naprężenia resztkowe Afiliacje autorów:
 7p.  
17.  Węglewski W., Basista M., Chmielewski M.^{♦}, Pietrzak K., Modeling of thermally induced damage in the processing of Cr–Al_{2}O_{3} composites, COMPOSITES PART BENGINEERING, ISSN: 13598368, DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2011.07.016, Vol.43B, No.2, pp.255264, 2012 Streszczenie: Thermal stresses induced during the cooling of Cr–Al2O3 (MMC) processed by sintering are modeled numerically using the FEA. The composite microstructure is modeled as (i) random distribution of ceramic particles (voxels) in the metal matrix, and (ii) using microCT scans of the real microstructure transformed into a FE mesh. Numerical simulations of the thermal residual stresses are compared with the test data measured by Xray diffraction. A simple numerical model is then proposed to predict the overall elastic properties of the composite with account of the porosity and damage induced by the thermal stresses. Comparison of the model predictions with the measured data for Young’s modulus is presented. Słowa kluczowe: Metalmatrix composites (MMCs), Residual/internal stress, Finite element analysis (FEA), Sintering Afiliacje autorów:
 45p.  
18.  Węglewski W., Chmielewski M.^{♦}, Kaliński D.^{♦}, Pietrzak K., Basista M., Thermal residual stresses generated during processing of Cr/Al2O3 composites and their influence on macroscopic elastic properties, Advances in Science and Technology, ISSN: 16620356, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AST.65.27, Vol.65, pp.2732, 2010 Streszczenie: This work is focused on the modeling of thermal stresses induced during the fabrication of the metal/ceramic composites. On example of CrAl2O3 composite processed by powder metallurgy, thermal stresses after fabrication are determined by FEM model for different contents of metal and ceramic phases. Numerical model of microcracking induced by thermal stresses is then proposed and applied to compute the overall elastic properties of the damaged composite. Comparison of the model predictions with the measur ed data for Young's modulus is presented. Słowa kluczowe: CrAl2O3 composite, mechanical properties, thermal stress modeling, microcracking, Young’s modulus modeling Afiliacje autorów:
 
19.  Basista M., Poniżnik Z., Modelling of effective elastic properties and crack bridging in metalceramic interpenetrating phase composites, World Journal of Engineering, ISSN: 17085284, Vol.7, pp.9596, 2010 Streszczenie: The metalceramic interpenetrating phase composites (IPC) are usually processed by pressure assisted or pressureless infiltration of molten metals into porous ceramic performs. They have characteristic microstructure different than typical MMC or CMC with particulate or fiber reinforcement. The main difference is that both metal and ceramic phases are spatially continuous forming complementary 3D skeletons of nonzero stiffness. The uniform microstructure, enhanced mechanical and thermal properties are the main advantages of IPC. A stateofthe art in fracture and damage modelling of IPC can be found in [1], while models of effective properties in [2] and [3]. The objective of this paper is twofold: (i) to model the effective elastic properties of IPC, and (ii) to model the fracture in IPC with the crack bridging being the major toughening mechanism. The developed models are verified on the example of Al2O3Cu infiltrated composites. Słowa kluczowe: Interpenetrating phase composites, effective elastic properties, crack bridging Afiliacje autorów:
 
20.  Basista M., Węglewski W., Chemically assisted damage of concrete: a model of expansion under external sulfate attack, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DAMAGE MECHANICS, ISSN: 10567895, Vol.18, pp.155175, 2009 Streszczenie: A micromechanical model is proposed to simulate the deformation of cementitious composites exposed to external sulfate attack. The model involves coupled physicochemical processes of nonsteady diffusion with reaction, topochemical reaction of ettringite formation, expansion of ettringite inclusions, microcracking of hardened cement paste and percolation of sulfates through heavily deteriorated mortar. The Fick’s second law with reaction term is assumed to govern the transport of the sulfate ions. The Eshelby solution and the equivalent inclusion method are used to determine the eigenstrain of expanding ettringite crystals in microcracked hardened cement paste. The degradation of transport properties is studied in the effective medium and the percolation regime. An initial boundary value problem (2D) of expansion of a mortar specimen immersed in a sodium sulfate solution is solved and compared with available test data. Słowa kluczowe: chemodamage, micromechanics, concrete, microcracking, sulfate attack Afiliacje autorów:
 32p.  
21.  Poniżnik Z., Salit V.^{♦}, Basista M., Gross D.^{♦}, Effective elastic properties of interpenetrating phase composites, COMPUTATIONAL MATERIALS SCIENCE, ISSN: 09270256, DOI: 10.1016/j.commatsci.2008.06.010, Vol.44, pp.813820, 2008 Streszczenie: Objective of this paper is to estimate the effective elastic properties of metalceramic interpenetrating phase composites (IPC). To this end, approximate analytical models such as Feng’s and Tuchinskii’s model were employed and checked against Voigt, Reuss, and Hashin–Shtrikman bounds. On the other hand, the overall elastic properties of IPC were determined by means of some numerical models suitable for the interpenetrating networks with model microstructures. A real Al2O3–Cu microstructure acquired from the computer tomography images was also used for numerical simulations. Słowa kluczowe: Interpenetrating phase composites, Metalceramic composites, Effective elastic moduli, Finite element method, Micromechanics, Microstructure Afiliacje autorów:
 
22.  Basista M., Węglewski W., Micromechanical modelling of sulphate corrosion in concrete: Influence of ettringite forming reaction, Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, ISSN: 14505584, DOI: 10.2298/TAM0803029B, Vol.35, No.13, pp.2952, 2008 Streszczenie: Two micromechanical models are developed to simulate the expansion of cementitious composites exposed to external sulphate attack. The di®erence between the two models lies in the form of chemical reaction of the ettringite formation (throughsolution vs. topochemical). In both models the Fick's second law with reaction term is assumed to govern the transport of the sulphate ions. The Eshelby solution and the equivalent inclusion method are used to determine the eigenstrain of the expanding ettringite crystals in microcracked hardened cement paste. The degradation of transport properties is studied in the efective medium and the percolation regime. An initialboundary value problem (2D) of expansion of a mortar specimen immersed in a sodium sulphate solution is solved and compared with available test data. The obtained results indicate that the topochemical mechanism is the one capable of producing the experimentally observed amount of expansion. Słowa kluczowe: chemodamage, sulphate attack, topochemical reaction, throughsolution reaction, ettringite, micromechanics, microcracking, percolation Afiliacje autorów:
 
23.  Basista M., Węglewski W., Modelling of damage and fracture in ceramicmatrix composites, JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL AND APPLIED MECHANICS, ISSN: 14292955, Vol.44, No.3, pp.455484, 2006 Streszczenie: This is a review paper on the existing approaches to modelling of discrete cracks (fracture) and diffuse microcracking (damage) in ceramic matrix composites under mechanical or thermal loading. The focus is on Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) with metal particle inclusions and on interpenetrating metal ceramic networks. The second phase in form of ceramic inclusions is not considered. The models of toughening mechanisms are discussed in considerable detail. Sections 25 deal with discrete cracks while Sections 69 with diffuse microcracking. The paper is concluded with identification of unresolved problems and topics for future research in the area of fracture and damage of CMC. Słowa kluczowe: ceramic matrix composites, particles, interpenetrating networks, fracture, damage, toughening mechanisms, bridging, cracks, microcracks, cavitation, debonding Afiliacje autorów:
 
24.  Basista M., Micromechanical and Lattice Modeling of Brittle Damage (Praca habilitacyjna), Prace IPPT  IFTR Reports, ISSN: 22993657, No.3, pp.1237, 2001  
25.  Basista M., Równania konstytutywne i ocena nośności granicznej ośrodków ze wstępną anizotropią struktury (Praca doktorska), Prace IPPT  IFTR Reports, ISSN: 22993657, No.41, pp.196, 1985  
26.  Basista M., O kontynualnych modelach uszkodzenia materiałów, Prace IPPT  IFTR Reports, ISSN: 22993657, No.40, pp.153, 1984  
27.  Basista M., Dolna ocena nośności granicznej ośrodków plastycznie anizotropowych w płaskim stanie odkształcenia, Prace IPPT  IFTR Reports, ISSN: 22993657, No.2, pp.129, 1981 
Abstrakty konferencyjne
1.  Węglewski W., Basista M., Krajewski M., Bochenek K., An unusual grain size effect in measurements of thermal residual stress in aluminachromium composites – explanation by modelling, 8th KMMVIN Industrial Workshop: Modelling of composite materials and composite coatings, 20181009/1010, Freiburg (DE), pp.22, 2018  
2.  Węglewski W., Basista M., Krajewski M., Bochenek K., Determination of thermal residual stresses in alumina reinforced with chromium – the grain size effect, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 20180827/0831, Warszawa (PL), pp.111112, 2018  
3.  Basista M., Modeling of fracture of chromiumalumina microcantilever beams in bending, THERMEC 2018, International Conference on PROCESSING & MANUFACTURING OF ADVANCED MATERIALS Processing, Fabrication, Properties, Applications, 20180709/0713, Paryż (FR), pp.1, 2018  
4.  Basista M., MicroCT based numerical modeling of residual stresses and fracture in metalceramic composites, 13TH NATIONAL CONGRESS ON THEORETICAL AND APPLIED MECHANICS, 20170906/0910, Sofia (BG), pp.11, 2017  
5.  Basista M., MicroCT based modeling of residual stresses and crack propagation in metalceramic composites, 21. Symposium Verbundwerkstoffe und Werkstoffverbunde, 20170705/0707, Bremen (DE), pp.1, 2017  
6.  Witecka A., Yamamoto A.^{♦}, Święszkowski W.^{♦}, Basista M., Influence of polymer film concentration on cytocompatibility and corrosion suppression of ZM21 magnesium alloy, 7th KMMVIN Industrial Workshop: Biomaterials: Key Technologies for Better Healthcare, 20170927/0928, Erlangen (DE), pp.1919, 2017  
7.  Węglewski W., Basista M., Bochenek K., The influence of microstructure on thermal residual stress and fracture toughness of nickel aluminidealumina composites – experiment and numerical model, ECerS2017, 15th Conference & Exhibition of the European Ceramic Society, 20170709/0713, Budapest (HU), No.357, pp.1, 2017  
8.  Bochenek K., Basista M., Morgiel J.^{♦}, Węglewski W., Towards the improvement of fracture toughness of NiAl intermetallics for aerospace applications, ICCE‐25, 25th Annual International Conference on Composites or Nano Engineering, 20170716/0722, Rome (IT), pp.12, 2017  
9.  Basista M., Węglewski W., Bochenek K., Poniżnik Z., Modelling of thermal residual stresses and fracture in metalceramic composites, 4th Dresden Nanoanalysis Symposium, 20160615/0615, Dresden (DE), pp.6, 2016 Streszczenie: In processing of metalceramic composites thermal residual stresses may result from different CTEs of the constituent materials, variable cooling rates inside the bulk material, or irregular pore shapes causing thermal stress concentrations.This paper investigates the interplay between material microstructure and processinginduced thermal residual stresses (TRS) in particulate bulk metalmatrix composites (MMC) and infiltrated phase composites (IPC) with the main objective to explore thecombined effect of TRS and microstructure on the macroscopic mechanical properties (E modulus, bending strength, fracture toughness) of the composite. The main focus is on numerical modelling of TRS, fracture toughness and effective elastic properties, while taking into account the real material microstructure from micro–computed tomography (microCT) experiments. The modelling methodology will be developed on examples ofa hot pressed chromiumalumina bulk MMCdoped with rheniumand on an IPC obtained by squeeze casting infiltrationof an alumina porous preform with molten Al alloyor Cu. Our interest in these particular compositesis motivated by their potential applications in transport and energy sectors. The paperwill includehighlights on the processingtechnologies used(HP, SPS, ceramic tape casting/squeeze casting infiltration), microscopic analysis of material microstructure with special focus on microCT scanning, measurements of TRS by neutron diffraction (ND) method, and numerical modelling of TRS by FEM using microCT images of real material microstructure. A numerical microCT based model developed to predict the TRS, Young’s modulus with account of TRSinduced damage of the ceramic phase will be shown (cf. Fig. 1). The grain size effect on TRS and Young’s modulus will be addressed. A good predictive capability of these TRS models was achieved which may become important considering the cost of beam time for ND experiments at neutron sources. Another model to be presented is concerned with microCT FEM modeling of fracture in infiltrated metalceramic composites. The model accounts for crack bridging toughening mechanism, large plastic deformations of metal ligaments, and matrixligament decohesion. Here the results on J integralin the case of compacttensiontest specimen made of real interpentrating phase composite will be discussed. Finally, the large pool of obtained experimental data and modelling results will be wrapped up and conclusions will be drawn. Słowa kluczowe: metalceramic composites, processing, thermal residual stresses, Youngs' modulus, microCT imaging, numerical modelling Afiliacje autorów:
 
10.  Węglewski W., Basista M., Bochenek K., Numerical modeling of thermal residual stress in NiAl/Al2O3 composites: Effect on mechanical properties, 5th KMMVIN Industrial Workshop: Multiscale and multiphysics materials modeling for advanced industries, 20160126/0127, Madryt (ES), pp.1, 2016 Streszczenie: In this paper a numerical model will be presented to investigate the influence of processinginduced thermal residual stresses (TRS) on the mechanical properties (E modulus, bending strength) in particulate bulk intermetallicceramic composites. The materials under consideration are hot pressed NiAl/20%Al2O3bulk composites sintered in different temperatures (1300 C deg. and 1400 C deg.). The reported research includes the processing of composites by powder metallurgy techniques (HP), microscopic analysis of material microstructure with special focus on microCT scanning, measurements of TRS by neutron diffraction (ND) method and numerical modeling of TRS by FEM based on microCT images of real material microstructure. Numerical microCT based models are proposed to predict the TRS and Young’s modulus with account of the TRSinduced damage of the ceramic phase. Our microCT based FEM models reproduce the TRS measurements with a good accuracy which may be an asset in applications having in mind the high cost of beam time for ND experiments at neutron sources. Finally, the experimental data and modeling results are compared to assess the TRS/microstructure effect on the Young’s modulus of the composites investigated. Słowa kluczowe: sintering, metalmatrix composites, thermal residual stresses, neutron diffraction, microCT based FEM model Afiliacje autorów:
 
11.  Bochenek K., Węglewski W., Basista M., The microstructure, mechanical properties and oxidation resistance of nickel aluminide based composites with various dopant elements for high temperature aerospace applications, 6th KMMVIN Industrial Workshop: Innovative Material Solutions for Transport Applications, 20160407/0408, Hatfield (GB), pp.1, 2016 Streszczenie: Intermetallic compounds such as NiAl manifest an attractive combination of mechanical and physical properties– low dens ity (5.9g/cm 3 ), high melting point (1676 o C), high thermal stability along with good oxidation and corrosion resistance. This has resulted in their numerous nonstructural applications such as thermal barrier coatings, but no successful structural application of NiAl has been reported yet. This is caused by its low ductility and poor fracture toughness (<5MPa√m ) at room temperature along with an insufficient impact resistance. There has been a lot of work done already in order to improve NiAl properties and implement this material in aeroengines. The results are very promising, but till now there has been no reported successful application of NiAl  based bulk materials in real in  service conditions [1  2 ]. Słowa kluczowe: NiAl intermetallics, microstructure, flexural strength, fracture toughness, oxidation resistance, aeroengines Afiliacje autorów:
 
12.  Jakubowska J., Węglewski W., Bochenek K., Kasiarova M.^{♦}, Dusza J.^{♦}, Basista M., Effect of microstructure and thermal residual stresses on fracture behaviour of metalceramic composites, AMT 2016, XXI Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science Conference  Advanced Materials and Technologies, 20160605/0608, Rawa Mazowiecka (PL), No.E07, pp.1, 2016 Streszczenie: In this paper the influence of material microstructure and thermal residual stresses on the macroscopic fracture toughness, Young’s modulus and bending strength of metalceramic composites is studied. Słowa kluczowe: thermal residual stresses, mechanical properties, powder metallurgy, interpenetrating phase composites Afiliacje autorów:
 
13.  Węglewski W., Basista M., Bochenek K., Numerical modelling of the effect of thermal residual stress on mechanical properties of metalceramic composites, ECCOMAS 2016, European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering, 20160605/0610, Hersonissos (GR), pp.1, 2016 Streszczenie: In this paper a numerical model will be presented to investigate the influence of processinginduced thermal residual stresses (TRS) on the fracture (fracture toughness) and mechanical properties (E modulus, bending strength) in particulate bulk metalceramic composites. The materials under consideration are hot pressed chromiumalumina bulk composites with different content of alumina (30, 60 and 90 vol. %) and with two different starting sizes of chromium particles to show how the microstructure can influence on the level of TRS. Słowa kluczowe: processing of metalmatrix composites, ceramics, thermal residual stresses, neutron diffraction, microCT FEM Afiliacje autorów:
 
14.  Bochenek K., Basista M., Węglewski W., Hot pressed nickel aluminide materials with various dopant elements for high temperature regimes, Junior EUROMAT 2016, 13th FEMS Junior Euromat 2016  The Major Event for Young Material Scientists, 20160710/0714, Lausanne (CH), pp.1, 2016 Streszczenie: The nickel aluminide base composites are considered to be potentially interesting high temperature structural materials for aerospace industry due to their low density (5.9 g/cm3), high thermal conductivity (76 W/mK) and good corrosion and oxidation resistance. However, it is wellknown that the main reason limiting this material's application in aerospace industry is related to its low fracture toughness and low ductility at room temperature. Research works on this subject have been carried out by various scientists throughout the world for more than four decades now. After initially high expectations, followed by rather disappointing results reported some 15 years ago, the recent progress in processing technologies in the context of fracture toughness levels is, indeed, remarkable. However, application of this structural material in real working conditions is still to be confirmed, [1].The composite materials investigated in this study were manufactured by powder metallurgy technique. The primary target was to obtain low density nickel aluminide bulk materials with enhanced fracture toughness, flexural strength and high oxidation resistance. The powders of NiAl were mixed in a planetary ball mill with various volume fractions of aluminum oxide, chromium and rhenium. Sintering was conducted in a hot press under the pressure of 30 MPa at 1400oC. Mechanical properties, microstructure and cyclic oxidation at 900oC, 1100oC, 1300oC were investigated. A promising improvement of flexural strength and fracture toughness were observed for each chemical composition. The highest enhancements were measured for the composite with 0.6 at.% addition of rhenium, where the flexural strength increasedfrom the reference level of 428 MPa (pure NiAl) to 808MPa. The oxidation tests showed predominantly high oxidation resistance due to formation of a thin oxide layer preventing significant mass losses. The oxidation experiment was limited to 150 cycles of 1 h duration, hence further tests are necessary to make the final assessment of the oxidation behavior.The second major problem investigated in this paper were thermal residual stresses (TRS) induced in the sintered composites during cooling from high sintering temperature to room temperature, due to CTE mismatch of the constituent materials. The effects of TRS on fracture parameters and other mechanical properties (E modulus, bending strength) were examined experimentally and modelled numerically using microCT based FE meshes mimicking the material microstructure. Our microCT based FEM models reproduce the TRS measurements by neutron diffraction with good accuracy, which may be an asset for engineering applications considering the high cost of beam time at the neutron sources. Słowa kluczowe: Intermetallics, nickelaluminides, turbine blades Afiliacje autorów:
 
15.  Poniżnik Z., Nowak Z., Basista M., Numerical modeling of fracture toughness of metalceramic interpenetrating phase composites with account of material microstructure, SolMech 2016, 40th Solid Mechanics Conference, 20160829/0902, Warszawa (PL), No.P198, pp.12, 2016 Streszczenie: The motivation for research on interpenetrating phase composites and possible applications of these novel materials were given in [1]. A rationale behind designing an IPC is to achieve a highly durable material that would combine the most desirable properties of the constituent phases: the high hardness and wear resistance of ceramic and improved fracture toughness and thermal conductivity due to the metal content. The interpenetrating metalceramic composites may have remarkable applicability in different sectors of industry, e.g. automotive and aerospace. They should, thus, be carefully investigated in terms of processing routes, material properties and modeling of material response to service conditions. Słowa kluczowe: Ceramicmetal composites, interpenetrating microstructure, fracture toughness, crack growth, numerical modeling, XFEM Afiliacje autorów:
 
16.  Basista M., Węglewski W., Bochenek K., Influence of material microstructure and thermal residual stresses on macroscopic fracture parameters and elastic properties of metalceramic composites, THERMEC’2016, International Conference on Processing & Manufacturing of Advanced Materials, 20160529/0603, Graz (AT), pp.9394, 2016 Streszczenie: Th is paper investigates the interplay between material microstructure and processing  induced thermal residual stresses (TRS) in particulate bulk MMC’ s with the main objective to explore their combined effect on the macroscopic fracture toughness and material properties (E modulus, bending strength) of the composite. The materials under consideration are hot pressed chromium  alumina bulk composites doped with rhenium, the use of which is motivated by their potential applications in transport and energy sectors. The reported research includes the processing of MMC by powder metallurgy techniques (HP and SPS), microscopic analysis of material microstructure with special focus on micro  CT scanning, measurements of TRS by neutron diffraction (ND) method and numerical modelling of TRS by FEM based on micro  CT images of real material microstructure. Several compositions of Cr(Re)/Al 2 O 3 system and different particle sizes were used in the sintering process to assess the effect of microstructure on the TRS. Spatial distributions of TRS measured by ND are taken as supporting information when interpreting the results of K IC measurements in a four point bending test. Numerical micro  CT based models were developed to predict the TRS, Young’s modulus and bending strength with account of TRS  induced damage of the ceramic phase of MMCs. A good predictive capability of these TRS models was achieved which may become important considering the cost of beam time for ND experiments at neutron sources. Finally, the large pool of experimental data and modelling results is discussed and the conclusions are drawn as to the TRS/microstructure effect on the fracture toughness of the MMCs in question. Słowa kluczowe: thermal residual stress, metalceramic composites, fracture toughness, microCT FEM Afiliacje autorów:
 
17.  Basista M., Węglewski W., Bochenek K., Chmielewski M.^{♦}, Pietrzak K.^{♦}, Chromiumrheniumalumina composites for powertrain application: Processing route, microstructure, properties and numerical modelling, EUROMAT 2015, European Congress and Exhibition on Advanced Materials and Processes, 20150920/0924, Warszawa (PL), pp.1, 2015 Streszczenie: Chromium based composites reinforced with alumina particles combineenhanced thermal, oxidation and wear resistance with mechanical strength and hardness. Because of these valuable properties Cr/Al2O3 composites can be used e.g. in the automotive sector for elements of powertrain. Rhenium due to its good mechanical and thermal properties is primarily used as an admixture of nickel superalloys in the aerospace and chemical industries. In the present paper a powder metallurgy route was used to manufacture dense Cr/Re/Al2O3 bulk composites with rhenium admixture of 2vol% and 5vol%. Composites were processed by hot pressing (HP) and by spark plasma sintering (SPS) techniques. The density of the sintered composites exceeded 98% of the theoretical value. Microstructural characterisation revealed that a solid solution of rhenium in chromium was partially formed. Mechanical properties such as Young’s modulus, bending strength, hardness, plastic limit are promising so are oxidation and corrosion resistance. A numerical FE model was developed for the prediction of thermal residual stresses (TRS) and damage generated in the metal and ceramic phase during cooling from high sintering temperature down to room temperature. The model uses microCTimages of the real material microstructure as the input data. A good agreement of the simulation results for TRS and the measurements of by neutron diffraction was achieved. The obtained Cr/Re/Al2O3composites were already tested as demonstrators of valve seats in combustion engines and good preliminary results were reported. Słowa kluczowe: Chromiumalumina MMC, rhenium admixture, powder metallurgy, thermal residual stresses, microCT FEM Afiliacje autorów:
 
18.  Poniżnik Z., Nowak Z., Basista M., Numerical modeling of crack growth in interpenetrating metalceramic composites, ICDM2, 2nd International Conference on Damage Mechanics, 20150708/0711, Troyes (FR), pp.41, 2015 Streszczenie: A 3D FEM model for crack growth in bi‐continuous metal‐ceramic composites with interpenetrating microstructure (IPC) is proposed. The results for the load‐displacements relationship in a plastically deformable reinforcing fibre computed by means of different material models will be shown. The J‐integral and fracture toughness will be determined for a simplified IPC microstructure with reinforcing ligaments modeled as axisymmetric fibres, and for real IPC microstructure obtained from micro‐CT images Słowa kluczowe: interpenetrating phase composites, bi‐continuous composites, metal‐ceramic composites, crack bridging, crack growth, fracture toughness, finite element method Afiliacje autorów:
 
19.  Poniżnik Z., Basista M., Nowak Z., Modeling of effective elastic constants and fracture toughness in metalceramic composites with interpenetrating microstructure, ICF13, 13th International Conference on Fracture, 20130616/0621, Beijing (CN), No.S12009, pp.81, 2013 Streszczenie: The paper is focused on modeling of the overall elastic properties and crack toughening mechanism by bridging in metalceramic interpenetrating phase composites (IPC). The TuchinskiiFeng analytical model (Feng 2004) especially devised for IPC microstructures is further developed. Numerical FEM models of the effective elastic constants are implemented for the simplified 3D cross microstructure and real microstructures based on microCT scans. The energy release rate increase due to crack bridging (Mataga 1989) is modeled numerically. The stressdisplacement relationships in the reinforcing fibers undergoing large strains and delamination from the matrix materials are obtained and then applied as material models for the bridging reinforcements in compacttension test specimen of the fracture toughness determination. The J integral for this specimen is calculated by FEM (Abaqus) with reinforcing ligaments modeled as truss and cohesive elements. The growth of a bridged crack is also modeled numerically. Słowa kluczowe: Effective elastic constants, Fracture toughness, Crack toughening, Crack bridging, Metalceramic composites, FEM Afiliacje autorów:
 
20.  Poniżnik Z., Basista M., Modelling of overall material properties and crack reinforcement by bridging fibres in metalceramic composites with interpenetrating phase microstructure, 1st International Conference on Damage Mechanics, 20120625/0627, Belgrade (XS), pp.273276, 2012 Streszczenie: The objective of this paper is the analytical and numerical modelling of the overall elastic properties and the crack bridging toughening mechanism in metalceramic composites with interpenetrating phase microstructure (IPC). The specific microstructure of the IPC makes the effective media/field models based on Eshelby's solution inapplicable to the estimation of the effective elastic properties of the IPC. The effective material constants were calculated analytically extending the TuchinskiiFeng models devised for the IPC microstructure. Numerical FEM models were developed for two types of IPC microstructure: simplified 3D cross structure and real microstructure obtained with computer microtomography scans. The microCT scans were transformed into FEM meshes using the Simpleware ScanIP/FE commercial software. The crack bridging mechanism was investigated assuming the metal ligament undergoing large plastic deformations (necking) and delamination from the surrounding elastic material (ceramic matrix). As a first step towards the numerical determination of J integral from the simulation of the CT (compact tension) test. the su relationship in the metal fiber was determined numerically and applied to compute the stress and displacement fields in the CT specimen. The numerical solution agrees well with the analytical one obtained by Mataga et al. [4]. Słowa kluczowe: Interpenetrating phase composites, metalceramic composites, overall material properties, crack bridging, finite element method, micromechanics, microstructure Afiliacje autorów:
 
21.  Węglewski W., Basista M., Modelling of thermal stresses and damage in Cu/Al2O3 interpenetrating phase composites, ECCOMAX 2012, 6th European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering, 20120910/0914, Wiedeń (AT), pp.12, 2012 Streszczenie: There is an urgent technological need for elements performing in demanding service regimes (especially in automotive and aerospace applications) to be made of new materials having superior properties such as higher strength and Young's modulus, enhanced temperature resistance and thermal shock resistance, improved corrosion and wear resistance, as well as reduced specific weight and better recycling potential. The Interpenetrating Phase Composites (IPC) could be a good answer to these industrial and commercial needs. But still a lot of problems appear during the processing of this type of metalceramic composites. One severe problem is the large thermal stresses generated during the cooling after the infiltration which can lead to initiation and propagation of microcracks and, thus to harmful decrease of the elastic properties of material. Słowa kluczowe: interpenetrating phase composites, thermal stress, FEM, microcracking Afiliacje autorów:
 
22.  Węglewski W., Basista M., Pietrzak K., Thermal stress and microcracking in the processing of the interpenetrating phase composites, SolMech 2010, 37th Solid Mechanics Conference, 20100906/0910, Warszawa (PL), pp.118119, 2010 Streszczenie: The interpenetrating phase composites (IPC) are strongly different in their morphology, properties and processing than typical metal matrix or ceramic matrix composites. The basic morphological difference in comparison with particulate reinforcement composites is that the two components of IPC form continuous, interpenetrating 3D network. The IPC are more homogeneous, have better mechanical and thermal properties (abrasibility and fracture toughness, thermal conductivity and mechanical stability) than the matrix composites. The processing of IPC is typically done by a pressure or pressureless infiltration of ceramic porous matrix with a molten metal. The infiltration is a high temperature process (e.g. for Cu/Al2O3 IPC the infiltration temperature is above 1200OC and for Al/Al2O3 about 700 OC) which is usually associated with the generation of thermal stresses because of largely different coefficients of thermal expansion of the IPC components. The aim of this work was twofold: (i) to build a numerical model of thermal stress generated during the processing of the interpenetrating phase composites, and (ii) to build a numerical model of the initiation and growth of microcracks induced by the thermal stresses during the processing of the IPC. The results yielded by the models were compared with the experimental data. The models can be used to improve the processing of IPC by providing feedback as to how to reduce thermal residual stresses and how to minimize a risk of the microcracking during the production of the IPC. Słowa kluczowe: interpenetrating phase composites, residual stress, microcracking, damage modelling Afiliacje autorów:
