Publikacje odnotowane przez trzy miesiące

1.Jaskulski R., Glinicki M.A., Kubissa W., Dąbrowski M., Application of a non-stationary method in determination of the thermal properties of radiation shielding concrete with heavy and hydrous aggregate, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER, ISSN: 0017-9310, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2018.07.050, Vol.130, pp.882-892, 2019
Jaskulski R., Glinicki M.A., Kubissa W., Dąbrowski M., Application of a non-stationary method in determination of the thermal properties of radiation shielding concrete with heavy and hydrous aggregate, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER, ISSN: 0017-9310, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2018.07.050, Vol.130, pp.882-892, 2019

Abstract:
Results of measurements of the specific heat and the thermal conductivity of concrete with blended special aggregate for neutron and gamma radiation shielding are presented. Experimental tests were performed on concrete with heavyweight aggregate (magnetite, barite), hydrogen-bearing aggregate (serpentine) and amphibolite aggregate. The thermal properties of concrete were determined using a nonstationary method. The highest specific heat was found for concrete with serpentine aggregate. Simple models for predicting the specific heat and the thermal conductivity on the basis of concrete mix design were evaluated to include the blends of heavyweight and hydrogen-bearing aggregates. The thermal conductivity of concrete was found to be linearly dependent on the concrete density in the range from 2200 to 3500 kg/m3. Its increase due to water saturation of concrete was not dependent on the open porosity of concrete. It was found that the specific heat can be fairly well predicted using the rule of mixtures formula. The thermal conductivity of concrete can be approximately predicted using a parallel model in the case of water-saturated concrete. The thermal conductivity prediction for dry concrete is also discussed.

Keywords:
Blended aggregate, Concrete mix design, Density, Non-stationary method, Open porosity, Thermal properties, Thermal conductivity, Specific heat, Radiation shielding

(40p.)
2.Piotrowski T., Glinicka J., Glinicki M.A., Prochoń P., Influence of gadolinium oxide and ulexite on cement hydration and technical properties of mortars for neutron radiation shielding purposes, CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS, ISSN: 0950-0618, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.11.076, Vol.195, pp.583-589, 2019
Piotrowski T., Glinicka J., Glinicki M.A., Prochoń P., Influence of gadolinium oxide and ulexite on cement hydration and technical properties of mortars for neutron radiation shielding purposes, CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS, ISSN: 0950-0618, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.11.076, Vol.195, pp.583-589, 2019

Abstract:
Gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) is a potentially effective mineral additive that improves neutron shielding properties of cement based composites. The paper presents the influence of Gd2O3 and ulexite (a boron compound) on Portland cement hydration evaluated by isothermal calorimetry measurements and strength. The progress of hydration was investigated on mortar specimens at water to cement ratio w/c = 0.5 and sand/cement ratio 0.75. The addition of Gd2O3 generates a slight retardation of cement hydration, however it accelerates aluminate activity at the same time. The hydration of cement was completely hindered for mortars containing a substantial content of ulexite. The strength test results show that addition of Gd2O3 to Portland cement mortar mix caused a decrease of early age (3 days) flexural and compressive strength. The optimum content of Gd2O3 in respect to the long term compressive strength and the hydration kinetics was 5% in relation to the mass of cement. Good long term strength was also obtained for specimens with 3% of ulexite.

Keywords:
Gadolinium oxide generates a slight retardation of cement hydration, Gadolinium oxide increases hydration intensity by aluminate activity acceleration, Gadolinium oxide optimum content is 5% in relation to the mass of cement, A substantial content of ulexite hinders almost completely the cement hydration, Good long term performance were obtained also for specimens with 3% of ulexite

(40p.)
3.Nosewicz S., Rojek J., Wawrzyk K., Kowalczyk P., Maciejewski G., Maździarz M., Multiscale modeling of pressure-assisted sintering, COMPUTATIONAL MATERIALS SCIENCE, ISSN: 0927-0256, DOI: 10.1016/j.commatsci.2018.10.001, Vol.156, pp.385-395, 2019
Nosewicz S., Rojek J., Wawrzyk K., Kowalczyk P., Maciejewski G., Maździarz M., Multiscale modeling of pressure-assisted sintering, COMPUTATIONAL MATERIALS SCIENCE, ISSN: 0927-0256, DOI: 10.1016/j.commatsci.2018.10.001, Vol.156, pp.385-395, 2019

Abstract:
This report presents the modeling of pressure-assisted sintering within the framework of a multiscale approach. Three individual numerical methods have been collectively applied to predict the behavior of a sintering body at three different scales. The appropriate solutions to connect each model/scale have been proposed. Molecular dynamics have been employed to evaluate the grain boundary diffusion coefficient at the atomistic scale. The obtained results of diffusive parameters have been transferred to the micromechanical model of sintering. Here, the discrete element method was used to represent the sintered material properties at the microscopic scale. Micromechanical based results have been validated by own experimental data of material density evolution, indicating the required coincidence. The transfer from micro- to the macroscopic model has been realized by determining the macroscopic viscous moduli from discrete element simulations and subsequently applying them to the continuum model of sintering. The numerical results from finite element simulations at the macroscopic scale have been compared with discrete element ones.

Keywords:
Sintering; Multiscale modeling; Discrete element method; Molecular dynamics; Finite element method

(30p.)
4.Enayati M.S., Neisiany R.E., Sajkiewicz P., Behzad T., Denis P., Pierini F., Effect of nanofiller incorporation on thermomechanical and toughness of poly (vinyl alcohol)-based electrospun nanofibrous bionanocomposites, Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics, ISSN: 0167-8442, DOI: 10.1016/j.tafmec.2018.11.006, Vol.99, pp.44-50, 2019
Enayati M.S., Neisiany R.E., Sajkiewicz P., Behzad T., Denis P., Pierini F., Effect of nanofiller incorporation on thermomechanical and toughness of poly (vinyl alcohol)-based electrospun nanofibrous bionanocomposites, Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics, ISSN: 0167-8442, DOI: 10.1016/j.tafmec.2018.11.006, Vol.99, pp.44-50, 2019

Abstract:
The current work studies the electrospun poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers and its nanocomposites including nanohydroxy apatite (nHAp) and nHAp/cellulose nanofibers (CNFs), emphasizing the impact of nanofillers on the toughness of nanofibers. PVA nanofibers were incorporated with 10 wt% of nHAp and then various amounts of CNF were added to subsequent PVA/nHAp fibrous nanocomposites. The morphology of nonwoven mats was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). While neat PVA nanofibers were smooth and uniform in thickness, the nanofiller loading resulted in thinner fibers with less uniformity. Furthermore, the thermal properties of the nonwoven network of fibers were characterized employing thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Although the maximum loss mass temperature of PVA was partially reduced upon addition of nanofillers, the onset of decomposition was not altered. The mechanical characterizations were performed using static tensile and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Compared to neat PVA mats, the tensile test of nanocomposites mats demonstrated the significant increase in Young’s modulus; however, strain at break was dramatically reduced. In addition, the fracture work was assessed from the area under the stress-strain curve, which showed brittleness of fibrous nanocomposites due to the nanofiller incorporation. Field emission SEM (FE-SEM) was employed to scan the fracture surface of stretched fibers. The increase in modulus of electrospun mats was also shown by DMA in frequency mode. In parallel, both tensile test and DMA confirmed the change in fracture of PVA fibers from a tough to brittle mode, due to the nanofiller addition.

Keywords:
Electrospun nanocomposites, Nanofillers, Toughness, Mechanical properties

(30p.)
5.Zieliński T.G., Chevillotte F., Deckers E., Sound absorption of plates with micro-slits backed with air cavities: Analytical estimations, numerical calculations and experimental validations, APPLIED ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0003-682X, DOI: 10.1016/j.apacoust.2018.11.026, Vol.146, pp.261-279, 2019
Zieliński T.G., Chevillotte F., Deckers E., Sound absorption of plates with micro-slits backed with air cavities: Analytical estimations, numerical calculations and experimental validations, APPLIED ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0003-682X, DOI: 10.1016/j.apacoust.2018.11.026, Vol.146, pp.261-279, 2019

Abstract:
This work discusses many practical and some theoretical aspects concerning modelling and design of plates with micro-slits, involving multi-scale calculations based on microstructure. To this end, useful mathematical reductions are demonstrated, and numerical computations are compared with possible analytical estimations. The numerical and analytical approaches are used to calculate the transport parameters for complex micro-perforated (micro-slotted) plates, which allow to determine the effective properties of the equivalent fluid, so that at the macro-scale level the plate can be treated as a specific layer of acoustic fluid. In that way, the sound absorption of micro-slotted plates backed with air cavities can be determined by solving a multi-layer system of Helmholtz equations. Two such examples are presented in the paper and validated experimentally. The first plate has narrow slits precisely cut out using a traditional technique, while the second plate - with an original micro-perforated pattern - is 3D-printed.

Keywords:
Micro-slotted plates, Micro-perforated plates, Sound absorption, Microstructure-based modelling, 3D-printing

(30p.)
6.Pierini F., Nakielski P., Urbanek O., Pawłowska S., Lanzi M., De Sio L., Kowalewski T.A., Polymer-Based Nanomaterials for Photothermal Therapy: From Light-Responsive to Multifunctional Nanoplatforms for Synergistically Combined Technologies, BIOMACROMOLECULES, ISSN: 1525-7797, DOI: 10.1021/acs.biomac.8b01138, Vol.19, No.11, pp.4147-4167, 2018
Pierini F., Nakielski P., Urbanek O., Pawłowska S., Lanzi M., De Sio L., Kowalewski T.A., Polymer-Based Nanomaterials for Photothermal Therapy: From Light-Responsive to Multifunctional Nanoplatforms for Synergistically Combined Technologies, BIOMACROMOLECULES, ISSN: 1525-7797, DOI: 10.1021/acs.biomac.8b01138, Vol.19, No.11, pp.4147-4167, 2018

Abstract:
Materials for the treatment of cancer have been studied comprehensively over the past few decades. Among the various kinds of biomaterials, polymer-based nanomaterials represent one of the most interesting research directions in nanomedicine because their controlled synthesis and tailored designs make it possible to obtain nanostructures with biomimetic features and outstanding biocompatibility. Understanding the chemical and physical mechanisms behind the cascading stimuli-responsiveness of smart polymers is fundamental for the design of multifunctional nanomaterials to be used as photothermal agents for targeted polytherapy. In this review, we offer an in-depth overview of the recent advances in polymer nanomaterials for photothermal therapy, describing the features of three different types of polymer-based nanomaterials. In each case, we systematically show the relevant benefits, highlighting the strategies for developing light-controlled multifunctional nanoplatforms that are responsive in a cascade manner and addressing the open issues by means of an inclusive state-of-the-art review. Moreover, we face further challenges and provide new perspectives for future strategies for developing novel polymeric nanomaterials for photothermally assisted therapies.

(45p.)
7.Gruziel M., Thyagarajan K., Dietler G., Stasiak A., Ekiel-Jeżewska M.L., Szymczak P., Periodic Motion of Sedimenting Flexible Knots, PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, ISSN: 0031-9007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.127801, Vol.121, No.12, pp.127801-1-6, 2018
Gruziel M., Thyagarajan K., Dietler G., Stasiak A., Ekiel-Jeżewska M.L., Szymczak P., Periodic Motion of Sedimenting Flexible Knots, PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, ISSN: 0031-9007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.127801, Vol.121, No.12, pp.127801-1-6, 2018

Abstract:
We study the dynamics of knotted deformable closed chains sedimenting in a viscous fluid. We show experimentally that trefoil and other torus knots often attain a remarkably regular horizontal toroidal structure while sedimenting, with a number of intertwined loops, oscillating periodically around each other. We then recover this motion numerically and find out that it is accompanied by a very slow rotation around the vertical symmetry axis. We analyze the dependence of the characteristic timescales on the chain flexibility and aspect ratio. It is observed in the experiments that this oscillating mode of the dynamics can spontaneously form even when starting from a qualitatively different initial configuration. In numerical simulations, the oscillating modes are usually present as transients or final stages of the evolution, depending on chain aspect ratio and flexibility, and the number of loops.

(45p.)
8.Kowalewski P.K., Olszewski R., Walędziak M.S., Janik M.R., Kwiatkowski A., Paśnik K., Cigarette smoking and its impact on weight loss after bariatric surgery: A single center, retrospective study, Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases, ISSN: 1550-7289, DOI: 10.1016/j.soard.2018.05.004, Vol.14, No.8, pp.1163-1166, 2018
Kowalewski P.K., Olszewski R., Walędziak M.S., Janik M.R., Kwiatkowski A., Paśnik K., Cigarette smoking and its impact on weight loss after bariatric surgery: A single center, retrospective study, Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases, ISSN: 1550-7289, DOI: 10.1016/j.soard.2018.05.004, Vol.14, No.8, pp.1163-1166, 2018

Abstract:
Background: Smoking cessation is often associated with weight gain. This study was conducted to verify whether it affects outcomes of bariatric surgery. Objectives: To present cigarette consumption among patients after bariatric surgery in a long-term follow-up and to evaluate whether smoking cessation impacts weight loss. Setting: High-volume bariatric center, Military Hospital, Poland. Methods: We collected data of patients who underwent bariatric surgery between 2003 and 2009. The data included sex, age, weight, body mass index, and smoking habits. An online survey regarding current weight, co-morbidities, and smoking was distributed. Percentage excess weight loss was calculated with an ideal weight for body mass index of 25 kg/m2. Results: One hundred seven patients had laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding between 2003 and 2006; 47 were included in the study. The mean follow-up time was 11.2 (±1.2). Of patients, 51% (n = 24) were smokers before surgery. In the follow-up 43% (n = 20) were smokers, of whom 4 patients began smoking after surgery. Twenty-seven patients were nonsmokers, 8 of whom quit over the years (33% of previous smokers). One hundred twenty-seven underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy between 2006 and 2009; 84 were included in the study. Our median follow-up was 8.0 years. Thirty-two patients never smoked; 52 were smoking before surgery, yet 24 successfully quit. In both groups there were no statistically significant differences in percentage excess weight loss between smokers and nonsmokers, or between those who quit and did not. Conclusions: In the long-term follow-up after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, 33% of smokers quit and 17% previously nonsmoking began smoking. After laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, 46% of previously smoking patients successfully quit. Smoking status was not significantly associated with weight loss.

Keywords:
Smoking, Obesity, Surgery, Sleeve, Long term

(45p.)
9.Jetka T., Nienałtowski K., Filippi S., Stumpf M.P.H., Komorowski M., An information-theoretic framework for deciphering pleiotropic and noisy biochemical signaling, Nature Communications, ISSN: 2041-1723, DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-07085-1, Vol.9, pp.4591-1-9, 2018
Jetka T., Nienałtowski K., Filippi S., Stumpf M.P.H., Komorowski M., An information-theoretic framework for deciphering pleiotropic and noisy biochemical signaling, Nature Communications, ISSN: 2041-1723, DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-07085-1, Vol.9, pp.4591-1-9, 2018

Abstract:
Many components of signaling pathways are functionally pleiotropic, and signaling responses are marked with substantial cell-to-cell heterogeneity. Therefore, biochemical descriptions of signaling require quantitative support to explain how complex stimuli (inputs) are encoded in distinct activities of pathways effectors (outputs). A unique perspective of information theory cannot be fully utilized due to lack of modeling tools that account for the complexity of biochemical signaling, specifically for multiple inputs and outputs. Here, we develop a modeling framework of information theory that allows for efficient analysis of models with multiple inputs and outputs; accounts for temporal dynamics of signaling; enables analysis of how signals flow through shared network components; and is not restricted by limited variability of responses. The framework allows us to explain how identity and quantity of type I and type III interferon variants could be recognized by cells despite activating the same signaling effectors.

(45p.)
10.Maździarz M., A comment on the article “Ab initio calculations of pressure-dependence of high-order elastic constants using finite deformations approach” by I. Mosyagin, A.V. Lugovskoy, O.M. Krasilnikov, Yu.Kh. Vekilov, S.I. Simak and I.A. Abrikosov [Computer Physics Communications 220 (2017) 20–30], COMPUTER PHYSICS COMMUNICATIONS, ISSN: 0010-4655, DOI: 10.1016/j.cpc.2018.02.021, pp.1-2, 2018
Maździarz M., A comment on the article “Ab initio calculations of pressure-dependence of high-order elastic constants using finite deformations approach” by I. Mosyagin, A.V. Lugovskoy, O.M. Krasilnikov, Yu.Kh. Vekilov, S.I. Simak and I.A. Abrikosov [Computer Physics Communications 220 (2017) 20–30], COMPUTER PHYSICS COMMUNICATIONS, ISSN: 0010-4655, DOI: 10.1016/j.cpc.2018.02.021, pp.1-2, 2018

Abstract:
A comment on the article “Ab initio calculations of pressure-dependence of high-order elastic constants using finite deformations approach”

Keywords:
Ab initio calculations; Elastic moduli; Pressure effects in solids and liquids; Finite deformations; Solid mechanics; Deformation gradient

(45p.)
11.Kaźmierczak B., Tsai J.C., Białecki S., The propagation phenomenon of solutions of a parabolic problem on the sphere, MATHEMATICAL MODELS AND METHODS IN APPLIED SCIENCES, ISSN: 0218-2025, DOI: 10.1142/S0218202518500483, Vol.28, No.10, pp.2001-2067, 2018
Kaźmierczak B., Tsai J.C., Białecki S., The propagation phenomenon of solutions of a parabolic problem on the sphere, MATHEMATICAL MODELS AND METHODS IN APPLIED SCIENCES, ISSN: 0218-2025, DOI: 10.1142/S0218202518500483, Vol.28, No.10, pp.2001-2067, 2018

Abstract:
In this paper, we study propagation phenomena on the sphere using the bistable reaction–diffusion formulation. This study is motivated by the propagation of waves of calcium concentrations observed on the surface of oocytes, and the propagation of waves of kinase concentrations on the B-cell membrane in the immune system. To this end, we first study the existence and uniqueness of mild solutions for a parabolic initial-boundary value problem on the sphere with discontinuous bistable nonlinearities. Due to the discontinuous nature of reaction kinetics, the standard theories cannot be applied to the underlying equation to obtain the existence of solutions. To overcome this difficulty, we give uniform estimates on the Legendre coefficients of the composition function of the reaction kinetics function and the solution, and a priori estimates on the solution, and then, through the iteration scheme, we can deduce the existence and related properties of solutions. In particular, we prove that the constructed solutions are of C2,1 class everywhere away from the discontinuity point of the reaction term. Next, we apply this existence result to study the propagation phenomenon on the sphere. Specifically, we use stationary solutions and their variants to construct a pair of time-dependent super/sub-solutions with different moving speeds. When applied to the case of sufficiently small diffusivity, this allows us to infer that if the initial concentration of the species is above the inhomogeneous steady state, then the species will exhibit the propagating behavior.

Keywords:
Propagation, sphere, bistable kinetics

(45p.)
12.Nakielski P., Pierini F., Blood interactions with nano- and microfibers: recent advances, challenges and applications in nano- and microfibrous hemostatic agents, Acta Biomaterialia, ISSN: 1742-7061, DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.11.029, pp.1-48, 2018
Nakielski P., Pierini F., Blood interactions with nano- and microfibers: recent advances, challenges and applications in nano- and microfibrous hemostatic agents, Acta Biomaterialia, ISSN: 1742-7061, DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.11.029, pp.1-48, 2018

Abstract:
Nanofibrous materials find a wide range of applications, such as vascular grafts, tissue-engineered scaffolds, or drug delivery systems. This phenomenon can be attributed to almost arbitrary biomaterial modification opportunities created by a multitude of polymers used to form nanofibers, as well as by surface functionalization methods. Among these applications, the hemostatic activity of nanofibrous materials is gaining more and more interest in biomedical research. It is therefore crucial to find both materials and nanofiber structural properties that affect organism responses. The present review critically analyzes the response of blood elements to natural and synthetic polymers, and their blends and composites. Also assessed in this review is the incorporation of pro-coagulative substances or drugs that can decrease bleeding time. The review also discusses the main animal models that were used to assess hemostatic agent safety and effectiveness.

Keywords:
Blood-biomaterial interactions, Coagulation, Electrospinning, Nanofibers, Platelets, Hemorrhage

(45p.)
13.Ryś M., Petryk H., Gradient crystal plasticity models with a natural length scale in the hardening law, International Journal of Plasticity, ISSN: 0749-6419, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijplas.2018.07.015, Vol.111, pp.168-187, 2018
Ryś M., Petryk H., Gradient crystal plasticity models with a natural length scale in the hardening law, International Journal of Plasticity, ISSN: 0749-6419, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijplas.2018.07.015, Vol.111, pp.168-187, 2018

Abstract:
A class of crystal plasticity models based on the concept of microforces conjugate to slip-rate gradients is examined in the small strain framework. As an extension of the usual formulation, slip-rate gradients are introduced here into the incremental hardening law, including in this way a natural internal length scale derived recently in a closed form from relationships of the physically-based dislocation theory of plasticity. The condition for plastic flow on a crystallographic slip system involves other length scales, associated with the second-order gradients of slip and slip rate in energetic and dissipative terms, respectively. The interplay between the length-scales of physically different origin is illustrated by the examples of monotonic and cyclic deformation of one- and two-dimensional models of Cu single crystals with boundary constraints imposed on plastic slips. It is shown that selected earlier results are reproduced accurately if one or another length scale ceases to play an essential role. For cyclic deformations, the effects of the energetic length scale in the flow condition and of the natural length scale in the incremental hardening law can both be significant at the micron scale.

Keywords:
Crystal plasticity models with microforces conjugate to slip gradients are revisited, Incremental hardening law is enhanced by slip-rate gradients with a natural length scale, The length scale is defined by standard parameters of a non-gradient model, Comparative analysis of several 1D and 2D models of Cu single crystals is performed, Interplay between length scales of different physical origin is demonstrated

(45p.)
14.Costantini M., Guzowski J., Żuk P.J., Mozetic P., De Panfilis S., Jaroszewicz J., Heljak M., Massimi M., Pierron M., Trombetta M., Dentini M., Święszkowski W., Rainer A., Garstecki P., Barbetta A., Electric Field Assisted Microfluidic Platform for Generation of Tailorable Porous Microbeads as Cell Carriers for Tissue Engineering, Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN: 1616-301X, DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201800874, Vol.28, pp.1800874-1-13, 2018
Costantini M., Guzowski J., Żuk P.J., Mozetic P., De Panfilis S., Jaroszewicz J., Heljak M., Massimi M., Pierron M., Trombetta M., Dentini M., Święszkowski W., Rainer A., Garstecki P., Barbetta A., Electric Field Assisted Microfluidic Platform for Generation of Tailorable Porous Microbeads as Cell Carriers for Tissue Engineering, Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN: 1616-301X, DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201800874, Vol.28, pp.1800874-1-13, 2018

Abstract:
Injection of cell‐laden scaffolds in the form of mesoscopic particles directly to the site of treatment is one of the most promising approaches to tissue regeneration. Here, a novel and highly efficient method is presented for preparation of porous microbeads of tailorable dimensions (in the range ≈300–1500 mm) and with a uniform and fully interconnected internal porous texture. The method starts with generation of a monodisperse oil‐in‐water emulsion inside a flow‐focusing microfluidic device. This emulsion is later broken‐up, with the use of electric field, into mesoscopic double droplets, that in turn serve as a template for the porous microbeads. By tuning the amplitude and frequency of the electric pulses, the template droplets and the resulting porous bead scaffolds are precisely produced. Furthermore, a model of pulsed electrodripping is proposed that predicts the size of the template droplets as a function of the applied voltage. To prove the potential of the porous microbeads as cell carries, they are tested with human mesenchymal stem cells and hepatic cells, with their viability and degree of microbead colonization being monitored. Finally, the presented porous microbeads are benchmarked against conventional microparticles with nonhomogenous internal texture, revealing their superior performance.

(45p.)
15.Chrzanowska-Giżyńska J., Denis P., Woźniacka S., Kurpaska Ł., Mechanical properties and thermal stability of tungsten boride films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering, CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL, ISSN: 0272-8842, DOI: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2018.07.208, Vol.44, No.16, pp.19603-19611, 2018
Chrzanowska-Giżyńska J., Denis P., Woźniacka S., Kurpaska Ł., Mechanical properties and thermal stability of tungsten boride films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering, CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL, ISSN: 0272-8842, DOI: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2018.07.208, Vol.44, No.16, pp.19603-19611, 2018

Abstract:
Tungsten and boron compounds belong to the group of superhard materials since their hardness could exceed 40 GPa. In this study, the properties of the tungsten boride WBx coatings deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering were investigated. The sputtering was performed from specially prepared targets that were composed of boron and tungsten mixed in a molar ratio of 2.5 and sintered in Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) process. WB films were deposited on silicon (100) and stainless steel 304 substrates at temperatures of 23 ÷ 770 °C. Microstructure, chemical and phase composition were investigated by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), respectively. The mechanical properties like Vickers hardness and Young's modulus were obtained by using nanoindentation test at a load of 5 ÷ 100 mN. The friction coefficient and wear resistance of αWB coatings were investigated in scratch test and reciprocal sliding wear instrumentation. Moreover, in order to investigate thermal properties, the αWB films were annealed at 1000 °C in argon/air for 1 h and at 250 °C for 2 h in air atmosphere. Results of our research confirm that αWB coatings can be considered as an alternative to superhard materials in the production of wear resistant, long-lasting tools.

Keywords:
Hard coatings, Hard materials, Magnetron sputtering, Mechanical properties, Thermal properties, Tungsten boride

(40p.)
16.Malińska D., Szymański J., Patalas-Krawczyk P., Michalska B., Wojtala A., Prill M., Partyka M., Drabik K., Walczak J., Sewer A., Johne S., Luettich K., Peitsch M.C., Hoeng J., Duszyński J., Szczepanowska J., van der Toorn M., Więckowski M.R., Assessment of mitochondrial function following short- and long-term exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells to total particulate matter from a candidate modified-risk tobacco product and reference cigarettes, Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN: 0278-6915, DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2018.02.013, Vol.115, pp.1-12, 2018
Malińska D., Szymański J., Patalas-Krawczyk P., Michalska B., Wojtala A., Prill M., Partyka M., Drabik K., Walczak J., Sewer A., Johne S., Luettich K., Peitsch M.C., Hoeng J., Duszyński J., Szczepanowska J., van der Toorn M., Więckowski M.R., Assessment of mitochondrial function following short- and long-term exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells to total particulate matter from a candidate modified-risk tobacco product and reference cigarettes, Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN: 0278-6915, DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2018.02.013, Vol.115, pp.1-12, 2018

Abstract:
Mitochondrial dysfunction caused by cigarette smoke is involved in the oxidative stress-induced pathology of airway diseases. Reducing the levels of harmful and potentially harmful constituents by heating rather than combusting tobacco may reduce mitochondrial changes that contribute to oxidative stress and cell damage. We evaluated mitochondrial function and oxidative stress in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS 2B) following 1- and 12-week exposures to total particulate matter (TPM) from the aerosol of a candidate modified-risk tobacco product, the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS2.2), in comparison with TPM from the 3R4F reference cigarette. After 1-week exposure, 3R4F TPM had a strong inhibitory effect on mitochondrial basal and maximal oxygen consumption rates compared to TPM from THS2.2. Alterations in oxidative phosphorylation were accompanied by increased mitochondrial superoxide levels and increased levels of oxidatively damaged proteins in cells exposed to 7.5 μg/mL of 3R4F TPM or 150 μg/mL of THS2.2 TPM, while cytosolic levels of reactive oxygen species were not affected. In contrast, the 12-week exposure indicated adaptation of BEAS-2B cells to long-term stress. Together, the findings indicate that 3R4F TPM had a stronger effect on oxidative phosphorylation, gene expression and proteins involved in oxidative stress than TPM from the candidate modified-risk tobacco product THS2.2.

Keywords:
Mitochondria, Mitochondrial respiratory chain, Oxidative stress, BEAS-2B cells, Cigarette, Tobacco heating system

(40p.)
17.Jarząbek D.M., Dziekoński C., Dera W., Chrzanowska J., Wojciechowski T., Influence of Cu coating of SiC particles on mechanical properties of Ni/SiC co-electrodeposited composites, CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL, ISSN: 0272-8842, DOI: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2018.08.271, Vol.44, pp.21750-21758, 2018
Jarząbek D.M., Dziekoński C., Dera W., Chrzanowska J., Wojciechowski T., Influence of Cu coating of SiC particles on mechanical properties of Ni/SiC co-electrodeposited composites, CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL, ISSN: 0272-8842, DOI: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2018.08.271, Vol.44, pp.21750-21758, 2018

Abstract:
In this paper, the study of the mechanical properties of composites consisting of electrodeposited Ni and co-electrodeposited SiC particles coated with a thin Cu layer was presented. It was demonstrated that the coating allowed to increase the concentration of ceramic particles in the composite. Although the plating parameters were the same for both types of composites, the concentration of SiC was 15% for the composite containing coated particles (Ni/SiC-Cu) and 10% for the composite containing uncoated particles (Ni/SiC). Furthermore, tensile tests showed that the Ni/SiC-Cu samples exhibited higher Young's modulus than the pure electrodeposited Ni samples or Ni/SiC samples. The measured Young's modulus of the Ni/SiC-Cu composite was 250 ± 10 GPa. However, the ultimate tensile strength of the Ni/SiC-Cu composite was lower than that of pure Ni. To explain the mechanical behaviour of the Ni/SiC-Cu composite, the microstructure of the interface of this composite and its bonding strength were studied. Microstructure studies conducted using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that the SiC/Cu interface was smooth and of good quality whereas the Cu/Ni interface was rough but also of good quality. The measured bonding, normal, and shear strength values demonstrated that the SiC/Cu interface was weak, and that was the main reason for the low ultimate tensile strength of the composite. The shear strength of the SiC/Cu interface was measured using a novel method: micropillars shearing including atomic force microscopy (AFM). Finally, a simple finite element model of the Ni/SiC-Cu composite, based on cohesive elements, was developed.

Keywords:
Interfacial bonding strength, Metal matrix composites, Tensile strength, Silicon carbide, Electrodeposited nickel

(40p.)
18.Poma Bernaola A., Li M.S., Theodorakis P.E., Generalization of the elastic network model for the study of large conformational changes in biomolecules, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, ISSN: 1463-9076, DOI: 10.1039/C8CP03086C, Vol.20, pp.17020-17028, 2018
Poma Bernaola A., Li M.S., Theodorakis P.E., Generalization of the elastic network model for the study of large conformational changes in biomolecules, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, ISSN: 1463-9076, DOI: 10.1039/C8CP03086C, Vol.20, pp.17020-17028, 2018

Abstract:
The elastic network (EN) is a prime model that describes the long-time dynamics of biomolecules. However, the use of harmonic potentials renders this model insufficient for studying large conformational changes of proteins (e.g. stretching of proteins, folding and thermal unfolding). Here, we extend the capabilities of the EN model by using a harmonic approximation described by Lennard-Jones (LJ) interactions for far contacts and native contacts obtained from the standard overlap criterion as in the case of Gō-like models. While our model is validated against the EN model by reproducing the equilibrium properties for a number of proteins, we also show that the model is suitable for the study of large conformation changes by providing various examples. In particular, this is illustrated on the basis of pulling simulations that predict with high accuracy the experimental data on the rupture force of the studied proteins. Furthermore, in the case of DDFLN4 protein, our pulling simulations highlight the advantages of our model with respect to Gō-like approaches, where the latter fail to reproduce previous results obtained by all-atom simulations that predict an additional characteristic peak for this protein. In addition, folding simulations of small peptides yield different folding times for α-helix and β-hairpin, in agreement with experiment, in this way providing further opportunities for the application of our model in studying large conformational changes of proteins. In contrast to the EN model, our model is suitable for both normal mode analysis and molecular dynamics simulation. We anticipate that the proposed model will find applications in a broad range of problems in biology, including, among others, protein folding and thermal unfolding.

Keywords:
Free Energy, protein, elastic network, molecular dynamics, normal mode analysis

(40p.)
19.Knor G., Jaskulski R., Glinicki M.A., Holnicki-Szulc J., Numerical identification of the thermal properties of early age concrete using inverse heat transfer problem, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER, ISSN: 0017-9310, DOI: 10.1007/s00231-018-2504-2, Vol.0, pp.1-13, 2018
Knor G., Jaskulski R., Glinicki M.A., Holnicki-Szulc J., Numerical identification of the thermal properties of early age concrete using inverse heat transfer problem, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER, ISSN: 0017-9310, DOI: 10.1007/s00231-018-2504-2, Vol.0, pp.1-13, 2018

Abstract:
The procedure of numerical identification of thermophysical properties of concrete during its hardening is presented. Heat of cement hydration, thermal conductivity and specific heat are determined for purpose of modelling temperature evolution in massive concrete elements. The developed method is based on point temperature measurements in a cylindrical mould and the numerical solution of the inverse heat transfer problem by means of direct search optimization algorithm. The determined thermal characteristics of concrete are not constant and depend on the maturity of concrete. The procedure was verified on set of concrete mixes designed with Portland cement CEM I 42.5R and Portland-slag cement CEM II/B-S 32.5 N. Calcareous fly ash was also used for partial replacement of cement in the mixtures. The obtained results have been compared with experimentally measured temperature in concrete and a fair agreement has been found.

(40p.)
20.Pawłowska S., Kowalewski T.A., Pierini F., Fibrous polymer nanomaterials for biomedical applications and their transport by fluids: an overview, SOFT MATTER, ISSN: 1744-683X, DOI: 10.1039/C8SM01269E, Vol.14, pp.8421-8444, 2018
Pawłowska S., Kowalewski T.A., Pierini F., Fibrous polymer nanomaterials for biomedical applications and their transport by fluids: an overview, SOFT MATTER, ISSN: 1744-683X, DOI: 10.1039/C8SM01269E, Vol.14, pp.8421-8444, 2018

Abstract:
Over the past few decades, there has been strong interest in the development of new micro- and nanomaterials for biomedical applications. Their use in the form of capsules, particles or filaments suspended in body fluids is associated with conformational changes and hydrodynamic interactions responsible for their transport. The dynamics of fibres or other long objects in Poiseuille flow is one of the fundamental problems in a variety of biomedical contexts, such as mobility of proteins, dynamics of DNA or other biological polymers, cell movement, tissue engineering, and drug delivery. In this review, we discuss several important applications of micro and nanoobjects in this field and try to understand the problems of their transport in flow resulting from material-environment interactions in typical, crowded, and complex biological fluids. Our aim is to elucidate the relationship between the nano- and microscopic structures of elongated polymer particles and their flow properties, thus opening the possibility to design nanoobjects that can be efficiently transported by body fluids for targeted drug release or local tissue regeneration.

(40p.)
21.Kowalewski P.K., Olszewski R., Walędziak M.S., Janik M.R., Kwiatkowski A., Gałązka-Świderek N., Cichoń K., Brągoszewski J., Paśnik K., Long-Term Outcomes of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy—a Single-Center, Retrospective Study , Obesity Surgery, ISSN: 0960-8923, DOI: 10.1007/s11695-017-2795-2, Vol.28, pp.130-134, 2018
Kowalewski P.K., Olszewski R., Walędziak M.S., Janik M.R., Kwiatkowski A., Gałązka-Świderek N., Cichoń K., Brągoszewski J., Paśnik K., Long-Term Outcomes of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy—a Single-Center, Retrospective Study , Obesity Surgery, ISSN: 0960-8923, DOI: 10.1007/s11695-017-2795-2, Vol.28, pp.130-134, 2018

Abstract:
Introduction Sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is one of the most popularbariatricprocedures.Wepresentourlong-termresults regarding weight loss, comorbidities, and gastric reflux disease. Materialand Methods We identified patients who underwent LSGinourinstitutionbetween2006and2009.Werevisedthe data, and the patients with outdated contact details were tracked with the national health insurance database and social media(facebook).Eachoftheidentifiedpatientswasaskedto complete an online or telephone survey covering, among others, their weight and comorbidities. On that basis, we calculated the percent total weight loss (%TWL) and percent excessweightloss(%EWL),alongwithchangesinbodymass index(ΔBMI).Satisfactoryweightlosswassetat>50%EWL (for BMI = 25 kg/m2). We evaluated type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and arterial hypertension (AHT) based on the pharmacological therapy. GERD presence was evaluated by the typical symptoms and/or proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. Results One hundred twenty-seven patients underwent LSG between 2006 and 2009. One hundred twenty patients were qualified for this study. Follow-up data was available for 100 participants (47 female, 53 male). Median follow-up period reached 8.0 years (from 7.1 to 10.7). Median BMI upon qualification for LSG was 51.6 kg/m2. Sixteen percent of patients required revisional surgery over the years (RS group), mainly because of insufficient weight loss (14 Roux-Y gastric bypass—LRYGB;oneminigastricbypass,onegastricbanding). For the LSG (LSG group n = 84), the mean %EWL was 51.1% (±22.3), median %TWL was 23.5% (IQR 17.7– 33.3%), and median ΔBMI was 12.1 kg/m2 (IQR 8.2–17.2). Fifty percent (n = 42) of patients achieved the satisfactory %EWL of 50%. For RS group, the mean %EWL was 57.8% (±18.2%) and median %TWL reached 33% (IQR 27.7– 37.9%). Sixty-two percent (n = 10) achieved the satisfactory weight loss. Fifty-nine percent of patients reported improvement in AHT therapy, 58% in T2DM. After LSG, 60% (n = 60) of patients reported recurring GERD symptoms and 44% were treated with proton pomp inhibitors (PPI). In 93% of these cases, GERD has developed de novo. Conclusions Isolated LSG provides fairly good effects in a long-term follow-up with mean %EWL at 51.1%. Sixteen percent of patients require additional surgery due to insufficient weight loss. More than half of the subjects observe improvement inAHTand T2DM.Overhalfofthepatientscomplain of GERD symptoms, which in most of the cases is a de novo complaint.

Keywords:
Bariatricsurgery, Sleeve, Long-termfollow-up, Comorbidities, GERD

(40p.)
22.Hussain M., Misbah-ul-Islam , Meydan T., Cuenca J.A., Melikhov Y., Mustafa G., Murtaza G., Jamil Y., Microwave absorption properties of CoGd substituted ZnFe2O4 ferrites synthesized by co-precipitation technique, CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL, ISSN: 0272-8842, DOI: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2017.12.145, Vol.44, No.6, pp.5909-5914, 2018
Hussain M., Misbah-ul-Islam , Meydan T., Cuenca J.A., Melikhov Y., Mustafa G., Murtaza G., Jamil Y., Microwave absorption properties of CoGd substituted ZnFe2O4 ferrites synthesized by co-precipitation technique, CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL, ISSN: 0272-8842, DOI: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2017.12.145, Vol.44, No.6, pp.5909-5914, 2018

Abstract:
A series of co-precipitated Zn1-xCoxGdyFe2-yO4 spinel ferrites (x = 0.0-0.5, y = 0.00-0.10) sintered at 1000 degrees C were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometery (VSM) and microwave cavity perturbation (MCP). XRD patterns and FTIR spectra reveal formation of the spinel phase along with few traces of GdFeO3 second phase. The lattice constant decreases with an increasing amount of CoGd ions due to the segregation of Gd3+ on the grain boundaries and due to replacement of lager Zn2+ ions with smaller Co2+ ions. SEM shows grain size to decrease with the increase of CoGd contents due to grain growth inhibition by the second phase. VSM results show remanence and saturation magnetization to exhibit an increasing trend due to Co substitution on octahedral sites and presence of a second phase. The coercivity increases with the increase of CoGd contents due to anisotropic nature of Co. MCP shows the complex magnetic permeability to increase with CoGd concentration while the complex permittivity decreases.

Keywords:
Spinel ferrites, Magnetization, Permittivity, Permeability

(40p.)
23.Sajkiewicz P., Heljak M.K., Gradys A., Choińska E., Rumiński S., Jaroszewicz T., Bissenik I., Święszkowski W., Degradation and related changes in supermolecular structure of poly(caprolactone) in vivo conditions, Polymer Degradation and Stability, ISSN: 0141-3910, DOI: 10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2018.09.023, Vol.157, pp.70-79, 2018
Sajkiewicz P., Heljak M.K., Gradys A., Choińska E., Rumiński S., Jaroszewicz T., Bissenik I., Święszkowski W., Degradation and related changes in supermolecular structure of poly(caprolactone) in vivo conditions, Polymer Degradation and Stability, ISSN: 0141-3910, DOI: 10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2018.09.023, Vol.157, pp.70-79, 2018

Abstract:
The degradation in vivo and its effect on the supermolecular structure of poly(caprolactone) was examined. Poly(caprolactone) (PCL) samples were prepared in the form of porous scaffolds implanted into rat calvarial defects. The degradation was investigated by means of gel permeation chromatography, wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The study showed that the observed decrease of PCL crystallinity during degradation is accompanied by reduction of crystal size and/or perfection. The observed phenomenon could be explained by the presence of the high content of the low mobile fraction of investigated polymer, consisting not only almost 50% of crystal fraction but also most probably relatively high fraction of s.c. rigid amorphous fraction (RAF). Considering the type of structure characterized by the dominance of low mobile fraction, it is expected that the degradation will mainly concern these fractions, which in turn will lead to a decrease in the degree of crystallinity as well as crystal size and/or perfection.

Keywords:
PCL degradation, In-vivo conditions, Crystallinity, Rigid amorphous fraction

(35p.)
24.Dobkowska-Chudon W., Wrobel M., Karłowicz P., Dabrowski A., Krupienicz A., Targowski T., Nowicki A., Olszewski R., Detecting cerebrovascular changes in the brain caused by hypertension in atrial fibrillation group using acoustocerebrography, PLOS ONE, ISSN: 1932-6203, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0199999, Vol.13, No.7, pp.1-10, 2018
Dobkowska-Chudon W., Wrobel M., Karłowicz P., Dabrowski A., Krupienicz A., Targowski T., Nowicki A., Olszewski R., Detecting cerebrovascular changes in the brain caused by hypertension in atrial fibrillation group using acoustocerebrography, PLOS ONE, ISSN: 1932-6203, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0199999, Vol.13, No.7, pp.1-10, 2018

Abstract:
Acoustocerebrography is a novel, non-invasive, transcranial ultrasonic diagnostic method
based on the transmission of multispectral ultrasound signals propagating through the brain
tissue. Dedicated signal processing enables the estimation of absorption coefficient, frequency-
dependent attenuation, speed of sound and tissue elasticity. Hypertension and atrial
fibrillation are well known factors correlated with white matter lesions, intracerebral hemorrhage
and cryptogenic stroke numbers. The aim of this study was to compare the acoustocerebrography
signal in the brains of asymptomatic atrial fibrillation patients with and
without hypertension. The study included 97 asymptomatic patients (40 female and 57
male, age 66.26 ± 6.54 years) who were clinically monitored for atrial fibrillation. The
patients were divided into two groups: group I (patients with hypertension) n = 75, and group
II (patients without hypertension) n = 22. Phase and amplitude of all spectral components
for the received signals from the brain path were extracted and compared to the phase and
amplitude of the transmitted pulse. Next, the time of flight and the attenuation of each frequency
component were calculated. Additionally, a fast Fourier transformation was performed
and its features were extracted. After introducing a machine learning technique, the
ROC plot of differentiations between group I and group II with an AUC of 0.958 (sensitivity
0.99 and specificity 0.968) was obtained. It can be assumed that the significant difference in
the acoustocerebrography signals in patients with hypertension is due to changes in the
brain tissue, and it allows for the differentiating of high-risk patients with asymptomatic atrial
fibrillation and hypertension.

Keywords:
changes in the brain, hypertension in atrial, acoustocerebrography

(35p.)
25.Gluba-Brzózka A., Franczyk B., Ciałkowska-Rysz A., Olszewski R., Rysz J., Impact of Vitamin D on the Cardiovascular System in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and Dialysis Patients, Nutrients , ISSN: 2072-6643, DOI: 10.3390/nu10060709, Vol.10, No.709, pp.1-12, 2018
Gluba-Brzózka A., Franczyk B., Ciałkowska-Rysz A., Olszewski R., Rysz J., Impact of Vitamin D on the Cardiovascular System in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and Dialysis Patients, Nutrients , ISSN: 2072-6643, DOI: 10.3390/nu10060709, Vol.10, No.709, pp.1-12, 2018

Abstract:
In patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD), the prevalence of cardiovascular disease is much more common than in the general population. The role of vitamin D deficiency had been underestimated until a significant association was found between vitamin D therapy and survival benefit in haemodialysis patients. Vitamin D deficiency is present even in the early stages of chronic kidney disease. The results of experimental studies have revealed the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and impairment of cardiac contractile function, higher cardiac mass and increased myocardial collagen content. Experimental models propose that intermediate end points for the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and higher risk of cardiovascular disease comprise diminished left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), enhanced left ventricular diastolic function, anddecreasedfrequencyofheartfailure. Multipleobservationalstudieshavedemonstrated an association between the use of active vitamin D therapy in patients on dialysis and with CKD and improved survival. However, there are also many studies indicating important adverse effects of such treatment. Therefore, large randomized trials are required to analyze whether supplementation of vitamin D may affect outcomes and whether it is safe to be used in CKD patient

Keywords:
vitamin D; chronic kidney disease; cardiovascular disease; mortality; vitamin D analogues; treatment

(35p.)
26.Nosewicz S., Romelczyk-Baishya B., Lumelskyj D., Chmielewski M., Bazarnik P., Jarząbek D., Pietrzak K., Kaszyca K., Pakieła Z., Experimental and numerical studies of micro- and macromechanical properties of modified copper–silicon carbide composites, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES, ISSN: 0020-7683, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2018.10.025, pp.1-14, 2018
Nosewicz S., Romelczyk-Baishya B., Lumelskyj D., Chmielewski M., Bazarnik P., Jarząbek D., Pietrzak K., Kaszyca K., Pakieła Z., Experimental and numerical studies of micro- and macromechanical properties of modified copper–silicon carbide composites, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES, ISSN: 0020-7683, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2018.10.025, pp.1-14, 2018

Abstract:
The presented research investigation comprises the study of the mechanical properties of modified copper–silicon carbide composites at the micro- and macroscopic scale. The improvement of a copper–silicon carbide composite refers to the addition of a protective layer at the ceramic reinforcement in order to prevent the dissolution of silicon in the copper matrix. The macromechanical behaviour has been evaluated by the performance in a small punch test. The investigation has been carried out with samples with varying volume content of ceramic reinforcement and different protective layers of the silicon carbide particles. Moreover, the influence of temperature during the strength test has been studied. Next, the results have been referred to the interfacial bonding strength of Cu and SiC particles. SEM characterization of samples has been performed to link the composites’ microstructure with the mechanical behaviour. Finally, the experimental results of the small punch test have been predicted via a numerical approach. Finite element analysis has been employed to reproduce the response of the composite specimen during the test. Satisfactory agreement with the experimental curve has been obtained.

Keywords:
metal matrix composites; silicon carbide; metallic layers deposition; small punch; interface strength; finite element method

(35p.)
27.Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka D., Glinicki M.A., Gibas K., Baran T., Alkali-Silica Reactivity of High Density Aggregates for Radiation Shielding Concrete, Materials, ISSN: 1996-1944, DOI: 10.3390/ma11112284, Vol.11, No.2284, pp.1-15, 2018
Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka D., Glinicki M.A., Gibas K., Baran T., Alkali-Silica Reactivity of High Density Aggregates for Radiation Shielding Concrete, Materials, ISSN: 1996-1944, DOI: 10.3390/ma11112284, Vol.11, No.2284, pp.1-15, 2018

Abstract:
Long-term exposure of concrete to nuclear reactor environments may enhance the ageing
phenomena. An investigation concerning a possible deleterious alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in concrete containing high-density aggregates is presented in this paper. The scope of this investigation was limited to heavy aggregates that could be used for the construction of the first Polish nuclear power plant (NPP). Five different high-density aggregates were selected and tested: three barites, magnetite, and hematite. Mineralogical analysis was conducted using thin section microscopic observation in transmitted light. The accelerated mortar beam test and the long-time concrete prism test were applied to estimate the susceptibility of heavy aggregates to ASR. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were conducted on aggregates and mortars. The quartz size in aggregate grains was evaluated using image analysis. Application of the accelerated mortar beam method confirmed the observations of thin sections and XRD analysis of high-density aggregates. The microcrystalline quartz in hematite aggregate and cristobalite in one of barite aggregate triggered an ASR. The composition of ASR gel was confirmed by microscopic analysis. The long-term concrete test permitted the selection of innocuous high-density aggregates from among the other aggregates available, which showed practically no reactivity.

Keywords:
alkali-silica reaction, heavyweight concrete, high-density aggregate, quartz size, radiation shielding, reactive minerals

(35p.)
28.Sosa-Costa A., Piechocka I.K., Gardini L., Pavone F.S., Capitanio M., Garcia-Parajo M.F., Manzo C., PLANT: A Method for Detecting Changes of Slope in Noisy Trajectories, BIOPHYSICAL JOURNAL, ISSN: 0006-3495, DOI: 10.1016/j.bpj.2018.04.006, Vol.114, No.9, pp.2044-2051, 2018
Sosa-Costa A., Piechocka I.K., Gardini L., Pavone F.S., Capitanio M., Garcia-Parajo M.F., Manzo C., PLANT: A Method for Detecting Changes of Slope in Noisy Trajectories, BIOPHYSICAL JOURNAL, ISSN: 0006-3495, DOI: 10.1016/j.bpj.2018.04.006, Vol.114, No.9, pp.2044-2051, 2018

Abstract:
Time traces obtained from a variety of biophysical experiments contain valuable information on underlying processes occurring at the molecular level. Accurate quantification of these data can help explain the details of the complex dynamics of biological systems. Here, we describe PLANT (Piecewise Linear Approximation of Noisy Trajectories), a segmentation algorithm that allows the reconstruction of time-trace data with constant noise as consecutive straight lines, from which changes of slopes and their respective durations can be extracted. We present a general description of the algorithm and perform extensive simulations to characterize its strengths and limitations, providing a rationale for the performance of the algorithm in the different conditions tested. We further apply the algorithm to experimental data obtained from tracking the centroid position of lymphocytes migrating under the effect of a laminar flow and from single myosin molecules interacting with actin in a dual-trap force-clamp configuration.

Keywords:
TETHERED PARTICLE MOTION, CHANGE-POINT DETECTION, OPTICAL TWEEZERS, CELL-ADHESION, UNKNOWN POINT, SINGLE, MYOSIN, MODEL, MIGRATION, TRACKING

(35p.)
29.Żuk P.J., Cichocki B., Szymczak P., GRPY: An Accurate Bead Method for Calculation of Hydrodynamic Properties of Rigid Biomacromolecules, BIOPHYSICAL JOURNAL, ISSN: 0006-3495, DOI: 10.1016/j.bpj.2018.07.015, Vol.115, No.5, pp.782-800, 2018
Żuk P.J., Cichocki B., Szymczak P., GRPY: An Accurate Bead Method for Calculation of Hydrodynamic Properties of Rigid Biomacromolecules, BIOPHYSICAL JOURNAL, ISSN: 0006-3495, DOI: 10.1016/j.bpj.2018.07.015, Vol.115, No.5, pp.782-800, 2018

Abstract:
Two main problems that arise in the context of hydrodynamic bead modeling are an inaccurate treatment of bead overlaps and the necessity of using volume corrections when calculating intrinsic viscosity. We present a formalism based on the generalized Rotne-Prager-Yamakawa approximation that successfully addresses both of these issues. The generalized Rotne-Prager-Yamakawa method is shown to be highly effective for the calculation of transport properties of rigid biomolecules represented as assemblies of spherical beads of different sizes, both overlapping and nonoverlapping. We test the method on simple molecular shapes as well as real protein structures and compare its performance with other computational approaches.

(35p.)
30.Demchenko I.N., Syryanyy Y., Melikhov Y., Nittler L., Gladczuk L., Lasek K., Cozzarini L., Dalmiglio M., Goldoni A., Konstantynov P., Chernyshova M., X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis as a tool to assess factors influencing magnetic anisotropy type in Co/MgO system with gold interlayer, SCRIPTA MATERIALIA, ISSN: 1359-6462, DOI: 10.1016/j.scriptamat.2017.10.006, Vol.145, pp.50-53, 2018
Demchenko I.N., Syryanyy Y., Melikhov Y., Nittler L., Gladczuk L., Lasek K., Cozzarini L., Dalmiglio M., Goldoni A., Konstantynov P., Chernyshova M., X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis as a tool to assess factors influencing magnetic anisotropy type in Co/MgO system with gold interlayer, SCRIPTA MATERIALIA, ISSN: 1359-6462, DOI: 10.1016/j.scriptamat.2017.10.006, Vol.145, pp.50-53, 2018

Abstract:
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies of Au/Co/Au(0.3 nm)/MgO and Au/Co/MgO systems were conducted in order to monitor the electronic structure modification at Co/MgO interface with/without gold interlayer. A detailed analysis of Co 2p states revealed that the amount of minor oxygen contribution at Co/MgO interface decreased after the Au interlayer was added. The obtained XPS results together with density functional theory (DFT) allowed explanation of the increase of surface anisotropy energy in the sample with the gold interlayer in terms of (i) noble and transitional metal d-d orbital hybridization; (ii) interfacial Co 3d and O 2p; and (iii) interface imperfection.

(35p.)
31.Faraj R., Graczykowski C., Holnicki-Szulc J., Adaptable pneumatic shock absorber, JOURNAL OF VIBRATION AND CONTROL, ISSN: 1077-5463, DOI: 10.1177/1077546318795532, pp.1-11, 2018
Faraj R., Graczykowski C., Holnicki-Szulc J., Adaptable pneumatic shock absorber, JOURNAL OF VIBRATION AND CONTROL, ISSN: 1077-5463, DOI: 10.1177/1077546318795532, pp.1-11, 2018

Abstract:
Recent progress in the field of sensors, actuators, and smart materials allows the construction of more and more efficient controllable pneumatic dampers for shock absorption. Typically, such devices apply online semi-active control techniques, which utilize electromagnetic, piezoelectric, or magnetostrictive valves. As a result, they are characterized by a high efficiency of impact absorption, but simultaneously by a complicated construction and a specialized electronic system. The alternative solutions are semi-passive absorbers that ensure a similar performance by using a much simpler, low-cost construction and a less complicated adaptation mechanism. This paper introduces an adaptable semi-passive single-chamber pneumatic shock absorber, SOFT-DROP, which provides the optimal impact absorption and energy dissipation after a single reconfiguration performed at the beginning of the process. The high effectiveness of the proposed concept is proved in numerical and experimental investigations of the device. Moreover, the proposed semi-passive damper is also compared against already known pneumatic absorbers that utilize semi-active control methods. Ultimately, the device might be used in an airdrop system for delivery of light packages.

Keywords:
adaptable, semi-passive, impact absorption, optimal design, pneumatic shock absorber

(30p.)
32.Tasinkiewicz J., Falińska K., Lewin P., Litniewski J., Improving broadband ultrasound attenuation assessment in cancellous bone by mitigating the influence of cortical bone: Phantom and in-vitro study, Ultrasonics, ISSN: 0041-624X, DOI: 10.1016/j.ultras.2018.06.018, Vol.92, pp.1-7, 2018
Tasinkiewicz J., Falińska K., Lewin P., Litniewski J., Improving broadband ultrasound attenuation assessment in cancellous bone by mitigating the influence of cortical bone: Phantom and in-vitro study, Ultrasonics, ISSN: 0041-624X, DOI: 10.1016/j.ultras.2018.06.018, Vol.92, pp.1-7, 2018

Abstract:
The purpose of this work was to present a new approach that allows the influence of cortical bone on noninvasive measurement of broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) to be corrected. The method, mplemented here at 1 MHz makes use of backscattered signal and once refined and clinically confirmed, it would offer an alternative to ionizing radiation based methods, such as DEXA (Dual-nergy X-ray absorptiometry), quantitative computed tomography (QCT), radiographic absorptiometry (RA) or single X-ray absorptiometry (SXA), which are clinically approved for assessment of progress of osteoporosis. In addition, as the method employs reflected waves, it might substantially enhance the applicability of BUA - from being suitable to peripheral bones only it would extend this applicability to include such embedded bones as hip and femoral neck. The proposed approach allows the cortical layer parameters used for correction and the corrected value and parameter of the ancellous bone (BUA) to be determined simultaneously from the single (pulse-echo) bone backscattered wave; to the best of the authors’ knowledge such approach was not previously reported. The validity of the method was tested using acoustic data obtained from a custom- esigned bone-mimicking phantom and a calf femur. The relative error of the attenuation coefficient assessment was determined to be 3.9% and 4.7% for the bone phantom and calf bone specimens, respectively. When the cortical shell influence was not taken into account the corresponding errors were considerably higher 8.3% (artificial bone) and 9.2% (calf femur). As indicated above, once clinically proven, the use of this BUA measurement technique in reflection mode would augment diagnostic power of the attending physician by permitting to include bones, which are not accessible for transmission mode evaluation, e.g. hip, spine, humerus and femoral neck.

Keywords:
Broadband ultrasound attenuation, Correction of influence of cortical bone, Trabecular bone

(30p.)
33.Nasalski W., Elegant Laguerre–Gaussian beams — formulation of exact vector solution, Journal of Optics, ISSN: 2040-8978, DOI: 10.1088/2040-8986/aadc8a, Vol.20, No.105601, pp.1-11, 2018
Nasalski W., Elegant Laguerre–Gaussian beams — formulation of exact vector solution, Journal of Optics, ISSN: 2040-8978, DOI: 10.1088/2040-8986/aadc8a, Vol.20, No.105601, pp.1-11, 2018

Abstract:
In photonic applications of optical beams, their transverse cross-section should be often narrow, with a diameter in their waist of the order of one wavelength or even less. Within this range, the paraxial approximation of beam fields is not valid and standard corrections by field expansions with respect to a small parameter are not efficient as well. Thus, still there is a need for more accurate beam field description. In this report, an exact vector solution for free-space propagation is given in terms of elegant Laguerre–Gaussian beams. The analysis starts from the known paraxial field approximation and next, through bidirectional field transformation and application of a Hertz potential leads to an exact vector solution. The role of the paraxial solution in construction of the exact solution is elucidated. The method works well not only in cases of free-space propagation but also in description of beam interactions with planar interfaces and multilayers.

Keywords:
elegant Laguerre–Gaussian beams, paraxial and nonparaxial solutions, bidirectional transformation, Hertz potentials

(30p.)
34.Szymczyk M., Nowak M., Sumelka W., Numerical Study of Dynamic Properties of Fractional Viscoplasticity Model, SYMMETRY, ISSN: 2073-8994, DOI: 10.3390/sym10070282, Vol.10, No.282, pp.1-17, 2018
Szymczyk M., Nowak M., Sumelka W., Numerical Study of Dynamic Properties of Fractional Viscoplasticity Model, SYMMETRY, ISSN: 2073-8994, DOI: 10.3390/sym10070282, Vol.10, No.282, pp.1-17, 2018

Abstract:
The fractional viscoplasticity (FV) concept combines the Perzyna type viscoplastic model and fractional calculus. This formulation includes: (i) rate-dependence; (ii) plastic anisotropy; (iii) non-normality; (iv) directional viscosity; (v) implicit/time non-locality; and (vi) explicit/stress-fractional non-locality. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the above mentioned FV properties, together with a detailed discussion on a general 3D numerical implementation for the explicit time integration scheme.

Keywords:
fractional viscoplasticity, rate dependence, plastic anisotropy, non-normality, directional viscosity, explicit/implicit non-locality

(30p.)
35.Zawidzki M., Szklarski J., Transformations of Arm-Z modular manipulator with Particle Swarm Optimization, Advances in Engineering Software, ISSN: 0965-9978, DOI: 10.1016/j.advengsoft.2018.05.003, pp.1-14, 2018
Zawidzki M., Szklarski J., Transformations of Arm-Z modular manipulator with Particle Swarm Optimization, Advances in Engineering Software, ISSN: 0965-9978, DOI: 10.1016/j.advengsoft.2018.05.003, pp.1-14, 2018

Abstract:
A novel concept of hyper-redundant, snake-like manipulator is presented. It is based on the reconfigurable modular construction system–Arm-Z (AZ). AZ is comprised of linearly joined congruent modules with possibility of relative twist. AZ is an Extremely Modular System, i.e. it is composed of a single basic unit and allows for creating free-form shapes. Required level of usefulness and efficiency are among the most challenging design aspects of such reconfigurable systems. Here AZ is considered in the context of kinematics of robotic arms. In general, due to its highly non-linear nature, it is very difficult to find transitions between given states (configurations), especially under realistic environmental and structural constraints. As a way to control the manipulator, an implementation of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for finding transitions between AZ states in realistic scenarios is proposed. Four practical examples are presented which are variations of two distinct problems: bending of a hexagonal AZ in a narrow slot (strong environmental constraints), and reaching a given point in 3D space by the tip of dodecagonal AZ (acting as a robotic arm). The problem of AZ transformation has been defined as a multi-objective optimization. The methodology is general with no restrictions to the objective function. Since the problem is strongly non-linear, in order to cover large space of potential solutions, the algorithm runs for a relatively large number of random initial swarms. This task was distributed on a computer cluster. Although the nature of AZ reconfiguration is discrete, the optimization algorithm is continuous.

Keywords:
Extremely modular system, Arm-Z, Pipe-Z, Discrete optimization, Dihedral rotation, Reconfiguration, Particle Swarm Optimization, Redundant robot, Hyper-redundant manipulator

(30p.)
36.Dębski P.R., Skłodowska K., Michalski J.A., Korczyk P.M., Dolata M., Jakiela S., Continuous Recirculation of Microdroplets in a Closed Loop Tailored for Screening of Bacteria Cultures, Micromachines, ISSN: 2072-666X, DOI: 10.3390/mi9090469, Vol.9, pp.1-11, 2018
Dębski P.R., Skłodowska K., Michalski J.A., Korczyk P.M., Dolata M., Jakiela S., Continuous Recirculation of Microdroplets in a Closed Loop Tailored for Screening of Bacteria Cultures, Micromachines, ISSN: 2072-666X, DOI: 10.3390/mi9090469, Vol.9, pp.1-11, 2018

Abstract:
Emerging microfluidic technology has introduced new precision controls over reaction conditions. Owing to the small amount of reagents, microfluidics significantly lowers the cost of carrying a single reaction. Moreover, in two-phase systems, each part of a dispersed fluid can be treated as an independent chemical reactor with a volume from femtoliters to microliters, increasing the throughput. In this work, we propose a microfluidic device that provides continuous recirculation of droplets in a closed loop, maintaining low consumption of oil phase, no cross-contamination, stabilized temperature, a constant condition of gas exchange, dynamic feedback control on droplet volume, and a real-time optical characterization of bacterial growth in a droplet. The channels (tubing) and junction cubes are made of Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) to ensure non-wetting conditions and to prevent the formation of biofilm, which is particularly crucial for biological experiments. We show the design and operation of a novel microfluidic loop with the circular motion of microdroplet reactors monitored with optical sensors and precision temperature controls. We have employed the proposed system for long term monitoring of bacterial growth during the antibiotic chloramphenicol treatment. The proposed system can find applications in a broad field of biomedical diagnostics and therapy.

Keywords:
microfluidic loop, bacteria cultures, screening, antibiotic treatment, Escherichia coli

(30p.)
37.Papliński P., Wańkowicz J., Ranachowski P., Ranachowski Z., Microstructure and degree of degradation of ZnO varistors in surge arresters due to operation, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.24425/123800, Vol.63, No.3, pp.1267-1273, 2018
Papliński P., Wańkowicz J., Ranachowski P., Ranachowski Z., Microstructure and degree of degradation of ZnO varistors in surge arresters due to operation, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.24425/123800, Vol.63, No.3, pp.1267-1273, 2018

Abstract:
The paper presents the test results for the microstructure of ZnO varistors comprising high voltage gapless surge arresters. The tests were performed on varistors produced in different periods and by various manufacturers. The research was inspired by different characteristics of changes in values of current flowing through surge arresters as a function of changes in values of system voltage in a 220 kV substation, and the temperature in a multi-year cycle. Furthermore, the effects of varistor microstructure degradation following a failure of an unsealed surge arrester were investigated. The results provided the grounds for assessment of ZnO varistor microstructure parameters in terms of their durability and resistance to degradation processes.

Keywords:
surge arrester, MO varistor, microstructure of ceramics, ceramic material degradation

(30p.)
38.Lengiewicz J., Hołobut P., Efficient collective shape shifting and locomotion of massively-modular robotic structures, Autonomous Robots, ISSN: 0929-5593, DOI: 10.1007/s10514-018-9709-6, Vol.0, pp.1-26, 2018
Lengiewicz J., Hołobut P., Efficient collective shape shifting and locomotion of massively-modular robotic structures, Autonomous Robots, ISSN: 0929-5593, DOI: 10.1007/s10514-018-9709-6, Vol.0, pp.1-26, 2018

Abstract:
We propose a methodology of planning effective shape shifting and locomotion of large-ensemble modular robots based on a cubic lattice. The modules are divided into two groups: fixed ones, that build a rigid porous frame, and mobile ones, that flow through the frame.Mobile modules which flow out of the structure attach to the frame, advancing its boundary. Conversely, a deficiency of mobile modules in other parts of the boundary is corrected by decomposition of the frame. Inside the structure, appropriate module flow is arranged to transport the modules in a desired direction, which is planned by a special distributed version of a maximum flow search algorithm. The method engages a volume of modules during reconfiguration, which is more efficient than common surface-flow approaches. Also, the proposed interpretation as a flow in porous media with moving boundaries seems particularly suitable for further development of more advanced global reconfiguration scenarios. The theoretical efficiency of the method is assessed, and then partially verified by a series of simulations. The method can be possibly also applied to a wider class of modular robots, not necessarily cubic-lattice-based.

Keywords:
Modular robots, Self-reconfiguration, Maximum flow search, Programmable matter, Distributed algorithms

(30p.)
39.Nowak M., Nowak Z., Pęcherski R.B., Potoczek M., Śliwa R.E., ASSESSMENT OF FAILURE STRENGTH OF REAL ALUMINA FOAMS WITH USE OF THE PERIODIC STRUCTURE MODEL, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.24425/amm.2018.125122, Vol.63, No.4, pp.1901-1906, 2018
Nowak M., Nowak Z., Pęcherski R.B., Potoczek M., Śliwa R.E., ASSESSMENT OF FAILURE STRENGTH OF REAL ALUMINA FOAMS WITH USE OF THE PERIODIC STRUCTURE MODEL, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.24425/amm.2018.125122, Vol.63, No.4, pp.1901-1906, 2018

Abstract:
The subject of the study are alumina foams produced by gelcasting method. The results of micro-computed tomography of the foam samples are used to create the numerical model reconstructing the real structure of the foam skeleton as well as the simplified periodic open-cell structure models. The aim of the paper is to present a new idea of the energy-based assessment of failure strength under uniaxial compression of real alumina foams of various porosity with use of the periodic structure model of the same porosity. Considering two kinds of cellular structures: the periodic one, for instance of fcc type, and the random structure of real alumina foam it is possible to justify the hypothesis, computationally and experimentally, that the same elastic energy density cumulated in the both structures of the same porosity allows to determine the close values of fracture strength under compression. Application of finite element computations for the analysis of deformation and failure processes in real ceramic foams is time consuming. Therefore, the use of simplified periodic cell structure models for the assessment of elastic moduli and failure strength appears very attractive from the point of view of practical applications.

Keywords:
periodic cell structure, alumina open-cell foam, Young modulus, strength of alumina foams, Burzyński limit criterion

(30p.)
40.Rezaee Hajidehi M., Spada A., Giambanco G., The multiple slope discontinuity beam element for nonlinear analysis of RC framed structures, MECCANICA, ISSN: 0025-6455, DOI: 10.1007/s11012-018-0817-3, Vol.53, No.6, pp.1469-1490, 2018
Rezaee Hajidehi M., Spada A., Giambanco G., The multiple slope discontinuity beam element for nonlinear analysis of RC framed structures, MECCANICA, ISSN: 0025-6455, DOI: 10.1007/s11012-018-0817-3, Vol.53, No.6, pp.1469-1490, 2018

Abstract:
The seismic nonlinear response of reinforced concrete structures permits to identify critical zones of an existing structure and to better plan its rehabilitation process. It is obtained by performing finite element analysis using numerical models classifiable into two categories: lumped plasticity models and distributed plasticity models. The present work is devoted to the implementation, in a finite element environment, of an elastoplastic Euler–Bernoulli beam element showing possible slope discontinuities at any position along the beam span, in the framework of a modified lumped plasticity. The differential equation of an Euler–Bernoulli beam element under static loads in presence of multiple discontinuities in the slope function was already solved by Biondi and Caddemi (Int J Solids Struct 42(9):3027–3044, 2005, Eur J Mech A Solids 26(5):789–809, 2007), who also found solutions in closed form. These solutions are now implemented in the new beam element respecting a thermodynamical approach, from which the state equations and flow rules are derived. State equations and flow rules are rewritten in a discrete manner to match up with the Newton–Raphson iterative solutions of the discretized loading process. A classic elastic predictor phase is followed by a plastic corrector phase in the case of activation of the inelastic phenomenon. The corrector phase is based on the evaluation of return bending moments by employing the closest point projection method under the hypothesis of associated plasticity in the bending moment planes of a Bresler’s type activation domain. Shape functions and stiffness matrix for the new element are derived. Numerical examples are furnished to validate the proposed beam element.

Keywords:
Slope discontinuity, Nonlinear pushover analysis, Lumped plasticity, Plastic hinge

(30p.)
41.Trots I., Nowicki A., Postema M., Ultrasound Image Improvement by Code Bit Elongation, IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS, ISSN: 1070-9908, DOI: 10.1109/LSP.2017.2776040, Vol.25, No.3, pp.437-441, 2018
Trots I., Nowicki A., Postema M., Ultrasound Image Improvement by Code Bit Elongation, IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS, ISSN: 1070-9908, DOI: 10.1109/LSP.2017.2776040, Vol.25, No.3, pp.437-441, 2018

Abstract:
This letter analyses the influence of the transducer bandwidth on the compression and the axial resolution of an ultrasound image. The distortion of an electrical signal visible in the final image is a major problem in ultrasonography. To solve this problem, the bit length in Golay-complementary sequences was elongated, narrowing the fractional bandwidth of the coded sequences. Therefore, more energy of the burst signal could be transferred through the ultrasound transducer. The experimental results obtained for transmission of the complementary Golaycoded sequences with two different bit lengths—one-cycle and two-cycles—have been compared, and the efficiency of the pulse compression and its influence on the axial resolution for two fractional bandwidths have been discussed. The results are presented for two transducers having a fractional bandwidth of 25% and 80% and operating at a 6-MHz frequency. The results obtained show that the elongation of the Golay single bit length (doubled in our case) compensate for the limited transducer bandwidth. Twodimensionalultrasoundimagesofatissue-mimickingphantomare presented and demonstrate the benefits of the use of two-cycle bit length.

Keywords:
Coded excitation, Golay sequences, synthetic aperture method, transducer bandwidth, ultrasound imaging

(30p.)
42.Borkowski P., Pietrzak K., Frydman K., Wójcik-Grzybek D., Gładki A., Sienicki A., Physical and electrical properties of silver-matrix composites reinforced with various forms of refractory phases, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.24425/122408, Vol.68, No.2, pp.817-823, 2018
Borkowski P., Pietrzak K., Frydman K., Wójcik-Grzybek D., Gładki A., Sienicki A., Physical and electrical properties of silver-matrix composites reinforced with various forms of refractory phases, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.24425/122408, Vol.68, No.2, pp.817-823, 2018

Abstract:
This paper presents technological trials aimed at producing Ag-W, Ag-WC, Ag-W-C and Ag-WC-C composite contact materials and characterizing their properties. These materials were obtained using two methods, i.e. press-sinter-repress (PSR) at the refractory phase content of less than 30% by weight as well as press-sinter-infiltration (PSI) at the refractory phase content of ≥50% by weight). The results of research into both the physical and electrical properties of the outcome composites were shown. They include the analysis of the influence of the refractory phase content (W or WC) on arc erosion and contact resistance changes for the following current range: 6 kAmax in the case of composites with a low refractory phase content, 10 kAmax in the case of composites with the refractory phase content of ≥50% by weight.

Keywords:
composite materials, electrical contacts, arc erosion, contact resistance

(30p.)
43.Ranachowski P., Ranachowski Z., Wieczorek K., Jaroszewski M., Kudela S.Jr., Study of modified aluminous porcelain subjected to mechanoacoustic tests, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.24425/amm.2018.125110, Vol.63, No.4, pp.1821-1826, 2018
Ranachowski P., Ranachowski Z., Wieczorek K., Jaroszewski M., Kudela S.Jr., Study of modified aluminous porcelain subjected to mechanoacoustic tests, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.24425/amm.2018.125110, Vol.63, No.4, pp.1821-1826, 2018

Abstract:
The paper presents the microscopic and mechanoacoustic study of degradation processes of the porcelain material C 130 type. This kind of material is used in the production of the most durable and reliable electrotechnical elements. Raw material composition of the studied porcelain was modified. This had an impact on the inner properties, cohesion and – in consequence – on operational properties of the material. Using mechanical-acoustic and microscopic methods of testing of small-size samples that were subjected to compression, it was possible to distinguish successive stages of degradation of the porcelain structure. These stages were generally typical of the porcelain materials. In the authors’ opinion, they are connected to the ageing process happening over many years of work under operating conditions. Optimization of composition and technological properties – important during technological processes – resulted in a slight decrease in inner cohesion of the porcelain. When compared to the reference material – typical domestic C 130 material, mechanical strength was somewhat lower. Carried out investigations proved that resistance of the investigated material to the ageing degradation process – during long term operation – also decreased. The improvement of technological parameters and the reduction in the number of defective elements occurred simultaneously with some decrease in the operational parameters of the material. To restore their initial high level, further work is needed to optimize the raw material composition of the porcelain.

Keywords:
electrical porcelain materials, ageing processes, acoustic emission (AE), optical microscopy

(30p.)
44.Wieczorek K., Jaroszewski M., Ranachowski P., Ranachowski Z., Examination of the properties of samples from glass-epoxy core rods for composite insulators subjected to dc high voltage, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.24425/123802, Vol.63, No.3, pp.1281-1286, 2018
Wieczorek K., Jaroszewski M., Ranachowski P., Ranachowski Z., Examination of the properties of samples from glass-epoxy core rods for composite insulators subjected to dc high voltage, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.24425/123802, Vol.63, No.3, pp.1281-1286, 2018

Abstract:
This article presents the results of an examination performed on a set of samples of glass-epoxy core rods used in composite insulators with silicone rubber housings. The goal of the examination was to test the aging resistance of the core material when exposed to Direct Current (DC) high voltage. Long term exposure of a glass-epoxy core rod to DC high voltage may lead to the gradual degradation of its mechanical properties due to the ion migrations. Electrolysis of the core material (glass fiber) may cause electrical breakdown of the insulators and consequently lead to a major failure. After being aged for 6000 hours under DC high voltage, the samples were subjected to microscopic analysis. Their chemical composition was also examined using Raman spectroscopy and their dielectric losses and conductance in the broad range of frequencies were tested using dielectric spectroscopy.

Keywords:
DC high voltage, composite insulator, glass-epoxy core, dielectric spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy

(30p.)
45.Chernyshova M., Malinowski K., Melikhov Y., Kowalska-Strzęciwilk E., Czarski T., Wojeński A., Linczuk P., Krawczyk R.D., Study of the optimal configuration for a Gas Electron Multiplier aimed at plasma impurity radiation monitoring, Fusion Engineering and Design, ISSN: 0920-3796, DOI: 10.1016/j.fusengdes.2018.03.031, Vol.136, pp.592-596, 2018
Chernyshova M., Malinowski K., Melikhov Y., Kowalska-Strzęciwilk E., Czarski T., Wojeński A., Linczuk P., Krawczyk R.D., Study of the optimal configuration for a Gas Electron Multiplier aimed at plasma impurity radiation monitoring, Fusion Engineering and Design, ISSN: 0920-3796, DOI: 10.1016/j.fusengdes.2018.03.031, Vol.136, pp.592-596, 2018

Abstract:
For the purpose of monitoring the level of plasma impurity (especially tungsten) and its distribution reconstruction at tokamaks (ITER in particular), a Soft X-Ray (SXR) tomographic diagnostics based on Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors with energy discrimination has been extensively considered for a while. Coupled with advanced electronics, GEM detectors offer excellent time and space resolution, as well as a charge spectrum from which the SXR photon spectrum can be deconvolved. In addition, they are less subjected to a neutron damage as compared to standard semiconductor diodes. This contribution highlights the latest studies supporting the development of such diagnostics focusing on laboratory tests to examine: (a) the impact of GEM holes geometry on the properties and distribution of the electron avalanche; (b) the effect of the high rate photon flux on GEM foil performance; and (c) the optimal electric field distribution.

Keywords:
Nuclear instruments for hot plasma diagnostics, X-ray detectors, Electron multipliers (gas), Micropattern gaseous detectors (MSGC; GEM; THGEM; RETHGEM; MHSP; MICROPIC; MICROMEGAS; InGrid; etc.)

(30p.)
46.Frąś L.J., Dziekoński C., Dera W., Jarząbek D.M., Piezoelectric bimorph as a high-sensitivity viscosity resonant sensor to test the anisotropy of magnetorheological fluid, REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS, ISSN: 0034-6748, DOI: 10.1063/1.5025123, Vol.89, No.10, pp.105111-1-7, 2018
Frąś L.J., Dziekoński C., Dera W., Jarząbek D.M., Piezoelectric bimorph as a high-sensitivity viscosity resonant sensor to test the anisotropy of magnetorheological fluid, REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS, ISSN: 0034-6748, DOI: 10.1063/1.5025123, Vol.89, No.10, pp.105111-1-7, 2018

Abstract:
In this paper, we present a device which is very sensitive for small changes in the viscosity of the investigated fluid. The main part of the device is a piezo-electric bimorph which consists of the brass shim with two piezo-ceramic layers on the opposite sides. One of them is responsible for generating vibrations, whereas the second one is meant to measure system response which is produced by the damping properties of the surrounding fluid. During the experiment, the cylindrical bar is forced to move by the series of sinusoidal waves with different frequencies and at constant amplitudes. The probe is immersed in the fluid and then the amplitude vs frequency and phase vs frequency curves are obtained. Next, one can determine the viscosity according to a proper mathematical model. The resonant frequency is related to the damping coefficient which depends on the viscosity of the surrender fluid and immersion depth of the probe. The coefficients necessary for calculating viscosity are obtained by fitting the resonance curve to the amplitude vs frequency data obtained from the experiment. The device has been applied to study the anisotropy of magnetorheological fluids. The weak anisotropy of viscosity has been observed. The highest value of viscosity was observed in the case of viscosity measurement in the direction orthogonal to the magnetic field and the lowest in the direction parallel to the magnetic field.

(25p.)
47.Ekiel-Jeżewska M.L., Boniecki R., Bukowicki M., Gruca M., Stokes velocity generated by a point force in various geometries, EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL E, ISSN: 1292-8941, DOI: 10.1140/epje/i2018-11727-3, Vol.41, No.120, pp.1-7, 2018
Ekiel-Jeżewska M.L., Boniecki R., Bukowicki M., Gruca M., Stokes velocity generated by a point force in various geometries, EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL E, ISSN: 1292-8941, DOI: 10.1140/epje/i2018-11727-3, Vol.41, No.120, pp.1-7, 2018

Abstract:
In this short review, we visualize the fluid velocity generated by a point force close to a plane free surface or a plane rigid wall. We present separately contributions from all the multipoles which form the corresponding classical systems of images. Such graphical images might be useful in the theoretical and numerical modeling of the dynamics of micro-objects moving close to an interface.

(25p.)
48.Byra M., Styczyński G., Szmigielski C., Kalinowski P., Michałowski Ł., Paluszkiewicz R., Ziarkiewicz-Wróblewska B., Zieniewicz K., Sobieraj P., Nowicki A., Transfer learning with deep convolutiona lneural network for liver steatosis assessment in ultrasound images, International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, ISSN: 1861-6410, DOI: 10.1007/s11548-018-1843-2, Vol.13, No.12, pp.1895-1903, 2018
Byra M., Styczyński G., Szmigielski C., Kalinowski P., Michałowski Ł., Paluszkiewicz R., Ziarkiewicz-Wróblewska B., Zieniewicz K., Sobieraj P., Nowicki A., Transfer learning with deep convolutiona lneural network for liver steatosis assessment in ultrasound images, International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, ISSN: 1861-6410, DOI: 10.1007/s11548-018-1843-2, Vol.13, No.12, pp.1895-1903, 2018

Abstract:
Purpose
The nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common liver abnormality. Up to date, liver biopsy is the reference standard for direct liver steatosis quantification in hepatic tissue samples. In this paper we propose a neural network-based approach for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease assessment in ultrasound.
Methods
We used the Inception-ResNet-v2 deep convolutional neural network pre-trained on the ImageNet dataset to extract high-level features in liver B-mode ultrasound image sequences. The steatosis level of each liver was graded by wedge biopsy. The proposed approach was compared with the hepatorenal index technique and the gray-level co-occurrence matrix algorithm. After the feature extraction, we applied the support vector machine algorithm to classify images containing fatty liver. Based on liver biopsy, the fatty liver was defined to have more than 5% of hepatocytes with steatosis. Next, we used the features and the Lasso regression method to assess the steatosis level.
Results
The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve obtained using the proposed approach was equal to 0.977, being higher than the one obtained with the hepatorenal index method, 0.959, and much higher than in the case of the gray-level co-occurrence matrix algorithm, 0.893. For regression the Spearman correlation coefficients between the steatosis level and the proposed approach, the hepatorenal index and the gray-level co-occurrence matrix algorithm were equal to 0.78, 0.80 and 0.39, respectively.
Conclusions
The proposed approach may help the sonographers automatically diagnose the amount of fat in the liver. The presented approach is efficient and in comparison with other methods does not require the sonographers to select the region of interest.

Keywords:
Nonalcoholic fatty, liver disease, Ultrasound imaging Deep learning, Convolutional neural networks, Hepatorenal index, Transfer learning

(25p.)
49.Ribolla E.M., Rezaee Hajidehi M., Rizzo P., Scimemi G.F., Spada A., Giambanco G., Ultrasonic inspection for the detection of debonding in CFRP-reinforced concrete, Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN: 1573-2479, DOI: 10.1080/15732479.2017.1384843, Vol.14, No.6, pp.807-816, 2018
Ribolla E.M., Rezaee Hajidehi M., Rizzo P., Scimemi G.F., Spada A., Giambanco G., Ultrasonic inspection for the detection of debonding in CFRP-reinforced concrete, Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN: 1573-2479, DOI: 10.1080/15732479.2017.1384843, Vol.14, No.6, pp.807-816, 2018

Abstract:
Fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) composites are extensively used to retrofit civil structures. However, the quality and the characteristics of the bond between the FRP and the structure are critical to ensure the efficacy of the retrofit. For this reason, effective non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods are often necessary to assess the bonding conditions. This article presents an ultrasonic technique for detecting defects at the FRP-substrate interface. The technique uses the Akaike Information Criterion, to detect automatically the onset of the ultrasonic signals, and the novel Equivalent Time Lenght (ETL) parameter, to quantify the energy of the propagating ultrasonic signals along the interface between FRP and concrete. The uniqueness of the ETL is that it is not affected by the coupling conditions between the ultrasonic probes and the structure. The proposed NDE technique has been tested numerically by performing 2D Finite-Element analysis and experimentally on reinforced concrete samples. The results show that the method is robust and cost-effective.

Keywords:
CFRP, fibre-reinforced materials, concrete, bonding, non-destructive testing, ultrasonic methods, equivalent time length

(25p.)
50.Spada A., Rezaee Hajidehi M., Giambanco G., A BEAM ELEMENT ALLOWING MULTIPLE SLOPE DISCONTINUITIES FOR RC STRUCTURES: AN APPLICATION, JOURNAL OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING, ISSN: 1363-2469, Vol.XXXV, No.1, pp.131-150, 2018
Spada A., Rezaee Hajidehi M., Giambanco G., A BEAM ELEMENT ALLOWING MULTIPLE SLOPE DISCONTINUITIES FOR RC STRUCTURES: AN APPLICATION, JOURNAL OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING, ISSN: 1363-2469, Vol.XXXV, No.1, pp.131-150, 2018

Abstract:
A beam/column element allowing the formation of multiple plastic hinges in columns or beams of a reinforced concrete (RC) framed structure is used in this work to show, through an application, its advantages with respect to conventional lumped plasticity models. Slope discontinuities can be located at any position of an Euler-Bernoulli beam span and not at the two extremes only. The model is in fact written in the framework of a modified lumped plasticity theory, and respectful of a thermodynamic approach. Flow rules and state equations are derived invoking the Theorem of maximum dissipation and using a Bresler’s type activation domain. The beam element has already been implemented in a researchoriented code to run nonlinear analyses on 2-D frames. The discretized loading process is separated, at each step, in two phases: a predictor and a corrector phase. Numerical examples highlight how the new finite element permits to run nonlinear analyses avoiding a mesh refinement.

Keywords:
beam element, plastic hinge, lumped plasticity, slope discontinuity, nonlinear FEM analysis

(25p.)
51.Demchenko I.N., Melikhov Y., Syryanyy Y., Zaytseva I., Konstantynov P., Chernyshov M., Effect of argon sputtering on XPS depth-profiling results of Si/Nb/Si, JOURNAL OF ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY AND RELATED PHENOMENA, ISSN: 0368-2048, DOI: 10.1016/j.elspec.2017.09.009, Vol.224, pp.17-22, 2018
Demchenko I.N., Melikhov Y., Syryanyy Y., Zaytseva I., Konstantynov P., Chernyshov M., Effect of argon sputtering on XPS depth-profiling results of Si/Nb/Si, JOURNAL OF ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY AND RELATED PHENOMENA, ISSN: 0368-2048, DOI: 10.1016/j.elspec.2017.09.009, Vol.224, pp.17-22, 2018

Abstract:
Ultrathin Si/Nb/Si trilayer is an excellent example of a system for which dimensionality effects, together with other factors like type of a substrate material and growth method, influence strongly its superconducting properties. This study offers some important insights into experimental investigation of density of states of such a system with the aim to identify an electronic structure of the interface as a function of niobium layer thickness. For that, two Si/Nb/Si trilayers with 9.5 and 1.3 nm thick niobium layer buried in amorphous silicon were studied using high-resolution (HR) XPS depth-profile techniques. Strong influence of sputtering was observed, which resulted in severe intermixture of Si and Nb atoms. Nevertheless, a sharp top interface and metallic phase of niobium were detected for the thicker layer sample. On the contrary, a Nb-rich mixed alloy at top interface was observed for the thinner layer sample.

Keywords:
High-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS, Si/Nb/Si, NbSi, Depth profiling

(25p.)
52.Chernyshova M., Czarski T., Malinowski K., Melikhov Y., Kasprowicz G., Kowalska-Strzęciwilk E., Linczuk P., Wojeński A., Krawczyk R.D., 2D GEM based imaging detector readout capabilities from perspective of intense soft x-ray plasma radiation, REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS, ISSN: 0034-6748, DOI: 10.1063/1.5039278, Vol.89, No.10, pp.10G106-1-5, 2018
Chernyshova M., Czarski T., Malinowski K., Melikhov Y., Kasprowicz G., Kowalska-Strzęciwilk E., Linczuk P., Wojeński A., Krawczyk R.D., 2D GEM based imaging detector readout capabilities from perspective of intense soft x-ray plasma radiation, REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS, ISSN: 0034-6748, DOI: 10.1063/1.5039278, Vol.89, No.10, pp.10G106-1-5, 2018

Abstract:
A detecting system based on the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology is considered for tokamak plasma radiation monitoring. In order to estimate its capabilities in processing and recording intense photon flux (up to similar to 0.1 MHz/mm(2)), the imaging effectiveness of GEM detectors was tested with different patterned anode planes (i. e., different signal readouts): a simple hexagonal readout structure and three structures with interconnected electrodes (XY square, XY rectangular, and UXV). It was found that under intense photon flux, all the readouts fail to account for a considerable amount of the incoming signals due to mostly photon position determination ambiguity and overlapped signals. Analysis of the signals that can be used to determine photon position and energy unambiguously showed that the UXV readout structure is more effective among the readouts with interconnected electrodes. Along with similar spatial resolution and accuracy, the UXV based layout could be considered as a quite promising base of the interconnected anode electrodes configuration, keeping in mind that the photon rate capability has to be improved for the final application.

(25p.)
53.Ziólkowski A., Skłodowski M., On value and using of TAWS/FMS alert data in examination of air accidents, the case of Warsaw-Smolensk flight on 10 April 2010, The Aeronautical Journal, ISSN: 0001-9240, DOI: 10.1017/aer.2018.59, Vol.122, No.1255, pp.1301-1329, 2018
Ziólkowski A., Skłodowski M., On value and using of TAWS/FMS alert data in examination of air accidents, the case of Warsaw-Smolensk flight on 10 April 2010, The Aeronautical Journal, ISSN: 0001-9240, DOI: 10.1017/aer.2018.59, Vol.122, No.1255, pp.1301-1329, 2018

Abstract:
Through an analysis of TAWS/FMS data collected and registered during the last minute of TU-154M aircraft flight fromWarsaw to Smolensk, we show the value and existence of space for undertaking research works on enhancing standard functionality of TAWS/FMS systems to enable their effective use in examination of the course and causes of air accidents. The flight ended up in the total destruction of the aircraft and the death of all passengers and crew on board. The TAWS/FMS flight altitudes and spatio-temporal data, i.e. geographical location and speed of the aircraft motion, were inspected for their internal and external consistency with the data from the ATM QAR service recorder. Using the data from ATM QAR, records from the cockpit voice recorder (CVR), jointly with data from the TAWS/FMS systems, it was possible to reconstruct the most probable horizontal and vertical trajectory of the TU-154M aircraft during the last minute of flight before its complete destruction, as well as the likely scenario of accompanying events. The data available from recorders enabled the authors to gain information on the preliminary stage of the course of accident, and the first
phase of the aircraft’s destruction, resulting in serious damage of the left wing of the aircraft. Enhanced standard functionality of TAWS/FMS systems, incorporating use of their data in the
post-accident situations examination, would have improved results and simplified the present
analysis considerably.

Keywords:
TAWS system, aircraft accident examination, Polish TU-154M, Smolensk, abductive analysis, aircraft safety engineering, Q codes altitudes corrective formulas, ICAO atmosphere

(20p.)
54.Homa M., Sobczak N., Sobczak J.J., Kudyba A., Bruzda G., Nowak R., Pietrzak K., Chmielewski M., Strupiński W., Interaction between graphene-coated SiC single crystal and liquid copper, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, ISSN: 1059-9495, DOI: 10.1007/s11665-018-3340-8, Vol.27, No.5, pp.2317-2329, 2018
Homa M., Sobczak N., Sobczak J.J., Kudyba A., Bruzda G., Nowak R., Pietrzak K., Chmielewski M., Strupiński W., Interaction between graphene-coated SiC single crystal and liquid copper, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, ISSN: 1059-9495, DOI: 10.1007/s11665-018-3340-8, Vol.27, No.5, pp.2317-2329, 2018

Keywords:
graphene, liquid Cu, Raman spectroscopy, reactivity, sessile drop, wettability

(20p.)
55.Homa M., Sobczak N., Sobczak J.J., Kudyba A., Bruzda G., Nowak R., Giuranno D., Pietrzak K., Chmielewski M., Interaction Between Liquid Silver and Graphene-Coated SiC Substrate, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, ISSN: 1059-9495, DOI: 10.1007/s11665-018-3503-7, Vol.27, No.8, pp.4140-4149, 2018
Homa M., Sobczak N., Sobczak J.J., Kudyba A., Bruzda G., Nowak R., Giuranno D., Pietrzak K., Chmielewski M., Interaction Between Liquid Silver and Graphene-Coated SiC Substrate, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, ISSN: 1059-9495, DOI: 10.1007/s11665-018-3503-7, Vol.27, No.8, pp.4140-4149, 2018

Abstract:
Wettability between liquid Ag and graphene-coated SiC single crystal has been investigated by dispensed drop method at T = 970 oC under vacuum accompanied with subsecond recording of the drop/substrate images (100 frames per second) by high-speed high-resolution CCD camera. Non-contact heating method coupled with capillary purification of the Ag drop procedure has been applied. Scanning electron microscopy combined with EDS analysis and scanning probe microscopy combined with Raman spectroscopy techniques has been utilized for microstructure and surface characterization of samples before and after high-temperature wetting tests. Immediately after its detachment from the capillary, the Ag drop showed non-wetting behavior (h > 90o) forming a high contact angle of h = 114o. Surface characterization of the drop surface after wettability tests evidenced the presence of graphene and Si transferred from the substrate to the top of Ag drop. These findings suggest chemical interaction phenomena occurring at the interface. Locally, an intimate contact between liquid Ag and SiC substrate was allowed by the appearance of discontinuities in the graphene layer basically produced by thermomechanical stress. Local dissolution of carbon into liquid Ag and its reorganization (by segregation, nucleation and growth) as secondary graphene layer at the Ag surface was also observed.

Keywords:
Ag/graphene, Ag/SiC, dispensed drop, sessile drop method, wetting at high temperature

(20p.)
56.Makowska K., Brodecki A., Mackiewicz S., Kowalewski Z.L., Damage development of inconel 718 due to laboratory simulated creep, JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL AND APPLIED MECHANICS, ISSN: 1429-2955, DOI: 10.15632/jtam-pl.56.3.893, Vol.56, No.3, pp.893-896, 2018
Makowska K., Brodecki A., Mackiewicz S., Kowalewski Z.L., Damage development of inconel 718 due to laboratory simulated creep, JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL AND APPLIED MECHANICS, ISSN: 1429-2955, DOI: 10.15632/jtam-pl.56.3.893, Vol.56, No.3, pp.893-896, 2018

Abstract:
The paper presents an attempt of application of the acoustic birefringence coefficient for early stage degradation assessment of Inconel 718 nickel superalloy after short-term creep. It is shown that it can serve as a good damage sensitive parameter and, moreover, it can be well correlated with hardness variation.

Keywords:
creep, nickel superalloy, microstructure, pre-deformation, hardness, acoustic birefringence

(15p.)
57.Tasinkiewicz J., Lewandowski M., Klimonda Z., Walczak M., Synthetic Aperture Cardiac Imaging with Reduced Number of Acquisition Channels. A Feasibility Study, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, DOI: 10.24425/123915, Vol.43, No.3, pp.437-446, 2018
Tasinkiewicz J., Lewandowski M., Klimonda Z., Walczak M., Synthetic Aperture Cardiac Imaging with Reduced Number of Acquisition Channels. A Feasibility Study, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, DOI: 10.24425/123915, Vol.43, No.3, pp.437-446, 2018

Abstract:
Commercially available cardiac scanners use 64–128 elements phased-array (PA) probes and classical delay-and-sum beamforming to reconstruct a sector B-mode image. For portable and hand-held scanners, which are the fastest growing market, channel count reduction can greatly decrease the total power and cost of devices. The introduction of ultra-fast imaging methods based on plane waves and diverging waves provides new insight into heart’s moving structures and enables the implementation of new myocardial assessment and advanced flow estimation methods, thanks to much higher frame rates. The goal of this study was to show the feasibility of reducing the channel count in the diverging wave synthetic aperture image reconstruction method for phased-arrays. The application of ultra-fast 32-channel subaperture imaging combined with spatial compounding allowed the frame rate of approximately 400 fps for 120 mm visualization to be achieved with image quality obtained on par with the classical 64-channel beamformer. Specifically, it was shown that the proposed method resulted in image quality metrics (lateral resolution, contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio), for a visualization depth not exceeding 50 mm, that were comparable with the classical PA beamforming. For larger visualization depths (80–100 mm) a slight degradation of the above parameters was observed. In conclusion, diverging wave phased-array imaging with reduced number of channels is a promising technology for low-cost, energy efficient hand-held cardiac scanners.

Keywords:
phased-array, ultrasound imaging, diverging wave, synthetic transmit aperture

(15p.)
58.Byra M., Wójcik J., Nowicki A., Using Empirical Mode Decomposition of Backscattered Ultrasound Signal Power Spectrum for Assessment of Tissue Compression, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, DOI: 10.24425/123916, Vol.43, No.3, pp.447-453, 2018
Byra M., Wójcik J., Nowicki A., Using Empirical Mode Decomposition of Backscattered Ultrasound Signal Power Spectrum for Assessment of Tissue Compression, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, DOI: 10.24425/123916, Vol.43, No.3, pp.447-453, 2018

Abstract:
Quantitative ultrasound has been widely used for tissue characterization. In this paper we propose a new approach for tissue compression assessment. The proposed method employs the relation between the tissue scatterers’ local spatial distribution and the resulting frequency power spectrum of the backscat- tered ultrasonic signal. We show that due to spatial distribution of the scatterers, the power spectrum exhibits characteristic variations. These variations can be extracted using the empirical mode decomposition and analyzed. Validation of our approach is performed by simulations and in-vitro experiments using a tissue sample under compression. The scatterers in the compressed tissue sample approach each other and consequently, the power spectrum of the backscattered signal is modified. We present how to assess this phenomenon with our method. The proposed in this paper approach is general and may provide useful information on tissue scattering properties.

Keywords:
tissue characterization, tissue compression, quantitative ultrasound, empirical mode decomposition, signal anaysis

(15p.)
59.Dobrosielski W.T., Czerniak J.M., Szczepański J., Zarzycki H., Two New Defuzzification Methods Useful for Different Fuzzy Arithmetics, BOS2016/IWIFSGN2016, 14th National Conference of Operational and Systems Research (BOS) / 15th International Workshop on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and Generalized Nets (IWIFSGN), 2016-10-12/10-14, Warszawa (PL), DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-65545-1_9, Vol.559, pp.83-101, 2018
Dobrosielski W.T., Czerniak J.M., Szczepański J., Zarzycki H., Two New Defuzzification Methods Useful for Different Fuzzy Arithmetics, BOS2016/IWIFSGN2016, 14th National Conference of Operational and Systems Research (BOS) / 15th International Workshop on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and Generalized Nets (IWIFSGN), 2016-10-12/10-14, Warszawa (PL), DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-65545-1_9, Vol.559, pp.83-101, 2018

Abstract:
One of the many reasons why a human searches for new solutions is inspiration for innovation perceived in natural processes and phenomena. The authors of the paper present new algorithms for the defuzzyfication block which is the final process of the fuzzy controller (fuzzy control systems), for which a defuzzyfied value controls a given object. The presented new methods are: Golden Ratio (GR) and Mandala Factor (MF). The first of them uses the ancient Golden Ratio rule which is known, among others, from the Fibonacci sequence. The second proposal is based on the interpretation of drawing technique used in Asia, consisting in arranging pictures of color sand grains. In Tibetan Buddhism this technique is known as Mandala, a symbol of perfection and harmony. The interpretation of the perfection symbol and the Golden Ratio method in this paper has been referenced to other methods used in the defuzzyfication process, including weight averange method, centroid and mean of maxima. The scene for solutions presented here is provided by the ordered fuzzy numbers (OFN) theory which allows to use both the trend of a given phenomena, as well as more precisely wield mathematical methods. A special property of the proposed methods is their sensitivity to the OFN number order. This means that MF and GR operators applied to the numbers of the same shape but of opposite orders would result in different defuzzyfication values. The paragraph relating to discussion on the research includes a comparison of the existing defuzzyfication operators as regards the sensitivity to order.

Keywords:
Fuzzy logic, Ordered fuzzy numbers, OFN, Defuzzification

60.Czerniak J.M., Zarzycki H., Dobrosielski W.T., Szczepański J., Application of OFN Notation in the Fuzzy Observation of WIG20 Index Trend for the Period 2008-2016, BOS2016/IWIFSGN2016, 14th National Conference of Operational and Systems Research (BOS) / 15th International Workshop on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and Generalized Nets (IWIFSGN), 2016-10-12/10-14, Warszawa (PL), DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-65545-1_18, Vol.559, pp.190-201, 2018
Czerniak J.M., Zarzycki H., Dobrosielski W.T., Szczepański J., Application of OFN Notation in the Fuzzy Observation of WIG20 Index Trend for the Period 2008-2016, BOS2016/IWIFSGN2016, 14th National Conference of Operational and Systems Research (BOS) / 15th International Workshop on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and Generalized Nets (IWIFSGN), 2016-10-12/10-14, Warszawa (PL), DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-65545-1_18, Vol.559, pp.190-201, 2018

Abstract:
The article concerns the issue of seeking patterns in trends. In the study a method to detect patterns in trends recorded in a linguistic has been proposed. Linguistic variables take their values as a result of the calculations in Ordered Fuzzy Numbers notation. Thus, in a first stage fuzzyfication of the source data occurs. Transposition of the parameters was applied to daily quotations (min, max, the opening value, the closing value and the direction of change) which were interpreted as a single OFN number. This is the first usage of this notation to describe the stock index which allows to describe five different parameters in a single number. Then the data are converted into linguistic form. The level of trend sequence similarity is determined by following set parameters: the Frame size of the pattern, expressed as a percentage similarity of trend sequence to a frame set at the outset, threshold indicating how many trend fragments is consistent with the frame and the frequency of the pattern occurrences. Patterns detected in this way in the nature of things are characterized by various support, and coefficients of similarity in both the whole pattern and the individual elements. For the purposes of this study, we developed a dedicated computer program performing patterns search. As research material the main index of the Warsaw Stock Exchange, i.e. WIG20 from the years 2008-2016 was used as a data set. This preliminary study is beginning to develop Rule base forecasting methods, and in this direction further experiments will be carried out.

Keywords:
WIG20, OFN, Trend, Rule-based forecasting, Pattern recognition, Financial engineering

61.Dobrosielski W.T., Czerniak J.M., Szczepański J., Zarzycki H., Triangular Expanding, A New Defuzzification Method on Ordered Fuzzy Numbers, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, ISSN: 2194-5357, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-66830-7_54, Vol.641, pp.605-619, 2018
Dobrosielski W.T., Czerniak J.M., Szczepański J., Zarzycki H., Triangular Expanding, A New Defuzzification Method on Ordered Fuzzy Numbers, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, ISSN: 2194-5357, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-66830-7_54, Vol.641, pp.605-619, 2018

Abstract:
At the beginning of the article the authors describe a new trend in the artificial intelligence, associated with fuzzy sets and the accompanying derivative solutions which may include L-R numbers by Dubois and Prade. On their basis the redefined theory has started a new trend in the form of ordered fuzzy numbers (OFN). Main features of ordered fuzzy numbers further in this article. Due to the nature of this article, which is related to the proposed defuzzyfication method, the authors mentions a fuzzy controller model and in particular the defuzzyfication process. Criteria used for conventional solutions of fuzzy numbers and ordered fuzzy numbers were also presented. In the further part of the article the defuzzyfication method called Triangular Expanding was presented. The author compared it to the Geometrical Mean method introduced earlier, which inspired his solution. Results of comparison with other methods such as FOM, LOM, COG were presented in the paper as well. The summary including conclusions and directions of further research were provided at the end.

Keywords:
Fuzzy logic, Ordered fuzzy numbers

(15p.)
62.Byra M., Discriminant analysis of neural style representations for breast lesion classification in ultrasound, Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, ISSN: 0208-5216, DOI: 10.1016/j.bbe.2018.05.003, Vol.38, pp.684-690, 2018
Byra M., Discriminant analysis of neural style representations for breast lesion classification in ultrasound, Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, ISSN: 0208-5216, DOI: 10.1016/j.bbe.2018.05.003, Vol.38, pp.684-690, 2018

Abstract:
Ultrasound imaging is widely used for breast lesion differentiation. In this paper we propose a neural transfer learning method for breast lesion classification in ultrasound. As reported in several papers, the content and the style of a particular image can be separated with a convolutional neural network. The style, coded by the Gram matrix, can be used to perform neural transfer of artistic style. In this paper we extract the neural style representations of malignant and benign breast lesions using the VGG19 neural network. Next, the Fisher discriminant analysis is used to separate those neural style representations and perform classification. The proposed approach achieves good classification performance (AUC of 0.847). Our method is compared with another transfer learning technique based on extracting pooling layer features (AUC of 0.826). Moreover, we apply the Fisher discriminant analysis to differentiate breast lesions using ultrasound images (AUC of 0.758). Additionally, we extract the eigenimages related to malignant and benign breast lesions and show that these eigenimages present features commonly associated with lesion type, such as contour attributes or shadowing. The proposed techniques may be useful for the researchers interested in ultrasound breast lesion characterization.

Keywords:
Breast lesions classification, Deep learning, Discriminant analysis, Transfer learning, Ultrasound imaging

(15p.)
63.Lumelskyj D., Lazarescu L., Banabic D., Rojek J., Comparison of two methods for detection of strain localization in sheet forming, ESAFORM 2018, 21ST INTERNATIONAL ESAFORM CONFERENCE ON MATERIAL FORMING , 2018-04-23/04-25, Palermo (IT), DOI: 10.1063/1.5035067, No.1960, pp.170010-1-6, 2018
Lumelskyj D., Lazarescu L., Banabic D., Rojek J., Comparison of two methods for detection of strain localization in sheet forming, ESAFORM 2018, 21ST INTERNATIONAL ESAFORM CONFERENCE ON MATERIAL FORMING , 2018-04-23/04-25, Palermo (IT), DOI: 10.1063/1.5035067, No.1960, pp.170010-1-6, 2018

Abstract:
This paper presents a comparison of two criteria of strain localization in experimental research and numerical simulation of sheet metal forming. The first criterion is based on the analysis of the through-thickness thinning (through thickness strain) and its first time derivative in the most strained zone. The limit strain in the second method is determined by the maximum of the strain acceleration. Experimental and numerical investigation have been carried out for the Nakajima test performed for different specimens of the DC04 grade steel sheet. The strain localization has been identified by analysis of experimental and numerical curves showing the evolution of strains and their derivatives in failure zones. The numerical and experimental limit strains calculated from both criteria have been compared with the experimental FLC evaluated according to the ISO 12004-2 norm. It has been shown that the first method predicts formability limits closer to the experimental FLC. The second criterion predicts values of strains higher than FLC determined according to ISO norm. These values are closer to the strains corresponding to the fracture limit. The results show that analysis of strain evolution allows us to determine strain localization in numerical simulation and experimental studies.

Keywords:
Sheet forming; Formability; Forming limit diagram; Strain localization; Numerical simulation

64.Pietrzak K., Frydman K., Wójcik-Grzybek D., Gładki A., Bańkowska A., Borkowski P., Effect of carbon forms on properties of Ag-C composites contact materials, MATERIALS SCIENCE, ISSN: 1068-820X, DOI: 10.5755/j01.ms.24.1.17769, Vol.24, No.1, pp.69-74, 2018
Pietrzak K., Frydman K., Wójcik-Grzybek D., Gładki A., Bańkowska A., Borkowski P., Effect of carbon forms on properties of Ag-C composites contact materials, MATERIALS SCIENCE, ISSN: 1068-820X, DOI: 10.5755/j01.ms.24.1.17769, Vol.24, No.1, pp.69-74, 2018

Abstract:
This paper presents the manufacturing method of silver based composite materials containing 3 % vol. carbon forms (nanotubes and graphene). The most significant challenge was to obtain good dispersion of carbon in the metallic matrix. The applying of suitable dispersants allows to get uniform distribution of carbon reinforcement. Triton X-100 and ultrasonic support were used in the powder mixing process. Ag-nanotubes and Ag-graphene contact tips were made using Spark Plasma Sintering process (SPS). The results of research into both physical and electrical properties of these composites are presented. It has been demonstrated that the form of introduced carbon exerts influence on the electrical characteristics of contacts, and particularly on arc erosion. Performed electrical test indicated that Ag-nanotubes contacts showed higher resistance to arc erosion than Ag-graphene contacts. It can be explained by the better dispersion to individual carbon nanotubes their lower than for graphene edge defects density and due to this higher thermal and electrical conductivity.

Keywords:
composite materials, silver-nanotubes, silver-graphene, arc erosion, contact resistance

(15p.)
65.Demchenko I.N., Melikhov Y., Konstantynov P., Ratajczak R., Barcz A., Guziewicz E., Resonant Photoemission Spectroscopy Study on the Contribution of the Yb 4f States to the Electronic Structure of ZnO, ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A, ISSN: 0587-4246, DOI: 10.12693/APHYSPolA.133.907, Vol.133, No.4, pp.907-909, 2018
Demchenko I.N., Melikhov Y., Konstantynov P., Ratajczak R., Barcz A., Guziewicz E., Resonant Photoemission Spectroscopy Study on the Contribution of the Yb 4f States to the Electronic Structure of ZnO, ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A, ISSN: 0587-4246, DOI: 10.12693/APHYSPolA.133.907, Vol.133, No.4, pp.907-909, 2018

Abstract:
The electronic structure of Yb implanted ZnO has been studied by the resonant photoemission spectroscopy. The contribution of the Yb 4f partial density of states is predominant at binding energy about 7.5 and approximate to 11.7 eV below the VB maximum. At photon energy about 182 eV the multiplet structure around 11.7 eV shows the strongest resonance that corresponds to the I-1 multiplet which is almost exclusively responsible for this resonance, while H-3 and F-3 states are responsible for the resonance around 7.5 eV. It was also found that the Yb 4f partial density of states distribution shows some similarity to Yb2O3.

(15p.)
66.Brodecki A., Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z., Digital image correlation technique as a tool for kinematics assessment of structural components, ACTA MECHANICA ET AUTOMATICA, ISSN: 1898-4088, DOI: 10.2478/ama-2018-0016, Vol.12, No.2, pp.101-104, 2018
Brodecki A., Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z., Digital image correlation technique as a tool for kinematics assessment of structural components, ACTA MECHANICA ET AUTOMATICA, ISSN: 1898-4088, DOI: 10.2478/ama-2018-0016, Vol.12, No.2, pp.101-104, 2018

Abstract:
The paper reports the results of tests carried out for kinematic properties determination of components under cyclic loading. DIC system called 5M PONTOS was employed to follow variations of displacement versus time. It was conducted by the use of markers stuck on selected sections of components tested. The results are presented in 2D and 3D coordinate systems expressing behaviour of such elements as: mechanical coupling device, boat frame and car engine. These data enabled to capture weak and strong sections of the component examined at various loading conditions.

Keywords:
Digital Image Correlation System, Cyclic Loading, PONTOS, Motion, Displacement, 3D Coordinate System

(14p.)
67.Papliński P., Wańkowicz J., Ranachowski P., Ranachowski Z., Doświadczenia z eksploatacji wysokonapięciowych liczników zadziałań oraz badania degradacji mikrostruktury pochodzących z nich warystorów ZnO, PRZEGLĄD ELEKTROTECHNICZNY, ISSN: 0033-2097, DOI: 10.15199/48.2018.10.01, Vol.94, No.10, pp.1-7, 2018
Papliński P., Wańkowicz J., Ranachowski P., Ranachowski Z., Doświadczenia z eksploatacji wysokonapięciowych liczników zadziałań oraz badania degradacji mikrostruktury pochodzących z nich warystorów ZnO, PRZEGLĄD ELEKTROTECHNICZNY, ISSN: 0033-2097, DOI: 10.15199/48.2018.10.01, Vol.94, No.10, pp.1-7, 2018

Abstract:
W pracy przedstawione zostały doświadczenia z eksploatacji liczników zadziałań, które stanowiły inspirację do badań pochodzących z nich warystorów ZnO. Badana była mikrostruktura elementów pochodzących z uszkodzonych liczników zadziałań. Odniesienie stanowił analogiczny warystor, z licznika który nie był w eksploatacji. Badania wykazały nietypowy skład fazowy tworzywa badanych warystorów oraz niską jednorodność i spoistość ich czerepu. Opisano i udokumentowano procesy degradacji tworzywa o zróżnicowanym nasileniu. Wykazano szkodliwy wpływ wilgoci we wnętrzu rozszczelnionego licznika zadziałań na jego funkcjonowanie, w tym na umieszczone w nim warystory ZnO. Przedstawiono ponadto wnioski dotyczące kontroli eksploatacyjnej liczników zadziałań.

Keywords:
licznik zadziałań, warystory ZnO, mikrostruktura ceramiki ZnO, degradacja materiału ceramicznego

(14p.)
68.Konowrocki R., Zbieć A., Influence of correctness of running gear assembly on freight wagon wheels’ wear, Machine Dynamics Research, ISSN: 2080-9948, Vol.47, No.1, pp.27-39, 2018
Konowrocki R., Zbieć A., Influence of correctness of running gear assembly on freight wagon wheels’ wear, Machine Dynamics Research, ISSN: 2080-9948, Vol.47, No.1, pp.27-39, 2018

Abstract:
The paper presents an analysis of a newly diagnosed cause of wheel thread wear in a freight wagon and also possible other causes of abnormal wear of wheels in freight wagon wheelsets are mentioned. Newly diagnosed cause for excessive wear of the railway wheel thread is an incorrect position of wheelsets in relation to the bogie frame. The paper presents results of measurements carried out on a real freight wagon to get identification of wheels’ wear and geometry of vehicle components. In order to analyze the influence of incorrectly positioned wheelset axles on the degree of wheel wear a numerical model of a freight wagon was developed. Numerical calculations at various speeds of wagon and several versions of wheelsets skew position were carried out. The results obtained from numerical tests i.e. a significant influence of non-parallel axles of wheelsets on abnormal wear of wheel threads are shown. Conclusions drawn from the computation results can be very useful at a running gear repairs as well as helpful in a regular maintenance process. It will also reduce the costs of repairs of wheelsets and extend their service life.

Keywords:
experimental and numerical tests, contact interaction, running gear, railway wheel thread wear

(14p.)
69.Buda N., Kosiak W., Radzikowska E., Olszewski R., Jassem E., Grabczak E.M., Pomiecko A., Piotrkowski J., Piskunowicz M., Sołtysiak M., Skoczyński S., Jaczewski G., Odrowska J., Skoczylas A., Wełnicki M., Wiśniewski J., Zamojska A., Polish recommendations for lung ultrasound in internal medicine (POLLUS-IM), Journal of Ultrasonography, ISSN: 2084-8404, DOI: 10.15557/JoU.2018.0030, Vol.18, pp.198-206, 2018
Buda N., Kosiak W., Radzikowska E., Olszewski R., Jassem E., Grabczak E.M., Pomiecko A., Piotrkowski J., Piskunowicz M., Sołtysiak M., Skoczyński S., Jaczewski G., Odrowska J., Skoczylas A., Wełnicki M., Wiśniewski J., Zamojska A., Polish recommendations for lung ultrasound in internal medicine (POLLUS-IM), Journal of Ultrasonography, ISSN: 2084-8404, DOI: 10.15557/JoU.2018.0030, Vol.18, pp.198-206, 2018

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to establish recommendations for the use of lung
ultrasound in internal medicine, based on reliable data and expert opinions. Methods:
The bibliography from the databases (Pubmed, Medline, OVID, Embase) has been fully
reviewed up to August 2017. Members of the expert group assessed the credibility of the literature
data. Then, in three rounds, a discussion was held on individual recommendations
(in accordance with the Delphi procedure) followed by secret voting. Results: Thirty-eight
recommendations for the use of lung ultrasound in internal medicine were established
as well as discussed and subjected to secret voting in three rounds. The first 31 recommendations
concerned the use of ultrasound in the diagnosis of the following conditions:
pneumothorax, pulmonary consolidation, pneumonia, atelectasis, pulmonary embolism,
malignant neoplastic lesions, interstitial lung lesions, cardiogenic pulmonary edema, interstitial
lung diseases with fibrosis, dyspnea, pleural pain and acute cough. Furthermore,
seven additional statements were made regarding the technical conditions of lung ultrasound
examination and the need for training in the basics of lung ultrasound in a group of
doctors during their specialization programs and medical students. The panel of experts
established a consensus on all 38 recommendations.

(10p.)
70.Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Dudda W., Ziółkowski P., Badur J., Badania mikrostruktury i poziomu szumu Barkhausena eksploatowanych łopatek turbiny, ENERGETYKA, PROBLEMY ENERGETYKI I GOSPODARKI PALIWOWO-ENERGETYCZNEJ, ISSN: 0013-7294, Vol.773, No.11, pp.627-629, 2018(4p.)
71.Ustrzycka A., Mróz Z., Kowalewski Z.L., Characterization of Damage Evolution Supported by ESPI Analysis, ICEM 2018, 18TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EXPERIMENTAL MECHANICS, 2018-07-01/07-05, BRUKSELA (BE), No.082, pp.1, 2018
72.Ustrzycka A., Irradiation creep damage in nuclear reactor components, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.116-117, 2018
73.Ustrzycka A., Mróz Z., Kucharski S., Kowalewski Z.L., Analysis of fatigue crack initiation caused by cyclic microplasticity, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.272-273, 2018
74.Golasiński K., Pieczyska E.A., Mackiewicz S., Staszczak M., Zubko M., Takesue N., Analysis Gum Metal crystallographic texture and misorientation in correlation to its mechanical behavior, CAC, XXIV CONFERENCE ON APPLIED CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, 2018-09-02/09-06, Arłamów (PL), No.OY1-5, pp.37-38, 2018
Golasiński K., Pieczyska E.A., Mackiewicz S., Staszczak M., Zubko M., Takesue N., Analysis Gum Metal crystallographic texture and misorientation in correlation to its mechanical behavior, CAC, XXIV CONFERENCE ON APPLIED CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, 2018-09-02/09-06, Arłamów (PL), No.OY1-5, pp.37-38, 2018

Keywords:
Gum Metal, EBSD, ultrasonic measurement

75.Golasiński K., Pieczyska E., Maj M., Staszczak M., Takesue N., Superelastic-like behavior of Gum Metal under compression inspected by infrared thermography, ESOMAT 2018, 11th European Symposium on Martensitic Transformations, 2018-08-27/08-31, Metz (FR), pp.84, 2018
76.Golasiński K.M., Pieczyska E., Maj M., Staszczak M., Kuramoto S., Gum Metal under cyclic tension inspected by a fast and sensitive infrared camera, QIRT 2018, 14th Quantitative InfraRed Thermography Conference, 2018-06-25/06-29, Berlin (DE), pp.1-6, 2018
Golasiński K.M., Pieczyska E., Maj M., Staszczak M., Kuramoto S., Gum Metal under cyclic tension inspected by a fast and sensitive infrared camera, QIRT 2018, 14th Quantitative InfraRed Thermography Conference, 2018-06-25/06-29, Berlin (DE), pp.1-6, 2018

Abstract:
This work presents results of experimental investigation of recoverable deformation of a β-Ti alloy Gum Metal inspected by infrared (IR) thermography. To this end, a flat specimen of Gum Metal was subjected to cyclic tension with an increasing strain on a testing machine and was simultaneously monitored by a fast and sensitive IR camera. The IR measurements determined an average temperature accompanying the alloy deformation process for subsequent tension cycles and allowed to estimate thermoelastic effect, which is related to the alloy yield point. Thermomechanical couplings accompanying the loading-unloading cycles were analyzed for estimating the range of reversible deformation from mechanical and thermal perspectives as well as discussed in the view of Lord Kelvin’s formula.

77.Blachowski B., Tauzowski P., Lógó J., Elasto-Plastic Topology Optimization Under Stochastic Loading Conditions, EngOpt, 6th International Conference on Engineering Optimization, 2018-09-17/09-19, Lizbona (PT), DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-97773-7_7, pp.70-79, 2018
Blachowski B., Tauzowski P., Lógó J., Elasto-Plastic Topology Optimization Under Stochastic Loading Conditions, EngOpt, 6th International Conference on Engineering Optimization, 2018-09-17/09-19, Lizbona (PT), DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-97773-7_7, pp.70-79, 2018

Abstract:
Optimal topologies obtained for structures subjected to deterministic loading can be sensitive to loading variations in terms of both magnitude and direction. Therefore, in this study we consider problem of topology optimization for structures subjected to probabilistic loading. The proposed method applies basic findings from probability theory, which allow to transform the original problem of topology optimization under single probabilistic loading into analogous problem of topology optimization under multiple deterministic loading cases. After recalling the theoretical background of the method,’ its effectiveness is demonstrated on an examples of cantilever structure subjected to horizontally oriented load with randomly varying angle of action.

Keywords:
Topology optimization, Stochastic load, Elastoplastic FE analysis

78.Postek E., Sadowski T., Temperature effects during impact of WC/Co composites, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.1, 2018
Postek E., Sadowski T., Temperature effects during impact of WC/Co composites, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.1, 2018

Abstract:
Generally, the papers on dynamic loading of composites more focus on the layered composites, for example [1]. High attention is paid to blast load. However, in our opinion, the process of impact a gap for analysis of WC/Co composite during impact conditions. During impact of WC/Co composite objects and the other composites with metallic binder heat of plastic work is generated. If the process is fast enough the problem can be treated as adiabatic. However, more common situation is slower process when the heat is generated in metallic interfaces and the neighbouring grains are heated due to conduction. The process should be rather considered as coupled [2]. We developed our model of WC/Co composite towards impact load, [3].

Keywords:
thermomechanics, coupled problems, composites

79.Postek E., Nowak Z., Pęcherski R., Impact resistance of crushable foam skeleton, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.1-2, 2018
Postek E., Nowak Z., Pęcherski R., Impact resistance of crushable foam skeleton, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.1-2, 2018

Abstract:
The analyses of the modern cellular materials due to complexity of their internal structure require efficient computer methods and codes. The new method that has been developed mostly in the last 10 years is peridynamics [1, 2]. The developments resulted in highly parallelized code [3] that we use in our analysis.
The subject of the study are alumina foams produced by gelcasting method. The results of microtomography of alumina foams are used to create the numerical model reconstructing the structure of foam skeleton. The numerical simulations of failure strength under compression for alumina foams are performed. The calculations with use of the numerical model are time consuming. Therefore, the simplified method of the assessment of failure strength is proposed. The 3D model of the foam structure is created. The detailed description of the model generation is presented in Nowak et al. [5].
The numerical models of real Al2O3 foam with porosity 96 %, and discussion of theirs mechanical properties have been presented. The method of the assessment of failure strength of real alumina foam produced by the gelcasting is proposed.
We attempt to present the mechanism of damaging of a crushable foam under impact.

Keywords:
foams, damage, impact, peridynamics

80.Pawłowska S., Pierini F., Kowalewski T.A., Highly flexible filaments in an oscillatory microchannel flow, EFMC12, 12th European Fluid Mechanics Conference, 2018-09-09/09-13, Wiedeń (AT), pp.1, 2018
81.Postek E., Sadowski T., Temperature effect in 2 phase ceramic based composite during impact conditions, ICCS21, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, 2018-09-04/09-07, University of Bologna, Bologna (IT), DOI: 10.15651/978-88-938-5079-7, pp.100, 2018
Postek E., Sadowski T., Temperature effect in 2 phase ceramic based composite during impact conditions, ICCS21, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, 2018-09-04/09-07, University of Bologna, Bologna (IT), DOI: 10.15651/978-88-938-5079-7, pp.100, 2018

Abstract:
Cermet Materials (CM) are often used for manufacturing of different cutting tools. They have very good mechanical, wear and thermal properties. In our opinion, the dynamic load is still not enough thoroughly analysed, and the impact load as well. The tools are subjected to different dynamic effects.We have taken into account complex spatial distribution of cermet phases, grain/binder interfaces modeled by interface elements, possibility of cracks appearance within binders using interface elements as well, and rotation of brittle grains.
The main goal of the presentation is to develop further previously formulated models of two-phase composite [1-4] to capture effects of temperature due to impact. The source of the thermal loading is the conversion of plastic work into heat [5, 6]. The increase of temperature takes place in the Co interfaces. We investigate adiabatic and fully coupled solutions.
We note differences in the behaviour of the samples when the thermal loading is not considered. We have found that the thermal softening effect in the interface material is important as well. We enhance the description of the damage mechanism in the presence of temperature increase.
Acknowledgements
This work was financially supported by Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Poland) within the statutory research (IPPT PAN) and National Science Centre (Poland) project No 2016/21/B/ST8/01027 (Lublin University of Technology). The calculations were done at the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, University of Warsaw, Poland. The licenses for the MSC Patran and Abaqus programs were provided by Academic Computer Centre in Gdańsk, Poland.

References:
[1] Sadowski T, Hardy S, Postek E. Prediction of the mechanical response of polycrystalline ceramics containing metallic intergranular layers under uniaxial tension. Comput Mat Sci 2005;34:46-63.
[2] Sadowski T, Hardy S, Postek E. A new model for the time-dependent of polycrystalline ceramic materials with metallic inter-granular layers under tension. Mat. Sci. Eng. A 2006;424:230-238.
[3] Sadowski T, Postek E, Denis C. Stress distribution due to discontinuities in polycrystalline ceramics containing metallic inter-granular layers. Comput Mat Sci 2007;39: 230-236.
[4] Postek E, Sadowski T. Dynamic pulse sensitivity of WC/Co composite, (accepted in Composite Structures).
[5] Wriggers P, Miehe C, Kleiber M, Simo JC. On the coupled thermomechanical treatment of necking problems via finite element methods. Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng. 1992; 33:869–883.
[6] Rojek J, Onate E, Postek E. Application of explicit FE codes to simulation of sheet and bulk metal forming processes. J. Mat. Proc. Tech. 1998; 80–81: 620–627.

Keywords:
cermet composites, coupled solutions, thermomechanics

82.Urbanek O., Kołbuk D., Sonochemical modification of electrospun fibres with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, ESB2018, 29th European Conference on Biomaterials, 2018-09-09/09-13, Maastricht (NL), pp.523-524, 2018
83.Kopeć M., Wang K., Wang Y., Wang L., Lin J., Feasibility study of a novel hot stamping process for Ti6Al4V alloy, MATEC Web of Conferences, ISSN: 2261-236X, DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/201819008001, Vol.190, pp.1-5, 2018
Kopeć M., Wang K., Wang Y., Wang L., Lin J., Feasibility study of a novel hot stamping process for Ti6Al4V alloy, MATEC Web of Conferences, ISSN: 2261-236X, DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/201819008001, Vol.190, pp.1-5, 2018

Abstract:
To investigate the feasibility of a novel hot stamping process for the Ti6Al4V titanium alloy using low temperature forming tools, mechanical properties of the material were studied using hot tensile tests at a temperature range of 600 - 900°C with a constant strain rate of 1s-1. Hot stamping tests were carried out to verify the feasibility of this technology and identify the forming window for the material. Results show that when the deformation temperature was lower than 700°C, the amount of elongation was less than 20%, and it also had little change with the temperature. However, when the temperature was higher than 700°C, a good ductility of the material can be achieved. During the forming tests, parts failed at lower temperatures (600°C) due to the limited formability and also failed at higher temperatures (950°C) due to the phase transformation. The post-form hardness firstly decreased with the temperature increasing due to recovery and then increased due to the phase transformation. Qualified parts were formed successfully between temperatures of 750 - 850°C, which indicates that this new technology has a great potential in forming titanium alloys sheet components.

Keywords:
titanium, hot stamping, metal forming

84.Wang K., Kopeć M., Qu H., Wang Y., Wang L., Lin J., Li Z., A unified constitutive model for two-phase titanium alloys under hot stamping condition, ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology, 2018-08-18/08-21, Bremen (DE), pp.1-1, 2018
85.Tauzowski P., Blachowski B., Lógó J., Functor-Oriented Finite Element Programming with Application to Structural Topology Optimization, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), No.P076, pp.490-491, 2018
Tauzowski P., Blachowski B., Lógó J., Functor-Oriented Finite Element Programming with Application to Structural Topology Optimization, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), No.P076, pp.490-491, 2018

Abstract:
The subject of this study is an efficient approach to the development of a finite element framework, which is intended to be used for solving a variety of problems in computational solid mechanics. One of such problems, recently becoming an active field of research, is topology optimization of structures made of elastic-plastic materials. For finding the optimal topology of real, practical and complex structures the knowledge of a number of numerical algorithms is required, to mention a few: modification of finite element meshes, aggregation of tangent stiffness matrices, or direct and iterative solvers. The classical computer implementation of the original Classical Optimality Criteria method (COC) of the topology optimization problem given by Bendsoe and Sigmund is relatively simple and contains 99 lines of code in the MATLAB language. However, it assumes that there exists only a single loading case, single displacement (compliance) constraint, the material is linearly elastic and the optimal topology can be found using the so-called Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization (SIMP) algorithm, which is based on the original COC method. In reality, engineers face a slightly different problem. They need to find the topology of a minimum weight structure subjected to multiple loading cases, made of an elasto-plastic material, and with a limit on stresses. The above mentioned SIMP approach may not lead to an optimal solution.

Keywords:
functor-oriented programming, topology optimization, elastoplastic FE analysis

86.Ostrowski M., Blachowski B., Jankowski L., Pisarski D., Semi-Active Control of Mechanical Energy Transfer Between Vibrational Modes , SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), No.P136, pp.408-409, 2018
Ostrowski M., Blachowski B., Jankowski L., Pisarski D., Semi-Active Control of Mechanical Energy Transfer Between Vibrational Modes , SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), No.P136, pp.408-409, 2018

Abstract:
The vibration attenuation problem has been solved using many different methods, some of which involve the use of advanced control algorithms. The topic of harvesting the energy of structural vibrations is less explored. For that reason, this contribution studies the problem of conversion of mechanical energy of vibrations. The paper presents a method of semi-active control, which is applied to dynamically transfer the vibration energy into a selected vibration mode. The target mode is selected in such a way that the amount of energy that can be recovered during the vibration process is maximized. In other words, switching between two modes is not intended to dissipate the energy of vibrations, but rather to maximize the energy-harvesting potential of the overall system. The concept will be illustrated using an example of a simple frame structure, in which semi-actively controlled lockable joints modify the modal properties of the structure.

Keywords:
semi-active control, lockable joints, energy-harvesting

87.Kecik K., Zaszczyńska A., Mitura A., Experimental Investigations of Energy Recovery from an Electromagnetic Pendulum Vibration Absorber, Journal of Vibration Testing and System Dynamics, ISSN: 2475-4811, DOI: 10.5890/JVTSD.2018.09.002, Vol.2, No.3, pp.209-219, 2018
Kecik K., Zaszczyńska A., Mitura A., Experimental Investigations of Energy Recovery from an Electromagnetic Pendulum Vibration Absorber, Journal of Vibration Testing and System Dynamics, ISSN: 2475-4811, DOI: 10.5890/JVTSD.2018.09.002, Vol.2, No.3, pp.209-219, 2018

Abstract:
The paper presents an experimental study of a special non−linear low frequency system dedicated to vibration mitigation and energy recovery. The dual−function design was based on an autoparametric vibration system, which consists of an oscillator with an added pendulum vibration absorber. Its structure includes an energy harvesting device: a levitating magnet in a coil. The pendulum motion shows simultaneously the effects of vibration reduction and energy recovery. The influences of the magnet−coil configurations, and load resistances on vibration reduction and energy harvesting were studied in detail.

Keywords:
Experiment, Energy recovery, Pendulum, Vibration mitigation

88.Blachowski B., Tauzowski P., Logo J., Topology optimization of elastoplastic structures: Stress intensity driven formulation and functor-oriented implementation, CST2018, 13th International Conference on Computational Structures Technology, 2018-09-04/09-06, Barcelona (ES), No.0090, pp.1-3, 2018
Blachowski B., Tauzowski P., Logo J., Topology optimization of elastoplastic structures: Stress intensity driven formulation and functor-oriented implementation, CST2018, 13th International Conference on Computational Structures Technology, 2018-09-04/09-06, Barcelona (ES), No.0090, pp.1-3, 2018

Abstract:
This study is devoted to a practical method for topology optimization of elastoplastic structures subjected to stress constraints. Instead of the classical compliance minimization problem the aim of this work is to find a minimum weight structure, which is able to carry given load and the corresponding stresses do not exceed an allowable limit. The general form of the problem is based on the classical limit design formulations of plasticity. The proposed method finds optimal structure in an iterative way using only stress intensity distribution and doesn’t require computing of any gradients or sensitivities.
Our method starts with determining representative stresses in every quadrilateral finite element. At first an elastoplastic analysis is performed to obtain stress values in four Gaussian points, then by the use of von Misses criterion and these stress values the resultant stress is calculated. Next, having obtained stress intensity distribution within the structure we apply penalization to avoid stress concentration issues. Finally, the material is removed proportionally to the stress intensities of individual finite elements. The above mentioned procedure is repeated until limit load capacity is achieved for a given loading vector. The checkerboard problem is solved by means of design filter. Two benchmark problems have been selected as illustrative examples. They are: cantilever and simply supported beam. For these examples parametric studies on different length to height ratios and support patterns are conducted. Additionally, the results of topology optimization for different values of filter radius and penalty parameter are presented.
Finally, efficient computer implementation based on functor-oriented programming is discussed. It is demonstrated how Functor and Template-based programming can be utilized to create versatile Finite Element environment. Within this environment computation of all element matrices and loading vectors can be called in the same way, this in turn allows for implementation of effective aggregation procedure.

Keywords:
topology optimization, minimum-weight design, functor-oriented programming, stress constraints

89.Dlugosz A., Pokorska I., Glinicki M.A., Jaskulski R., Application of evolutionary algorithms in identification of thermal properties of hardening concerte, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.1-2, 2018
90.Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Badania wytrzymałościowe połączeń spawanych w elementach wybranych konstrukcji, XXIV Seminarium NIENISZCZĄCE BADANIA MATERIAŁÓW, 2018-03-14/03-16, Zakopane (PL), pp.21-50, 2018
91.Kowalewski Z.L., Advances in fatigue investigations of materials – state of the art and new challenges, 12th INTERNATIONAL ARMAMENT CONFERENCE, 2018-09-17/09-20, Jachranka (PL), pp.161-162, 2018
92.Szymczak T., Brodecki A., Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Tow truck frame made of high strength steel under cyclic loading, 35 DANUBIA-ADRIA, 35th Danubia-Adria Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 2018-09-25/09-28, Sinaia (RO), pp.145-146, 2018
93.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Visco-plastic effects due to deformation along circular loading path, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.42-43, 2018
94.Makowska K., Kowalewski Z., Dudda W., Ziółkowski P., Badur J., Damage assessment of exploited turbine blades using barkhausen noise parameters, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.270-271, 2018
95.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Brodecki A., Mini-compact tension specimens for fracture toughness evaluation, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.274-275, 2018
96.Mackiewicz S., Badania ultradźwiękowe w sprzężeniu powietrznym, XXIV Seminarium NIENISZCZĄCE BADANIA MATERIAŁÓW, 2018-03-14/03-16, Zakopane (PL), pp.135-153, 2018
97.Mackiewicz S., Istota, znaczenie oraz metodyka wyznaczania parametru SNR w radiografii cyfrowej, STARY MŁYN 2018, KRAJOWA KONFERENCJA BADAŃ RADIOGRAFICZNYCH, 2018-09-10/09-12, Bolesławiec (PL), pp.1-13, 2018
98.Popławski B., Mikułowski G., Suwała G., Jankowski Ł., Optimization of actuator placement for vibration damping in the Prestress-Accumulation release control approach, WCSCM, 7th World Conference on Structural Control and Monitoring, 2018-07-22/07-25, Qingdao (CN), pp.818-827, 2018
Popławski B., Mikułowski G., Suwała G., Jankowski Ł., Optimization of actuator placement for vibration damping in the Prestress-Accumulation release control approach, WCSCM, 7th World Conference on Structural Control and Monitoring, 2018-07-22/07-25, Qingdao (CN), pp.818-827, 2018

Abstract:
This contribution proposes a quantitative criterion for optimization of actuator placement for the Prestress–Accumulation Release (PAR) strategy of mitigation of vibrations. The PAR strategy is a semi-active control approach that relies on controlled redistribution of modal energy into high-frequency high-order modes, where it is effectively dissipated by means of the natural mechanisms of material damping. The energy transfer is achieved by a controlled temporary removal of selected structural constraints. An example is a short-time decoupling of rotational degrees of freedom in a frame node, so that the bending moments are no longer transferred between the involved beams. If it such a decoupling is performed at the maximum of the shear/bending strain energy of adjacent beams, it results in an almost instantaneous energy release into high-frequency local vibrations and quick dissipation of energy. We propose and test a quantitative criterion for placement of such actuators. The criterion is based on local modal strain energy that can be released into high-order modes. The numerical time complexity is linear with respect to the number of actuators, which facilitates quick selection of placements in large structures.

Keywords:
semi-active control, damping of vibrations, actuator placement, smart structures, Prestress-Accumulation Release (PAR)

99.Popławski B., Mikułowski G., Mróz A., Jankowski Ł., Decentralized algorithm for semi-active damping of forced vibrations using controllable truss-frame nodes, WCSCM, 7th World Conference on Structural Control and Monitoring, 2018-07-22/07-25, Qingdao (CN), pp.582-590, 2018
Popławski B., Mikułowski G., Mróz A., Jankowski Ł., Decentralized algorithm for semi-active damping of forced vibrations using controllable truss-frame nodes, WCSCM, 7th World Conference on Structural Control and Monitoring, 2018-07-22/07-25, Qingdao (CN), pp.582-590, 2018

Abstract:
Semi-active systems for mitigation of vibrations proved to be effective in many applications. Their prominent advantage is that they combine strong points of passive and active damping systems. Proper design can ensure their reliability, which is what passive systems are praised for. A high effectiveness in vibration damping links them with active systems. At the same time they do not have many deficiencies of active systems. They are adaptive, so they can stay effective in different environmental conditions, which is the factor that eliminates passive systems from many implementations. Their mass and energy consumption is very low, and the controlled structure can stay in the safe configuration even in case of power supply failure, which puts them in contrast to many active systems. The mentioned attributes make them a good choice for many structures subjected to vibrations, especially when there is a strong emphasis on maximization of the efficiency/mass ratio of the damping system.

This contribution presents a decentralized closed-loop control strategy and applies it in a frame structure equipped with controllable truss-frame nodes. Such nodes can be switched between frame-like and truss-like states in a controllable manner. In the frame-like state the node transmits all forces and moments, while in the truss-like state only axial and shearing forces are transmitted. These nodes allow for structural reconfiguration, which can be utilized by semi-active control strategies for the purpose of vibration damping. The implemented control algorithm applies the Prestress-Accumulation Release (PAR) strategy based on the transmission of the accumulated potential energy to high modes of vibration, which are highly dissipative. Strain measurements are conducted locally on selected elements. A similar strategy proved its effectiveness in mitigation of free structural vibrations. This research studies the concept of its application to mitigation of forced structural vibrations, caused by variable external conditions.

Keywords:
Semi-active damping, Truss-frame nodes, Prestress-Accumulation Release (PAR), Decentralized control

100.Hou J., Wang S., Jankowski Ł., Structure damage localization of the slab track by adding virtual masses, WCSCM, 7th World Conference on Structural Control and Monitoring, 2018-07-22/07-25, Qingdao (CN), pp.1368-1373, 2018
Hou J., Wang S., Jankowski Ł., Structure damage localization of the slab track by adding virtual masses, WCSCM, 7th World Conference on Structural Control and Monitoring, 2018-07-22/07-25, Qingdao (CN), pp.1368-1373, 2018

Abstract:
In this paper, a damage localization method based on additional virtual mass and dynamic test of simple harmonic excitation is proposed. Firstly, when additional masses are added to the structure, a large number of virtual structures can be constructed; then the virtual construction formula is derived in order to obtain the dynamic response of virtual structures without adding real mass. After dynamic test of simple harmonic excitation, the dynamic response of virtual structures can be obtained using the acceleration response and virtual construction formula. Furthermore, when the applied harmonic excitation frequency is close to the natural frequency of the structure, the structural response can reach a maximum by adding advisable mass and the mass value can be calculated. When the local structure is damaged, the extreme value and the corresponding position of the additional mass are found by adding mass at different positions in the structure. Thus, the approximate location of the damage is determined according to the results. Finally, the numerical simulation of the elastic foundation beam model simplified by track structure is carried out, and the results show that the damage can be localized.

Keywords:
structural health monitoring, damage identification, slab track, virtual mass

101.Błachowski B., Świercz A., Jankowski Ł., Virtual Distortion Method based optimal sensor placement for damage identification, ISMA 2018 / USD 2018, International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering / International Conference on Uncertainty in Structural Dynamics, 2018-09-17/09-19, Leuven (BE), pp.3815-3824, 2018
Błachowski B., Świercz A., Jankowski Ł., Virtual Distortion Method based optimal sensor placement for damage identification, ISMA 2018 / USD 2018, International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering / International Conference on Uncertainty in Structural Dynamics, 2018-09-17/09-19, Leuven (BE), pp.3815-3824, 2018

Abstract:
The paper presents a novel method for sensor placement optimized towards effective identification of structural damages. The derivation of the method is based on the concept of virtual distortions together with information provided by a set of strain gauges. Then, a gradient oriented optimization is applied to identify sensor locations, which are the most sensitive to potential damage scenarios. Steepest descent method is utilized to determine the optimal values of the objective function. Additionally, dependence of the method on the applied excitation signal is discussed. Finally, effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated on an example of optimal search for sensor placement on a 6-bay planar truss structure.

Keywords:
optimal sensor placement, virtual distortion method, damage identification

102.Mikułowski G., Semi-active damping of forced vibrations by means of pneumatic supports, ISMA 2018 / USD 2018, International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering / International Conference on Uncertainty in Structural Dynamics, 2018-09-17/09-19, Leuven (BE), pp.1051-1061, 2018
Mikułowski G., Semi-active damping of forced vibrations by means of pneumatic supports, ISMA 2018 / USD 2018, International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering / International Conference on Uncertainty in Structural Dynamics, 2018-09-17/09-19, Leuven (BE), pp.1051-1061, 2018

Abstract:
Vibration mitigation and vibration isolation are problems existing in a variety of industry branches. Pneumatic suspensions and isolators are a widely utilized technology, and in many applications they need to adapt their properties to a varying mass of the supported object, e.g., loaded or unloaded lorries. However, the pneumatic solutions posses limitations in the field of adequate damping. The change in mass results in a change in the required level of damping. This contribution presents and verifies a concept of an enhanced damping pneumatic device using an example of a Pneumatic Adaptive Absorber (PAA) adapted to the task of mitigation of forced vibrations. The investigation presents a concise introduction to the concept, as well as analytical and numerical modelling of the conceptual device. The contribution proposes a control algorithm based on performed analysis of mechanical energy dissipation process. The concept is verified experimentally in a laboratory. The proposed modelling seems to be in agreement with the demonstrator response.

103.Mikułowski G., Popławski B., Wiszowaty R., Mróz A., Jankowski Ł., An investigation on a semi-active damping of forced structural vibrations by means of controllable structural nodes, ISMA 2018 / USD 2018, International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering / International Conference on Uncertainty in Structural Dynamics, 2018-09-17/09-19, Leuven (BE), pp.189-201, 2018
Mikułowski G., Popławski B., Wiszowaty R., Mróz A., Jankowski Ł., An investigation on a semi-active damping of forced structural vibrations by means of controllable structural nodes, ISMA 2018 / USD 2018, International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering / International Conference on Uncertainty in Structural Dynamics, 2018-09-17/09-19, Leuven (BE), pp.189-201, 2018

Abstract:
Vibration mitigation in space structures creates a unique class of a technical problem where resistant for outgassing and non-fluidic solutions are preferable. Additionaly, a vibration induced by time-varying excitations needs to be effectively reduced. The vibration mitigation task is speciffically difficult in the case of light, slender and inherently flexible structures of various types, such as supporting structures, deployable structures, modular structures or wide-span skeletal roofing structures. This study presents a concept of a vibration attenuation method based on semi-active joints and dedicated to frame structures under forced vibration excitation. The presented investigation contains an analysis of the problem of the optimal control of a structure fitted with semi-active structural members. Furthermore, an adequate model of the semi-active joints is developed and a numerical example is presented. Finally, the research provides an experimental verification of the developed control algorithms, which is conducted on a test stand in a laboratory environment.

104.Popławski B., Mikułowski G., Wiszowaty R., Jankowski Ł., Semi-active mitigation of externally induced vibrations, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), No.P197, pp.1-2, 2018
Popławski B., Mikułowski G., Wiszowaty R., Jankowski Ł., Semi-active mitigation of externally induced vibrations, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), No.P197, pp.1-2, 2018

Abstract:
Almost all man-made structures are exposed to vibration. Regardless of whether these are large structures such as bridges or skyscrapers, machines with rotating parts such as engine shafts, frame structures or vehicle suspensions, excessive vibrations can be very harmful. From the perspective of their effects they can be seen as very spectacular (e.g., a collapse of a bridge) or not worth much attention (e.g., a failure of a motor shaft), but in each of these cases, the effect is the destruction of the structure and a negative impact on the users of these devices.
Several approaches can be used by the designers to overcome this phenomenon. The most basic, but often sufficient, method is to introduce changes in the mechanical parameters of the system affecting the severity of vibration in operational conditions, i.e., its mass or stiffness. If such design changes cannot be realized, or if vibration problems are detected after the system is manufactured, or if a vibration suppression system must be used for other reasons, one of the three basic types of such systems can be used.
The primary choice is usually a passive vibration damping system. These are relatively simple systems whose mode of operation is the passive dissipation of the energy of structural vibrations. Their design and simple functionality ensures that they are highly reliable, but their simplicity is reflected, unfortunately, in their limited efficiency. Their flexibility may be also considered as insufficient: once configured, even a small change in the specific operating conditions can result in a drastic loss of performance. This indicates a rather narrow spectrum (frequency range) of correct system operation.
Active systems constitute a much more effective damping approach. In this case, vibration attenuation is achieved not by means of dampers, but by actuators integrated into the structure. This approach allows to achieve very good results of vibration mitigation over a wide range of excitation frequencies. High efficiency, however, is burdened with a much higher degree of complexity of such a system as compared to the passive systems. In order to develop such a system, it is necessary to design the controller and install actuators that implement the control algorithm. During the vibration suppression, the actuators themselves require a large energy supply, which can be troublesome in some cases.
The compromise between these damping systems are semi-active systems, where the actuators are used to affect structural properties instead of exerting large external forces. In terms of reliability, semi-active systems can be compared with passive systems, while in terms of the efficiency of damping with active ones. They also do not require large amounts of electric energy to implement the control algorithm. Despite being a relatively new research area with less established design and development procedures, their advantages seem to be large enough to attract a growing number of scientists and engineers.
This contribution presents a strategy for semi-active reduction of forced vibrations in frame structures. Analogous damping technique proved to be effective in damping of free vibrations. The control strategy is based on the Prestress Accumulation–Release (PAR) concept and uses specially designed semi-active rotational nodes. Successive decentralization of the damping system demonstrates that apart from the global mechanism of the energy dissipation based on the PAR, it is also possible to disperse it locally to individual beams that are separate elements of the damping system.

105.Gawlicki M., Jankowski Ł., Identification of a load moving on a plate using the l1 norm minimization, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), No.P226, pp.1-2, 2018
Gawlicki M., Jankowski Ł., Identification of a load moving on a plate using the l1 norm minimization, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), No.P226, pp.1-2, 2018

Abstract:
There are two fundamental inverse problems in the field of structural health monitoring (SHM): identification of damages and identification of loads. Effectiveness of the related computational methods is crucial for maintaining integrity of the monitored structures. This contribution considers identification of unknown loads based on measurements of structural response. It is a relatively extensively researched problem: reviews of techniques used for off-line load identification can be found in [1,2], while techniques for online identification are reviewed in [3].
If the aim is to identify independent force histories in each of the excited degrees of freedom (Dofs), the uniqueness of the solution can be possible only if there are at least as many sensors (equations) as the excited Dofs (unknowns). Such a requirement can be satisfied in case of a few unknown stationary loads, but it becomes problematic if the unknown load is (even single but) moving in an unknown way across the structure. In such a case, a very large number of Dofs can be potentially excited and a limited number of sensors are available to measure the response. As a result, the naïve direct formulation of the inverse problem is underdetermined, and the solution is not unique.
This contribution is devoted to indirect identification of a single moving load that excites a 2D structure (plate). To attain the uniqueness, the solution space needs to be significantly constrained. However, instead of assuming a known trajectory of the load and identifying its value, the aim is to identify the trajectory only. Such a problem is important, e.g., in traffic monitoring and control [4,5]. Effectively, the approach is based on the assumption of sparsity of the excitation, which seems to suit the practice: even if the location of the load is unknown, at each time instant only a single (or a limited number of) Dofs is excited. Such an approach follows the methodology of compressed sensing [6], which includes such SHM-related applications as identification of impact load position [7]. The assumption of sparsity is usually expressed as a requirement of a bounded l1 norm of the solution [8].
The approach has already been verified numerically and experimentally using a flexible 1D structure (a beam) excited with a moving mass [9]. The cases considered there included single or multiple passes of the mass across the beam. The assumption of sparsity allowed the space-time trajectory of the load to be identified. Here, the goal is to test the approach in a much more complex problem that involves a 2D structure, e.g., a plate, subjected to a single moving load. In the fully dynamic case the task is computationally very demanding, thus we focus here on the quasi-static case. This abstract describes briefly the method and the experimental stand. Detailed results will be presented during the conference.

106.Faraj R., Graczykowski C., Mikułowski G., Wiszowaty R., Holnicki-Szulc J., Control techniques for adaptive absorbers, WCSCM, 7th World Conference on Structural Control and Monitoring, 2018-07-22/07-25, Qingdao (CN), pp.1-9, 2018
Faraj R., Graczykowski C., Mikułowski G., Wiszowaty R., Holnicki-Szulc J., Control techniques for adaptive absorbers, WCSCM, 7th World Conference on Structural Control and Monitoring, 2018-07-22/07-25, Qingdao (CN), pp.1-9, 2018

Abstract:
The paper is aimed at discussion of various control techniques developed for adaptive impact-absorbers protecting structures and machines. Different approaches to the problem of optimal damper design are presented and systems comparison is provided with the example of pneu-matic shock-absorber. The influences of selected control strategy on the absorber characteris-tics, its efficiency and adaptation capabilities are shown. The contribution includes both numerical and experimental examples. The authors highlight the fact that the final design of the device should be elaborated simultaneously with the development of dedicated control system. In some cases properly assumed architecture of the control system enables significant simplifi-cation of the absorber. The paper covers analyses of semi-passive devices with single reconfig-uration to identified excitation conditions and semi-active absorbers capable of adaptation to unknown impact loading. Adaptation mechanisms of such devices and their robustness are com-pared in reference to volatility of system parameters and variety of loading conditions. Limita-tions of smart devices (e.g. piezo-electric valve in pneumatic absorbers) used in practice for absorbers’ control are described in relevant mathematical models. Technological challenges in the design and manufacturing of absorbers are identified and methods of their overcoming are proposed.

Keywords:
Adaptive Impact Absorption, adaptive control, adaptable system, damper

107.Faraj R., High Performance Pneumatic Shock-absorbers for aeronautical applications, ICAS 2018, 31st Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences, 2018-09-09/09-14, Belo Horizonte (BR), pp.1-10, 2018
Faraj R., High Performance Pneumatic Shock-absorbers for aeronautical applications, ICAS 2018, 31st Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences, 2018-09-09/09-14, Belo Horizonte (BR), pp.1-10, 2018

Abstract:
The paper is aimed at development of high performance shock-absorbers for aeronautical applications. This contribution concerns pneumatic dampers because of their lightweight, technical simplicity and low manufacturing costs. The concept of semi-passive devices is introduced and single reconfiguration technique is discussed for both single- and double-chamber shock-absorber. Presented general approach to optimal design of the semi-passive devices can be applied for design of different types of fluid-based absorbers, e.g. hydraulic or oleo-pneumatic dampers. The absorbers can be used as a suspension of light airdrop system as well as a part of landing gear of small UAV.

108.Pieczyska E.A., Golasiński K., Maj M., Staszczak M., Kowalewski Z.L., Furuta T., Kuramoto S., Yielding and strain localization effects in gum metal - a unique ti alloy -investigated by digital image correlation and infrared thermography, 35 DANUBIA-ADRIA, 35th Danubia-Adria Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 2018-09-25/09-28, Sinaia (RO), pp.57-58, 2018
109.Denis P., Sajkiewicz P., Electrospun nonwovens with poly(glycerol sebacate), BiPoCo 2018, 4th International Conference on Bio-based Polymers and Composites, 2018-09-02/09-06, Balatonfured (HU), pp.1-2, 2018
110.Kurnyta-Mazurek P., Kurnyta A., Pręgowska A., Kaźmierczak K., Frąś L., Application concept of the active magnetic suspension technology in the aircraft engine, Aviation Advances & Maintenance, ISSN: 2543-9456, DOI: 10.2478/afit-2018-0006, Vol.41, No.1, pp.161-193, 2018
111.Lewandowski M., Walczak M., Witek B., Rozbicki J., Steifer T., Demonstrator przenosnego systemu Phased-Array z funkcją Full-Matrix Capture, BADANIA NIENISZCZĄCE I DIAGNOSTYKA, ISSN: 2451-4462, Vol.3, pp.70-71, 2018
Lewandowski M., Walczak M., Witek B., Rozbicki J., Steifer T., Demonstrator przenosnego systemu Phased-Array z funkcją Full-Matrix Capture, BADANIA NIENISZCZĄCE I DIAGNOSTYKA, ISSN: 2451-4462, Vol.3, pp.70-71, 2018

Abstract:
Ultradźwiękowe systemy Phased-Array (PA) umożliwiają detekcję i ocenę wad za pomocą wieloelementowych głowic ze skanowaniem elektronicznym. Zaawansowane metody kierowania wiązki oraz wizualizacji znacznie ułatwiają badania obiektów o skomplikowanej geometrii. Należy jednak pamiętać, ze klasyczna metoda PA bazuje na tych samych zasadach fizycznych, co skanowanie standardowymi głowicami jednoelementowymi i posiada te same ograniczenia. W naszym laboratorium pracujemy nad implementacją nowej klasy metod obrazowania UT, które wykorzystują technikę Full-Matrix Capture (FMC) oraz Total Focusing Method (TFM). Metody te dają zupełnie nowe możliwości rekonstrukcji obrazów wad i pozwalają na uzyskanie jednorodnej rozdzielczości poprzecznej w całej głębokości badania. W tym celu zbudowaliśmy demonstrator przenośnego systemu PA wyposażony w funkcje FMC i TFM. Akwizycja pełnej macierzy ech oraz przetwarzanie softwarowe na wbudowanym procesorze GPU (Nvidia Tegra) zapewniają duże możliwości przetwarzania i analizy sygnałów. Demonstrator jest wyposażony w 32-kanały akwizycji w konfiguracji 32:128 i współpracuje ze standardowymi głowicami PA firmy Olympus.

Keywords:
UT, Phased-Array, akwizycja pełnej macierzy, GPU

112.Cacko D., Walczak M., Lewandowski M., Low-Power Ultrasound Imaging on Mixed FPGA/GPU Systems, IEEE 2018, IEEE Joint Conference - Acoustics, 2018-09-11/09-14, Ustka (PL), DOI: 10.1109/ACOUSTICS.2018.8502371, pp.42-47, 2018
Cacko D., Walczak M., Lewandowski M., Low-Power Ultrasound Imaging on Mixed FPGA/GPU Systems, IEEE 2018, IEEE Joint Conference - Acoustics, 2018-09-11/09-14, Ustka (PL), DOI: 10.1109/ACOUSTICS.2018.8502371, pp.42-47, 2018

Abstract:
Portable and hand-held ultrasound imagers have the potential to revolutionize Point-of-Care medical diagnostics. There is great need for low-cost, portable scanners with extended battery life. In this paper, we focus on hardware-software partitioning in heterogeneous systems where both field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and graphics processing unit (GPU) resources are available. We present the architecture of a prototype test scanner for the evaluation of various hardware-software partitioning strategies. The system is equipped with the Intel Arria 10 FPGA and the Nvidia Tegra X2 mobile GPU. FPGA-based beamformers: Delay-and-Sum and Filtered Multiply-and-Sum, were implemented. These 32-channel beamformer blocks are integrated into a complete dataflow along with the data acquisition, RF filter, quadrature demodulator, and envelope detector. The designed dataflow allows one to allocate processing functions to either hardware (FPGA) or software (GPU) to explore various imaging scenarios and optimize power consumption. A dedicated measurement setup facilitates measuring power consumption of both FPGA and GPU. The developed setup will provide a reliable experimental system power characterization.

Keywords:
ultrasound imaging, ultrasound scanner, point-ofcare ultrasound; beamforming, low-power, FPGA, GPU processing

113.Ranachowski Z., Schabowicz K., Gorzelańczyk T., Lewandowski M., Cacko D., Katz T., Dębowski T., Investigation of Acoustic Properties of Fibre-Cement Boards, IEEE 2018, IEEE Joint Conference - Acoustics, 2018-09-11/09-14, Ustka (PL), DOI: 10.1109/ACOUSTICS.2018.8502341, pp.275-279, 2018
Ranachowski Z., Schabowicz K., Gorzelańczyk T., Lewandowski M., Cacko D., Katz T., Dębowski T., Investigation of Acoustic Properties of Fibre-Cement Boards, IEEE 2018, IEEE Joint Conference - Acoustics, 2018-09-11/09-14, Ustka (PL), DOI: 10.1109/ACOUSTICS.2018.8502341, pp.275-279, 2018

Abstract:
The paper describes two different techniques of ultrasound measurements performed in fibre cement boards, the material widely applied in building technology. An in-house device dedicated for fibre-cement board testing is also presented. To overcome the difficulty of determining the arrival time of the waveform of a longitudinal wave travelling across a thin and inhomogeneous body, a cross-correlation method of signal processing was proposed and applied

Keywords:
ultrasound, fibre-cement board, waveform cross correlation coefficient

114.Pawłowski P., Płatek P., Sarzyński M., Kaźmierczak K., Suwała G., Frąś T., Janiszewski J., Mechanical response of additively manufactured 2D regular cellular structures made of MS1 steel powder subjected to uniaxial loading tests, AMT 2018, IUTAM Symposium on Mechanical design and analysis for AM technologies, 2018-08-20/08-25, Moskwa (RU), pp.1-4, 2018
115.Pawłowski P., Pęcherski R., Nowak M., Nowak Z., Skłodowski M., Application of the Concept of Virtual Material for the Design of Additive Manufacturing Processes of Open Cell Foams, WCCM 2018, 13th World Congress on Computational Mechanics, 2018-07-22/07-27, Nowy Jork (US), pp.584-584, 2018
116.Górecka K., Malarski R., Pawłowski P., Skłodowski M., Contribution of e-Documentation to Technical Rescue Works and Conservation of the Mural Painting of the Dome of Blessed Ladislaus’ Chapel in St. Anne’s Church in Warsaw, EUROMED 2018, International Conference on Digital Heritage, 2018-10-29/11-03, Nikozja (CY), DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-01762-0_59 , pp.667-676, 2018
Górecka K., Malarski R., Pawłowski P., Skłodowski M., Contribution of e-Documentation to Technical Rescue Works and Conservation of the Mural Painting of the Dome of Blessed Ladislaus’ Chapel in St. Anne’s Church in Warsaw, EUROMED 2018, International Conference on Digital Heritage, 2018-10-29/11-03, Nikozja (CY), DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-01762-0_59 , pp.667-676, 2018

Abstract:
The paper presents the application of various 3D imagining methods to study the state of the mural painting in the dome of Blessed Ladislaus' Chapel of St. Anne's Church in Warsaw. The temple was built on the embankment of the Vistula river in the XV-th century. The chapel was added to the nave in the XVII-th century. From the beginning this location of the church caused a lot of structural problems. The church stability was disturbed due to digging an underground tunnel nearby in the years 1947-49. The Ladislaus' Chapel, situated close to the tunnel on the side of the escarpment was the most endangered. The current rescue work of the mural painting of the chapel dome required an accurate measurement and inventory of the architectural structure. The dome was measured using various methods: laser scanning and photogrammetry. As a result, we obtained 4 models of the chapel dome, which could be combined and compared.

117.Chikahiro Y., Ario I., Pawłowski P., Graczykowski C., Shimizu S., Numerical Optimization of Deployable Scissors Structure with Reinforcing Chord Members, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.370-371, 2018
118.Kruglenko E., Korczak I., Litniewski J., Gambin B., Ultrasound Thermal Effect Enriched by Adding of Micro and Nano Particles to the Agar-Gel Tissue Mimicking Materials, IEEE 2018, IEEE Joint Conference - Acoustics, 2018-09-11/09-14, Ustka (PL), DOI: 10.1109/ACOUSTICS.2018.8502361, No.1, pp.158-163, 2018
Kruglenko E., Korczak I., Litniewski J., Gambin B., Ultrasound Thermal Effect Enriched by Adding of Micro and Nano Particles to the Agar-Gel Tissue Mimicking Materials, IEEE 2018, IEEE Joint Conference - Acoustics, 2018-09-11/09-14, Ustka (PL), DOI: 10.1109/ACOUSTICS.2018.8502361, No.1, pp.158-163, 2018

Abstract:
Agar-gel based materials are widely used as tissue mimicking materials. Pure agar-gel is stable up to 60◦C but exhibits small ultrasound attenuation compared to a soft tissue. To enhance the attenuation of agar-gel we fabricated samples of agar-gel with the adding of graphite micro particles (GMP), magnetic micro particles (MMP) and magnetic nano particles (MNP) with two weight fractions of dry powders added before the formation of the gel to the aqueous agar solution, namely 0.8 % and 1.6 %, respectively. In order to compare the thermal effect caused by the addition of a particles, the samples immersed in a water bath were heated by 2 MHz circular focused transducer (diameter 44 mm), with power of 1, 2, 3 and 4 W. The temperature rise curves were recorded using thermocouples. The temperature change rate (TCR) in the initial point of heating was calculated. For the 0.8 % weight fraction the MMP sample had the highest TCR value at each sound power tested, the smallest value had the MNP sample. For the 1.6 % weight fraction, the highest TCR value had the MNP sample, while the smallest TCR had the GMP sample. We stated that for the higher fraction of particles, the MNP material had the highest TCR value for all powers, and besides the difference between TCR in MMP and GMP samples was less than the difference between TCR in MMP and MNP samples. Besides, the MNP sample exhibited the minimal exposure time to achieve the temperature increment of 5◦C for all applied acoustic powers. These facts underline the unique properties of MNP material and its usefulness as a model material for ultrasonic hyperthermia experiments.

Keywords:
tissue mimicking materials, ultrasound hyperthermia, nano and micro magnetic particles, temperature change rate

119.Dąbrowski M., Glinicki M.A., Antolik A., Dziedzic K., Zastosowanie sekwencyjnej metody ciśnieniowej do oceny jakości napowietrzenia mieszanki betonowej na budowie dróg ekspresowych, DNI BETONU, X Jubileuszowa Konferencja DNI BETONU, 2018-10-08/10-10, Wisła (PL), pp.41-50, 2018
Dąbrowski M., Glinicki M.A., Antolik A., Dziedzic K., Zastosowanie sekwencyjnej metody ciśnieniowej do oceny jakości napowietrzenia mieszanki betonowej na budowie dróg ekspresowych, DNI BETONU, X Jubileuszowa Konferencja DNI BETONU, 2018-10-08/10-10, Wisła (PL), pp.41-50, 2018

Abstract:
Przedmiotem referatu jest przydatność zmodyfikowanej metody ciśnieniowej do wyznaczenia charakterystyki porów w napowietrzonej mieszance betonowej w warunkach polowych na miejscu budowy nawierzchni drogowej. Metoda polegająca na stopniowym zwiększaniu ciśnienia na mieszankę, w określonej sekwencji, pozwala wyznaczyć parametr zwany liczbą SAM. Zgodnie z oczekiwaniem wynalazców metody powinna być skorelowana ze wskaźnikiem rozmieszczenia porów w betonie. Przeprowadzone badania doświadczalne obejmowały rozpoznanie w warunkach laboratoryjnych powtarzalności metody oraz pomiary napowietrzenia mieszanki na dolną i górną warstwę betonu w nawierzchni odcinków dróg ekspresowych. Na próbkach stwardniałego betonu wyznaczono wskaźnik rozmieszczenia porów zgodnie z PN-EN 480-11 i przeanalizowano zgodność charakterystyki napowietrzenia betonu stwardniałego z charakterystyką napowietrzenia mieszanki na podstawie liczby SAM. Wykonanie pomiarów w warunkach budowy dwuwarstwowej nawierzchni drogi ekspresowej nie nastręczało kłopotów technicznych. Jednakże w wielu przypadkach stwierdzono niewystarczającą korelację charakterystyki porów w mieszance i w betonie stwardniałym. Przeanalizowano czynniki wpływające na zaobserwowane niezgodności.

120.Kukla D., Zagórski A., Wonsewicz P., Analiza sygnałów prądowirowych od niestandardowych defektów w stalowych rurkach austenitycznych wymienników ciepła, BADANIA NIENISZCZĄCE I DIAGNOSTYKA, ISSN: 2451-4462, DOI: 10.26357/BNiD.2018.033, Vol.4, pp.12-18, 2018
Kukla D., Zagórski A., Wonsewicz P., Analiza sygnałów prądowirowych od niestandardowych defektów w stalowych rurkach austenitycznych wymienników ciepła, BADANIA NIENISZCZĄCE I DIAGNOSTYKA, ISSN: 2451-4462, DOI: 10.26357/BNiD.2018.033, Vol.4, pp.12-18, 2018

Abstract:
Analizie poddano charakterystykę impedancyjną od niestandardowych defektów w materiale rury austenitycznej. Wskazania te otrzymano podczas skanowania rury ze stali 316 sondą wewnętrzną z wykorzystaniem aparatu MultiScan 5800. Zastosowano klasyczną metodę prądów wirowych ECT badając zarówno rurę z zaprojektowanymi defektami opracowanymi na podstawie analizy najczęściej spotykanych uszkodzeń we wkładach rurowych przemysłowych wymienników ciepła, jak i rury referencyjne, z defektami standardowymi. Wytworzone niestandardowe wady miały na celu symulować spotykane w diagnostyce przemysłowej kombinacje pęknięć, wżerów lub innych ubytków powstałych w wyniku działania agresywnych czynników chemicznych i mechanicznych. Badania polegały na skanowaniu całej długości rury ze stałą prędkości, przy użyciu sondy przelotowej rejestrującej zmiany impedancji elektrycznej w trybie względnym i trybie absolutnym. Na podstawie otrzymanych wyników możliwe było opisanie wymiarów i położenia wad standardowych, weryfikując zgodność rzeczywistych parametrów poszczególnych wad względem projektu wirtualnego. Interpretacja wyników dla wad niestandardowych była oparta na porównaniu ich z wynikami uzyskanymi dla standardowych próbek referencyjnych. Otrzymane wartości dla złożonych wad niestandardowych umożliwiły ich scharakteryzowanie poprzez określenie ich objętości oraz położenia względem sondy pomiarowej. W większości przypadków nie była możliwa interpretacja geometrii wady, czego można dokonać stosując inne techniki badań nieniszczących.

Keywords:
prądy wirowe, badania diagnostyczne, wymienniki ciepła, rury austenityczne

121.Poma Bernaola A., Theodorakis P.E., Generalization of the Elastic Network Model for the Study of Large Conformational Changes in Proteins, BPS2018, 62nd Annual Meeting of the Biophysical Society, 2018-02-17/02-21, San Francisco (US), DOI: 10.1016/j.bpj.2017.11.306, No.114, pp.46A, 2018
Poma Bernaola A., Theodorakis P.E., Generalization of the Elastic Network Model for the Study of Large Conformational Changes in Proteins, BPS2018, 62nd Annual Meeting of the Biophysical Society, 2018-02-17/02-21, San Francisco (US), DOI: 10.1016/j.bpj.2017.11.306, No.114, pp.46A, 2018

Abstract:
The Elastic Network (EN) is a prime model that describes the long-time dynamics of biomolecules. However, the use of harmonic potentials renders this model insufficient for studying large conformational changes. Here, we propose a model based on the EN, a harmonic approximation described by Lennard-Jones interactions for far contacts, and Go-type native contacts obtained from the standard overlap criterion with the latter describing hydrogen bonds, ionic bridges and hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions. Our results based on Normal Mode Analysis show excellent agreement with the EN model. Moreover, we apply large forces along the N- and C-termini in order to study a large conformational change (i.e. protein stretching), our pulling simulations reproduce the experimental data on the maximum force of the unfolding of a protein domain. We anticipate that our work will provide new venues for the EN in a broader range of problems in biology, including folding of proteins and protein-docking prediction

Keywords:
Protein, Biomolecules, deformation, AFM, stretching, Normal Modes

122.Gloc M., Słomińska H., Ciupiński Ł., Hydrogen Influence on Microstructure and Properties of Novel Explosive Welded Corrosion Resistant Clad Materials, DEFECT AND DIFFUSION FORUM, ISSN: 1662-9507, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/DDF.382.167, Vol.382, pp.167-172, 2018
Gloc M., Słomińska H., Ciupiński Ł., Hydrogen Influence on Microstructure and Properties of Novel Explosive Welded Corrosion Resistant Clad Materials, DEFECT AND DIFFUSION FORUM, ISSN: 1662-9507, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/DDF.382.167, Vol.382, pp.167-172, 2018

Abstract:
The aim of this work was to investigate whether the explosively welded metals are susceptible to hydrogen degradation. The materials described in this article are widely used nickel alloy Inconel C-276 and super duplex steel SAF 2507 as clad materials for their superior resistance to corrosive environment and low alloy steel P355NH as a base material. It was observed that at the explosive bonded interface between the base steel and the stainless steel some local melting zones are formed. It was found that the cathodic hydrogen charging causes changes in the microstructure of bonded materials and decreases the shear strength of bonds as well as the corrosion resistance of clads.

Keywords:
novel materials, explosive welding, hydrogen degradation

123.Hou J., Jing T., Wang P., Zhang Q., Jankowski Ł., Damage identification method for storage tanks based on additional virtual masses, JOURNAL OF VIBRATION AND SHOCK, ISSN: 1000-3835, DOI: 10.13465/j.cnki.jvs.2018.13.002, Vol.37, No.13, pp.7-13, 2018
Hou J., Jing T., Wang P., Zhang Q., Jankowski Ł., Damage identification method for storage tanks based on additional virtual masses, JOURNAL OF VIBRATION AND SHOCK, ISSN: 1000-3835, DOI: 10.13465/j.cnki.jvs.2018.13.002, Vol.37, No.13, pp.7-13, 2018

Abstract:
A damage identification method based on additional virtual masses was proposed aiming at storage tanks’ features of space-symmetry, dense lower-order modes and being insensitive to local damages. Firstly, magnitudes of additional masses were determined through sensitivity analysis of storage tanks’ structural modes. Then based on the virtual deflection method (VDM), the tanks’ frequency responses after attaching additional virtual masses were constructed and their natural frequencies were identified with the original structures’ excitation time histories and the original structures’ corresponding positions’ acceleration response time histories. Furthermore, using the tanks’ features of space-symmetry, their damage positions were preliminarily determined according to the distribution law of their natural frequencies after attaching virtual masses. The sensitivity analysis of the tanks’ finite element model was used to solve iteratively damages’ level. Finally, the tanks’ finite element models were used to perform numerical simulations and correctly predict their damage locations and levels. The effectiveness of this proposed method was verified.

Keywords:
storage tanks, damage identification, sensitivity analysis, frequency

124.Wawrzyk K., Kowalczyk P., Rojek J., Nosewicz S., A numerical model of sintering processes at macroscopic level, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.298-299, 2018
Wawrzyk K., Kowalczyk P., Rojek J., Nosewicz S., A numerical model of sintering processes at macroscopic level, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.298-299, 2018

Abstract:
This paper presents modelling of double-phase powder sintering processes at the macroscopic level. In particular, its constitutive formulation, numerical implementation and numerical simulations are described. Numerical tests were carried out for a cylindrical specimen under uniaxial pressure and are compared against the microscopic model results. The model has been developed within the framework of a MUSINT project which is carried on in Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Warsaw, Poland. The overall objective of the MUSINT (Multiscale numerical modelling of sintering processes) is development of numerical models allowing us to analyse at various scales manufacturing processes employing sintering as the main technological stage.

Keywords:
finite element method, sintering, multiscale modelling, double-phase composite

125.Colabella L., Cisilino A., Fachinotti V., Kowalczyk P., Häiat G., Structural hierarchical multiscale optimization using a parameterized mimetic cancellous microstructure, EUROMECH 594, EUROMECH Colloquium 594: Bone remodeling: multiscale mechanical models and multiphysical aspects, 2018-05-15/05-17, Nancy (FR), pp.15-15, 2018
Colabella L., Cisilino A., Fachinotti V., Kowalczyk P., Häiat G., Structural hierarchical multiscale optimization using a parameterized mimetic cancellous microstructure, EUROMECH 594, EUROMECH Colloquium 594: Bone remodeling: multiscale mechanical models and multiphysical aspects, 2018-05-15/05-17, Nancy (FR), pp.15-15, 2018

Keywords:
multiscale structural optimization, biomimetic microstructures, finite element analysis

126.Dłużewski P., Computational aspects of chemo-elastic problems and Vegard’s law, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.182-183, 2018
127.Madan N., Rojek J., Zubelewicz A., Nosewicz S., Convergence limit of a deformable discrete element model, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.204-205, 2018
128.Nosewicz S., Rojek J., Maciejewski G., Maździarz M., Chmielewski M., Two-scale modelling of powder sintering, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.210-211, 2018
129.Rojek J., Zubelewicz A., Madan N., Nosewicz S., Lumelskyj D., A novel treatment for the deformability of discrete elements, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.202-203, 2018
130.Majewski M., Kowalczyk-Gajewska K., Inclusion shape in mean-field micromechanical models, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.58-59, 2018
131.Majewski M., Kowalczyk-Gajewska K., Hołobut P., Kursa M., Micromechanical modelling of packing and size effects in particulate elasto-plastic composites, ESMC, 10th European Solid Mechanics Conference, 2018-07-02/07-06, Bologna (IT), pp.1-1, 2018
Majewski M., Kowalczyk-Gajewska K., Hołobut P., Kursa M., Micromechanical modelling of packing and size effects in particulate elasto-plastic composites, ESMC, 10th European Solid Mechanics Conference, 2018-07-02/07-06, Bologna (IT), pp.1-1, 2018

Keywords:
mean-field modelling, numerical homogenization, elasto-plasticity

132.Chodkiewicz P., Lengiewicz J., Zalewski R., Discrete element method approach to modelling VPP dampers, MATEC Web of Conferences, ISSN: 2261-236X, DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/201815702014, Vol.157, No.02014, pp.1-8, 2018
Chodkiewicz P., Lengiewicz J., Zalewski R., Discrete element method approach to modelling VPP dampers, MATEC Web of Conferences, ISSN: 2261-236X, DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/201815702014, Vol.157, No.02014, pp.1-8, 2018

Abstract:
In this paper, we present a novel approach to modeling and analysis of Vacuum Packed Particle dampers (VPP dampers) with the use of Discrete Element Method (DEM). VPP dampers are composed of loose granular medium encapsulated in a hermetic envelope, with controlled pressure inside the envelope. By changing the level of underpressure inside the envelope, one can control mechanical properties of the system. The main novelty of the DEM model proposed in this paper is the method to treat special (pressure) boundary conditions at the envelope. The model has been implemented within the open-source Yade DEM software. Preliminary results are presented and discussed in the paper. The qualitative agreement with experimental results has been achieved.

Keywords:
VPP, discrete element method, Yade DEM, modelling, smart structures, smart materials

133.Kursa M., Kowalczyk-Gajewska K., Lewandowski M.J., Petryk H., Validation of mean-field approaches for the description of elastic-plastic two-phase composites, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.70-71, 2018
134.Chodkiewicz P., Zalewski R., Lengiewicz J., Dem modeling of vacuum packed particles dampers, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.208-209, 2018
135.Lengiewicz J., Leyva-Mendivil M.F., Limbert G., Stupkiewicz S., Macroscopic friction of microscopically rough soft contacts, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.74-75, 2018
136.Lengiewicz J., Multiscale frictional effects in rough soft contacts, CMIS, Contact Mechanics International Symposium, 2018-05-16/05-18, Sanctuary of Oropa, Biella (IT), pp.10-11, 2018
137.Brodecki A., Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Lasota P., Fatigue durability of steering rod tip, SME, XXVIII Symposium On Experimental Mechanics of Solids in memory of prof. Jacek Stupnicki, 2018-10-17/10-20, Jachranka (PL), pp.20-20, 2018
138.Kowalewski Z.L., Non-standard experimental techniques for mechanical characterization of materials, SME, XXVIII Symposium On Experimental Mechanics of Solids in memory of prof. Jacek Stupnicki, 2018-10-17/10-20, Jachranka (PL), pp.7-7, 2018
139.Szymczak T., Brodecki A., Kowalewski Z.L., Fatigue of structural components for special vehicles, SME, XXVIII Symposium On Experimental Mechanics of Solids in memory of prof. Jacek Stupnicki, 2018-10-17/10-20, Jachranka (PL), pp.12-12, 2018
140.Libura T., Nowak Z., Kowalewski Z., Widłaszewski J., Behaviour of inconel 718 aerospace alloy thin sheets under in-plane tension-compression, SME, XXVIII Symposium On Experimental Mechanics of Solids in memory of prof. Jacek Stupnicki, 2018-10-17/10-20, Jachranka (PL), pp.42-42, 2018
141.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Właściwości mechaniczne wybranych kompozytów oraz metody oceny ich zniszczenia – cz. 1, Materiały Kompozytowe, ISSN: 2084-1949, Vol.2, pp.48-52, 2018
142.Kowalewski Z.L., Nowak Z., Pęcherski R., Dynamic testing of materials using shpb and dict on typical and miniaturized specimens – numerical modelling and experiment, PSH, 7th International Conference on Protection of Structures against Hazards, 2018-10-30/10-31, Hanoi (VN), pp.174-183, 2018
Kowalewski Z.L., Nowak Z., Pęcherski R., Dynamic testing of materials using shpb and dict on typical and miniaturized specimens – numerical modelling and experiment, PSH, 7th International Conference on Protection of Structures against Hazards, 2018-10-30/10-31, Hanoi (VN), pp.174-183, 2018

Abstract:
The results of experimental and numerical investigations concerning the influence of strain rate on mechanical properties of pure tantalum and VP159 high nitrogen austenitic steel are presented. Experiments were carried out using Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) and Direct Impact Compression Test (DICT) technique. The Perzyna elasto-viscoplasticity theory was applied to predict the dynamic compression yield strength of the tantalum at strain rates from 1.0x10-3 s−1 to 0.5x106 s−1. In the case of the VP159 high nitrogen austenitic steel the experimental results were used to calibrate the Rusinek-Klepaczko model. There are still no sufficient data on the flow stress at higher strain rates than 1.0x105s−1, in particular for large strains. The experimental identification of material parameters required for constitutive modelling are not sufficiently reported. This paper is an attempt to supplement our knowledge in this area. The impact resistance of material in question is analysed numerically with use of ABAQUS/Explicit finite element program. The Huber-Mises-Hencky yield criterion and Perzyna viscoplasticity model with adiabatic conditions are used.

Keywords:
Dynamic tests, Direct Impact Compression Test, Hopkinson bar, punching effect

143.Nowak Z., Nowak M., Widłaszewski J., Kurp P., EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION ON LASER-ASSISTED BENDING OF PRE-LOADED INCONEL 718 BEAMS, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.282-283, 2018
144.Krajewski M., Tokarczyk M., Kowalski G., Witecka A., Magnetic-field-induced synthesis of bimetallic wire-like nanostructures, NANOSMAT, 13th International Conference on Surfaces, Coatings and Nanostructured Materials, 2018-09-11/09-14, Gdańsk (PL), No.107, pp.55-56, 2018
145.Piotrzkowska-Wróblewska H., Klimonda Z., Dobruch-Sobczak K., Karwat P., Secomski W., Litniewski J., Quantitative Ultrasound for Chemotherapy Monitoring, IEEE 2018, IEEE Joint Conference - Acoustics, 2018-09-11/09-14, Ustka (PL), DOI: 10.1109/ACOUSTICS.2018.8502336, pp.268-271, 2018
Piotrzkowska-Wróblewska H., Klimonda Z., Dobruch-Sobczak K., Karwat P., Secomski W., Litniewski J., Quantitative Ultrasound for Chemotherapy Monitoring, IEEE 2018, IEEE Joint Conference - Acoustics, 2018-09-11/09-14, Ustka (PL), DOI: 10.1109/ACOUSTICS.2018.8502336, pp.268-271, 2018

Abstract:
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is used in breast cancer patients to reduce tumor size, decrease the risk of local recurrence, and diminish the likelihood of metastases, all of which reduce patient mortality. Assessment of the response to NAC at an early stage of treatment allows therapy to be personalized. The quantitative ultrasound method is a novel diagnostic approach with great potential to improve outcomes for breast cancer patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the variability of the integrated backscatter coefficient (IBSC) in the context of the assessment of changes in tumor tissue structure resulting from chemotherapy, and to evaluate use of IBSC to predict the effectiveness of treatment. Ultrasound data (B-mode images and raw ultrasonic radio frequency signals RF) were collected from cancerous tumors from patients intended to NAC before starting treatment and a week after each chemotherapy dose. Data were processed to generate IBSC maps and to determine IBSC mean values. The assessment of tumors using IBSC, in comparison with histopathological verification, showed that IBSC changes can be associated with changes which tumor structure changes during NAC. IBSC analysis correlated better with the results of histopathological verification than B-mode imaging.

146.Pęcherski R.B., Multilevel hierarchy of shear banding in plastic deformation of solids, ETAMM 2018, Emerging Trends in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, 2018-06-18/06-22, Jagiellonian University in Krakow (PL), pp.160-160, 2018
Pęcherski R.B., Multilevel hierarchy of shear banding in plastic deformation of solids, ETAMM 2018, Emerging Trends in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, 2018-06-18/06-22, Jagiellonian University in Krakow (PL), pp.160-160, 2018

Abstract:
Plastic deformation of solids: polycrystalline metals, polymers, and amorphous materials is often produced as an effect of micro-shear banding. The micro-shear bands are observed as concentrated shear zones in the form of layers of the thickness of the order 0.1 m, which form the clusters developing on multiple levels of observation. The identification and elucidation of physical mechanisms that are responsible for initiation, growth and evolution of micro-shear bands is of fundamental importance for understanding the macroscopic behaviour of many materials. Physical motivation and heuristic foundations of theoretical description are discussed with reference to known results in the literature. The difficulties with application of a direct multiscale integration scheme are discussed and an original idea of an extension of the representative volume element concept with use of the known theory of the propagation of the singular surfaces of microscopic velocity field is proposed. A new formulation of the description of rate of shear strain generated by multilevel hierarchy of shear bands is proposed and incorporated into theory of elastic/plastic or elastic/viscoplastic solids by means of the concepts of the instantaneous contribution function and volume fraction of shear banding.

Keywords:
multilevel hierarchy, shear banding, plasticity, viscoplasticity, shear banding contribution function, singular surface of velocity field

147.Pęcherski R.B., Viscoplastic flow accounting for multilevel hierarchy of shear banding , ESMC, 10th European Solid Mechanics Conference, 2018-07-02/07-06, Bologna (IT), pp.1-1, 2018
Pęcherski R.B., Viscoplastic flow accounting for multilevel hierarchy of shear banding , ESMC, 10th European Solid Mechanics Conference, 2018-07-02/07-06, Bologna (IT), pp.1-1, 2018

Abstract:
A new physical model of multilevel hierarchy and evolution of shear bands is proposed with use of the analysis of recent state of the art of the investigations carried on different levels of observations: uni-axial and bi-axial mechanical tests enhanced with digital image correlation method and in-situ tests with use of electron microscopy as well as atom probe tomography in relation with ab initio and molecular dynamics computational simulations. Physical motivation and heuristic foundations of theoretical description are discussed with reference to known results in the literature. The difficulties with application of a direct multiscale integration scheme are discussed and an original idea of an extension of the representative volume element concept with use of the known theory of the propagation of the singular surfaces of microscopic velocity field is proposed. A new formulation of the description of rate of shear strain generated by multilevel hierarchy of shear bands is formulated in the workflow integration approach, in which information from molecular simulation at different levels flows into the decision process.

Keywords:
shear banding, viscoplasticity, strong discontinuity surface

148.Pęcherski R., Multilevel Hierarchy of Shear Banding in Viscoplastic Flow and Failure , WCCM2018, 13th World Congress on Computational Mechanics, 2018-07-22/07-27, Nowy Jork (US), pp.1-1, 2018
Pęcherski R., Multilevel Hierarchy of Shear Banding in Viscoplastic Flow and Failure , WCCM2018, 13th World Congress on Computational Mechanics, 2018-07-22/07-27, Nowy Jork (US), pp.1-1, 2018

Abstract:
Experimental observations show that inelastic deformation of metals is often produced as an effect of competing mechanisms of crystallographic glide, twinning and micro-shear banding. The micro-shear bands are observed as concentrated shear zones in the form of transcrystalline layers of the thickness of the order 0.1 µm. It has been observed that the change of the mechanism of inelastic deformation has strong influence on ductile failure processes in different length scales. Therefore, the identification and elucidation of physical mechanisms that are responsible for initiation, growth and evolution of micro-shear bands is of fundamental importance for understanding the macroscopic behaviour of metallic materials. A new physical model of multilevel hierarchy and evolution of shear bands is proposed with use of the analysis of recent state of the art of the investigations carried on different levels of observations: uni-axial and bi-axial mechanical tests enhanced with digital image correlation method and in-situ tests with use of electron microscopy as well as atom probe tomography in relation with ab initio and molecular dynamics computational simulations. The difficulties with application of a direct multiscale integration scheme are discussed and an original idea of an extension of the representative volume element concept with use of the known theory of the propagation of the singular surfaces of microscopic velocity field is proposed. A new formulation of the description of rate of shear strain generated by multilevel hierarchy of shear bands is formulated in the workflow integration approach, in which information from molecular simulation at different levels flows into the decision process,

Keywords:
shear banding, , multilevel hierarchy of shear bands, viscoplastic flow, failure

149.Chrzanowska-Giżyńska J., Denis P., Psiuk R., Słomińska H., Mihailescu I., Ristoscu C., Mościcki T., Szymański Z., Thin WBx and WXTi1-xB2 films deposited by combined magnetron sputtering and pulsed laser deposition technique, ICPEPA-11, 11th International Conference on Photo-Excited Processes and Applications, 2018-09-10/09-14, Vilnius (LT), No.P2, pp.113-113, 2018
150.Słomińska H., Psiuk R., Chrzanowska-Giżyńska J., Mościcki T., The effect of titanium incorporation on the properties of W-Ti-B superhard films deposited by PLD and MS methods, NANOSMAT, 13th International Conference on Surfaces, Coatings and Nanostructured Materials, 2018-09-11/09-14, Gdańsk (PL), No.33, pp.16-17, 2018
151.Psiuk R., Słomińska H., Chrzanowska-Giżyńska J., Mościcki T., Supertwarde warstwy W-B i W-Ti-B osadzane z tarcz spiekanych metodą SPC, I Ogólnopolskie Seminarium Spark Plasma Sintering, 2018-10-24/10-24, Poznań (PL), pp.25-25, 2018
152.Sajkiewicz P., Smart piezoelectric scaffolds, PICETE, Polish-Israeli Conference on Electrospinning and Tissue Engineering, 2018-10-04/10-05, Warszawa (PL), pp.11, 2018
153.Gradys A., Core-shell fibers, geometrical stability, PICETE, Polish-Israeli Conference on Electrospinning and Tissue Engineering, 2018-10-04/10-05, Warszawa (PL), pp.12, 2018
154.Postek E., Sadowski T., Impact Modelling of Cermet Composites, AMS 2018, 7th International Conference on Advanced Materials and Structures - AMS 2018, 2018-03-28/03-31, Timisoara (RO), DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/416/1/012088, Vol.416, pp.1-8, 2018
Postek E., Sadowski T., Impact Modelling of Cermet Composites, AMS 2018, 7th International Conference on Advanced Materials and Structures - AMS 2018, 2018-03-28/03-31, Timisoara (RO), DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/416/1/012088, Vol.416, pp.1-8, 2018

Abstract:
Abstract. The WC/Co is one of broad class of cermet materials (CM) that are applied in
fabrication of machining tools. It means that they are subjected to different kind of dynamic
loadings. They have very good mechanical properties. However, the degradation of the CM
material under dynamic load has not been enough thoroughly investigated. Experimental
results yield that the dissipation of the fracture energy in WC/Co samples is due to Co ductile
failure at the WC and Co interface [1] and/or dimple rupture mechanism [2]. Stress
concentrations about stress raisers such as grain bounds cause microcracking that is further
propagated by dynamic loading. However, there are no such predictions for impact conditions.
The main goals of the presentation are to explore the formerly created models of the two-phase
composite [3, 4] towards impact conditions impacts and give qualitative predictions of the
crack and plastic strains initiation for such cases. It has been found that microcracks
development process and stress fields depend on impact velocity and the existence of
discontinuities: (1) inside the Co binder and (2) the interface between the binder and the grains.
Estimation of the microcracks distribution by means of damage parameter is given.

155.Kołbuk-Konieczny D., Selected microenvironmental and material factors deciding about scaffold efficiency, PICETE, Polish-Israeli Conference on Electrospinning and Tissue Engineering, 2018-10-04/10-05, Warszawa (PL), pp.19, 2018
156.Urbanek O., Sajkiewicz P., The effect of electrospinning parameters on selected properties of polyelectrolytes’ fibres, PICETE, Polish-Israeli Conference on Electrospinning and Tissue Engineering, 2018-10-04/10-05, Warszawa (PL), pp.21, 2018
157.Jeznach O., Surface functionalization of polymer nanofibers for tissue engineering applications, PICETE, Polish-Israeli Conference on Electrospinning and Tissue Engineering, 2018-10-04/10-05, Warszawa (PL), pp.23, 2018
158.Dulnik J., Polycaprolactone/gelatin bicomponent nanofibres: How do we save gelatin?, PICETE, Polish-Israeli Conference on Electrospinning and Tissue Engineering, 2018-10-04/10-05, Warszawa (PL), pp.24, 2018
159.Niemczyk B., Gradys A., Sajkiewicz P., The effect of chemical composition on crosslinking kinetics of methylcellulose/agarose hydrogel, PICETE, Polish-Israeli Conference on Electrospinning and Tissue Engineering, 2018-10-04/10-05, Warszawa (PL), pp.25, 2018
160.Zaszczyńska A., Pałka K., Polymerization shrinkage of biomaterials, PICETE, Polish-Israeli Conference on Electrospinning and Tissue Engineering, 2018-10-04/10-05, Warszawa (PL), pp.26, 2018
161.Denis P., Sajkiewicz P., Electrospun nonwovens with poly(glycerol sebacate), PICETE, Polish-Israeli Conference on Electrospinning and Tissue Engineering, 2018-10-04/10-05, Warszawa (PL), pp.31, 2018
162.Tauzowski P., Błachowski B., Logo J., Stress constrained structural topology optimization with functor-oriented finite element implementation, Workshop on Semidefinite Programming: Theory and Applications, 2018-10-19/10-19, Edinburgh (GB), pp.1, 2018
Tauzowski P., Błachowski B., Logo J., Stress constrained structural topology optimization with functor-oriented finite element implementation, Workshop on Semidefinite Programming: Theory and Applications, 2018-10-19/10-19, Edinburgh (GB), pp.1, 2018

Abstract:
Classical programming of finite elements contains usual class, which duty is not only to approximate some physical field of interest (displacements, accelerations or temperature), but also definition of matrices necessary for particular analysis. It often leads to sophisticated class hierarchy of finite elements. In our approach matrices necessary for FE analysis are in separate classes. Hierarchy of these classes can be developed almost separately from declaration of the finite element class. Also finite elements hierarchy is much smaller, because each class represents one kind of matrix computed in FE analysis. In our opinion the functor is best suited object for this kind of approach. The functor represents one subroutine and it can also be invoked as function. The study presents application of functor oriented programming to finite element analysis.

Keywords:
stress constrained topology optimization, finite element programming, functor-oriented implemenetation

163.Węglewski W., Basista M., Krajewski M., Bochenek K., Determination of thermal residual stresses in alumina reinforced with chromium – the grain size effect, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.111-112, 2018
164.Węglewski W., Basista M., Krajewski M., Bochenek K., An unusual grain size effect in measurements of thermal residual stress in alumina-chromium composites – explanation by modelling, 8th KMM-VIN Industrial Workshop: Modelling of composite materials and composite coatings, 2018-10-09/10-10, Freiburg (DE), pp.22, 2018
165.Nowak Z., Nowak M., Pęcherski R., Wiśniewski K., Widłaszewski J., Kurp P., Computational Modelling of Thermoplastic Behaviour of Inconel 718 in Application to Laser-Assisted Bending of Thin-Walled Alloy Tubes, WCCM2018, 13th World Congress on Computational Mechanics, 2018-07-22/07-27, Nowy Jork (US), pp.1-1, 2018
166.Misztal-Faraj B., Jarecki L., Pęcherski R.B., KINETIC MODEL OF POLYMER CRYSTALLIZATION UNDER HIGH TENSILE STRESS OR MOLECULAR ORIENTATION , SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.224-225, 2018
Misztal-Faraj B., Jarecki L., Pęcherski R.B., KINETIC MODEL OF POLYMER CRYSTALLIZATION UNDER HIGH TENSILE STRESS OR MOLECULAR ORIENTATION , SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.224-225, 2018

Abstract:
Molecular deformation and orientation in the amorphous phase subjected to tensile stresses strongly accelerates crystallization of polymers by orders of the magnitude. Closed-form analytical formula is derived for the crystallization rate under high tensile stresses in the entire range of crystallization temperature and the temperature rates. Such formula, lacking in the literature, is needed for modelling of the dynamics of crystallizing polymers processing and predicting structure development in obtaining highly oriented materials of enhanced tensile modulus and tenacity. Rapid online crystallization strongly influences the rheological behaviour during the processing and introduces coupling of crystallization with the processing dynamics. Tensile stress affects the crystallization rate mainly by influencing the configurational entropy of the chain macromolecules in amorphous phase. None of the actually available models are capable to account for the effects of high molecular orientation in the crystallization kinetics. In the present approach, non-Gaussian chain statistics is considered to account for finite extensibility of real macromolecules in the amorphous phase under high tensile stresses which results in non-linear effects in the model. The Hoffman-Lauritzen model of crystallization kinetics is extended to account for free energy of deformation of the amorphous component under uniaxial molecular orientation produced by the tensile stresses. The crystallization rate is considered as controlled by predetermined and sporadic nucleation present in real systems. The involvement of both nucleation mechanisms in the crystallization kinetics varies strongly with the level of tensile stress and amorphous orientation, with domination of sporadic nucleation at high orientations. The closed-form analytical formulas are validated by computations. Example numerical calculations illustrate influence of amorphous orientation on the crystallization free energy and the crystallization rate function involving both nucleation mechanisms.

Keywords:
polymer crystallization, crystallization kinetics, molecular orientation, non-Gaussian chain statistics

167.Secomski W., Klimonda Z., Majka K., Olszewski R., Nowicki A., Microscopic examination of the sonothrombolysis process inside the transparent to ultrasound parallel plate flow chamber, IUS 2018, 2018 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, 2018-10-22/10-25, KOBE (JP), pp.1-4, 2018
Secomski W., Klimonda Z., Majka K., Olszewski R., Nowicki A., Microscopic examination of the sonothrombolysis process inside the transparent to ultrasound parallel plate flow chamber, IUS 2018, 2018 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, 2018-10-22/10-25, KOBE (JP), pp.1-4, 2018

Abstract:
Parallel plate flow chambers are widely used for cell research in conditions of constant or pulsatile liquid flow. They are also used to analyze the formation of thrombi. The authors designed a flow chamber that is transparent to ultrasound, thus enabling the microscopic observation of the thrombus dissolution process by interaction of drug, microbubbles and ultrasound in real time, in-vitro.
Sonothrombolysis was performed at 1 MHz and 3.3 MHz ultrasound frequencies, at space-averaged and time-averaged intensities ISATA of 0.2 – 1.6 W/cm2. 1 mm thick slices of the human blood clots were exposed to ultrasound in the presence of the Actilyse tissue plasminogen activator at a concentration of 10 μg/ml flowing around the sample. Next, the effect of SonoVue microbubbles at a concentration of 5x105/ml on the dissolution of the thrombus was investigated. Thrombus size changes were observed under a 4x magnification microscope and were recorded as a function of time.
The best result was achieved for the Actilyse tissue plasminogen activator at the 1 MHz and 1.6 W/cm2 ISATA, the thrombus was sonolysed within 5.5 minutes. The noticeable effect of the SonoVue microbubbles on the thrombolysis process appeared at 3.3 MHz, the thrombus was sonolysed in 12 min at ISATA = 1.6 W/cm2.

Keywords:
ultrasound, blood, thrombus, thrombolysis, parallel plate flow chamber

168.Nowicki A., Gambin B., Trawiński Z., Secomski W., Szubielski M., Tymkiewicz R., Olszewski R., Radial Artery Reactive Response And Shear Rate Measurements Using 20 MHz System, IUS 2018, 2018 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, 2018-10-22/10-25, KOBE (JP), pp.1-4, 2018
Nowicki A., Gambin B., Trawiński Z., Secomski W., Szubielski M., Tymkiewicz R., Olszewski R., Radial Artery Reactive Response And Shear Rate Measurements Using 20 MHz System, IUS 2018, 2018 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, 2018-10-22/10-25, KOBE (JP), pp.1-4, 2018

Abstract:
The article attempts to select an ultrasound system to assess of endothelium dysfunction-dependent flow mediated dilation (FMD) and shear rate (SR) in radial artery after several minutes of hyperaemia. Methods: We compare the effective axial resolution and Doppler sensitivity of the standard US working below 12 MHz and high frequency (close to 20 MHz) scanning systems measuring the vessel diameter and blood flow measurements in radial arteries. FMD and FMD and SR were measured in Control group of 14 healthy volunteers, and in 13 with stable coronary artery diseases (CAD). Results: In a laboratory experiment of imaging two closely spaced food plastic foils, over three times better axial resolution was demonstrated for the 20 MHz ultrasound system in which the resolution was close to 0.1 mm. Also the sensitivity of the external single 20 MHz pulse Doppler transducer proved to be over 20 dB better (in terms of signalto-noise ratio) than the pulse Doppler incorporated into the L14-5 linear array. FMD in Control group was in the range of 8÷16% with mean±sd equal to 12.13 ± 2.34%; in CAD group FMD was in the range of 0.1÷7 % with mean±sd equal to 3.01±2.18% which was significantly less. FMD/SR was equal to 3.08 ± 1.34 × 10–4 in Control group and 1.01 ± 0.76 × 10–4 in CAD group with ranges equal to 1.66 ÷ 7.8× 10–4 and 0.4 ÷ 2.4× 10–4, respectively. Conclusions: Increasing scanning and Doppler mode frequency to 20 MHz improved the precision of FMD and SR measurements. Statistically significant differences between the two groups were confirmed by statistical tests for FMD and FMD/SR with p-values < 0.05. The results obtained suggest the usefulness of the proposed ultrasonic system for measurements of FMD and SR in the radial artery to differentiate normal subjects from those with CAD.

Keywords:
radial artery; shear rate; reactive hyperaemia; endothelium, pulsed Doppler

169.Kwasniak P., Mizera J., Pęcherski R.B., STACKING FAULTS IN HEXAGONAL TI ALLOYS – LOCAL INSTABILITY OF CRYSTAL LATTICE AND ITS EFFECT ON SOLUTION STRENGTHENING , SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.246-247, 2018
Kwasniak P., Mizera J., Pęcherski R.B., STACKING FAULTS IN HEXAGONAL TI ALLOYS – LOCAL INSTABILITY OF CRYSTAL LATTICE AND ITS EFFECT ON SOLUTION STRENGTHENING , SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.246-247, 2018

Abstract:
Stacking faults are the special regions of the crystal structure that exhibit non-uniform structure and diversified stability. Energy of this defects determines configurations of dislocation cores and type of predominant plastic deformation mechanism. In this study we focus on the generalised stacking fault energy computations of multi-slip-system hexagonal Ti alloys in the context of solution strengthening effect and the atomic as well as electronic structure identification of the analysed planar defects. The far reaching goal is to provide the physical and theoretical basis to answer the still unresolved question concerning the initiation of a micro-shear band in metallic solid.

Keywords:
stacking faults, hexagonal Ti alloys, instability of crystal lattice, solution strengthening, micro-shear band

170.Kwasniak P., Mizera J., Pęcherski R.B., Solid solution strengthening of hexagonal Ti alloys: structures, energies and Peierls barriers of type screw dislocations calculated from first principles , SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.248-249, 2018
Kwasniak P., Mizera J., Pęcherski R.B., Solid solution strengthening of hexagonal Ti alloys: structures, energies and Peierls barriers of type screw dislocations calculated from first principles , SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.248-249, 2018

Abstract:
Due to their finely balanced strength and density, hexagonal close-packed (hcp) metals such as Ti and Mg are perceived as potential prime elements for the production of new light, and strong alloys essential for the sustainable development of green technologies oriented towards a reduction in mass in all transport sectors. Nevertheless, the conscious design of materials requires information on the relationship between alloy elements and individual deformation mode activity. Such complex knowledge in the context of hcp systems remains a challenge, seriously hampering our ability to anticipate the strength and ductility of new materials developed. In general, hcp metals and alloys suffer from limited cold workability arising from reduced crystal symmetry (compared to cubic crystals) and from the geometrical relations between their dislocation glide planes. On the other hand, the unique properties of single phase hcp materials, such as great strength and reasonable ductility of α-Ti+O solutions and a pronounced solution softening of α-Mg+Y alloys demonstrate the great potential of this groups of materials. All these aspects provide incentive for exploring the physics of plastic deformation and solution strengthening theories.

Keywords:
Hexagonal Ti alloys, solid solution strengthening, Peierls barriers, screw dislocations, first principles calculations

171.Opiela K.C., Rak M., Zieliński T.G., A concept demonstrator of adaptive sound absorber/insulator involving microstructure-based modelling and 3D-printing, ISMA 2018 / USD 2018, International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering / International Conference on Uncertainty in Structural Dynamics, 2018-09-17/09-19, Leuven (BE), pp.1091-1103, 2018
Opiela K.C., Rak M., Zieliński T.G., A concept demonstrator of adaptive sound absorber/insulator involving microstructure-based modelling and 3D-printing, ISMA 2018 / USD 2018, International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering / International Conference on Uncertainty in Structural Dynamics, 2018-09-17/09-19, Leuven (BE), pp.1091-1103, 2018

Abstract:
The purpose of this work is to present and investigate the concept of adaptive sound absorbers, that is, periodic porous media with modifiable micro-geometry, so that their ability of sound absorption or insulation can be changed in various frequency ranges. To demonstrate this concept, a simple periodic porous micro-geometry with small bearing balls inside pores is proposed. By a simple positioning of the periodic porous sample the gravity force is used for the small balls to close some of the windows linking the pores, changing in that way the flow path inside pores, which entails significant modifications of the relevant parameters of permeability and tortuosity. Also the viscous characteristic length is changed, while the porosity as well as the thermal characteristic length remain unchanged. Nevertheless, such significant changes of some crucial transport parameters strongly affect the overall acoustic wave propagation in the porous medium. All this is studied using an advanced dual-scale modelling as well as experimental testing of 3D-printed specimens.

172.Zieliński T.G., Galland M.-A., Deckers E., Influencing the wave-attenuating coupling of solid and fluid phases in poroelastic layers using piezoelectric inclusions and locally added masses, ISMA 2018 / USD 2018, International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering / International Conference on Uncertainty in Structural Dynamics, 2018-09-17/09-19, Leuven (BE), pp.1195-1207, 2018
Zieliński T.G., Galland M.-A., Deckers E., Influencing the wave-attenuating coupling of solid and fluid phases in poroelastic layers using piezoelectric inclusions and locally added masses, ISMA 2018 / USD 2018, International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering / International Conference on Uncertainty in Structural Dynamics, 2018-09-17/09-19, Leuven (BE), pp.1195-1207, 2018

Abstract:
When airborne acoustic waves penetrate porous media their carrier becomes the air in pores, but also the solid skeleton - provided that it is sufficiently soft. Then, there is a coupled propagation of fluid-borne and solid-borne waves in a poroelastic medium. The coupling of fluid and solid phases of such media can be responsible for significantly better or weaker sound absorption in medium and lower frequency ranges. It has been observed that adding some well-localised small mass inclusions inside a poroelastic layer may improve its acoustic absorption in some medium frequency range, however, at the same time the absorption is usually decreased at some slightly higher frequencies. This situation can be improved by applying additionally an active approach using small piezoelectric inclusions which actively influence the vibrations of the solid skeleton with added masses, so that the interaction between the solid-borne and fluid-borne waves is always directed for a better mutual energy dissipation of the both types of waves.

173.Rojek J., Madan N., Nosewicz S., Zubelewicz A., The deformable discrete element method, 6th European Conference on Computational Mechanics (ECCM 6), 7th European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics (ECFD 7), 2018-06-11/06-15, Glasgow (GB), pp.1, 2018
Rojek J., Madan N., Nosewicz S., Zubelewicz A., The deformable discrete element method, 6th European Conference on Computational Mechanics (ECCM 6), 7th European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics (ECFD 7), 2018-06-11/06-15, Glasgow (GB), pp.1, 2018

Keywords:
Discrete Element Method, Deformable Particles, Nonlocal Contact Model, Poisson's Effect

174.Zieliński T.G., Opiela K.C., Multiscale and multiphysics modelling of an adaptive material for sound absorption, COMSOL CONFERENCE, 2018-10-22/10-24, Lausanne (CH), pp.1-2, 2018
175.Červenka M., Bednařík M., Zieliński T.G., Direct numerical simulation of sound absorption in porous media, Euronoise 2018 - 11th European Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering, 2018-05-27/05-31, Hersonissos (GR), pp.59-54, 2018
Červenka M., Bednařík M., Zieliński T.G., Direct numerical simulation of sound absorption in porous media, Euronoise 2018 - 11th European Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering, 2018-05-27/05-31, Hersonissos (GR), pp.59-54, 2018

Abstract:
Numerical simulation of absorption of sound in porous media is an important part of the design of the treatments for the environmental noise reduction. In the porous media, the mechanical energy carried by sound is dissipated by thermo-viscous interactions with the solid surface of the media frame, which usually has complicated geometry at the microscopic (sub-millimetre) scale. In order to be able to absorb the acoustic energy at the low frequencies of interest, a layer of porous material must be rather thick (at the order of centimetres). This is why direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the sound absorption in porous media is a rather computationally challenging task because small geometrical details must be properly resolved in a large computational domain. In order to avoid these difficulties, simplified semi-phenomenological models introducing so called effective fluid have been proposed. For example, the Johnson-Champoux-Allard-Pride-Lafarge (JCAPL) model is based on eight parameters which can be measured or calculated based on the media micro-structural geometry. Within this work, we compare the numerical results obtained by the 3D DNS with the prediction of the JCAPL model in case of several porous media represented by closely-packed spheres. The DNS calculations are performed using the linearised Navier-Stokes equations for layers of spheres of different thicknesses, the parameters for the JCAPL model are calculated subsequently using Laplace, Poisson, and Stokes flow analyses on a representative volume element of the media. Very good agreement between the results has been found.

176.Dera W., Method for lateral force calibration in AFM and its applications, Nanosurf user meeting, 2018-11-05/11-06, Bazylea (CH), pp.1, 2018
Dera W., Method for lateral force calibration in AFM and its applications, Nanosurf user meeting, 2018-11-05/11-06, Bazylea (CH), pp.1, 2018

Abstract:
Method for lateral force calibration in AFM and its applications.

177.Dera W., Dziekoński C., Jarząbek D.M., Manufacturing Method and Characterization of mechanical properties of laminated metal nanocomposites with graded layer thickness, TMS 2018, 147th Annual Meeting and Exhibition, 2018-03-11/03-15, Phoenix (US), pp.1, 2018
178.Nowak Z., Nowak M., Pęcherski R., Application of the shock wave theory for the assessment of crushing force in the open-cell copper foams, ICPS5 , 5th International Conference on Protective Structures, 2018-08-19/08-23, Poznań (PL), pp.714-717, 2018
Nowak Z., Nowak M., Pęcherski R., Application of the shock wave theory for the assessment of crushing force in the open-cell copper foams, ICPS5 , 5th International Conference on Protective Structures, 2018-08-19/08-23, Poznań (PL), pp.714-717, 2018

Abstract:
Metallic open-cell foams have excellent potential characteristics as impact energy absorbers due to their ability to deform over a long stroke at an almost constant load. Under intensive dynamic load, the compaction waves travelling through the material cause a strength and energy absorption enhancement. The subject of the study is the model of virtual metallic foam with the skeleton formed of convex cells.The computed tomography make the basis for the numerical model and and the finite element discretization of the skeleton. The goal of the presented investigations is to study the propagation of compaction waves, the impact limits and absorption energy of open-cell copper foam.The shock state variables derived from analytical Hugoniot relation and the conservation laws can be used for comparison with FEM simulations. The primary outcome of the research is the assessment of the crushing force in the open-cell metallic foams that is obtained on the basis of virtual material concept with use of the known shock waves theory.

Keywords:
open-cell copper foams, shock wave theory, crushing force, finite element calculations

179.Pęcherski R.B., Nowak Z., Postek E., The concept of virtual cellular material in peridynamic modelling of deformation processes, ICPS5 , 5th International Conference on Protective Structures, 2018-08-19/08-23, Poznań (PL), pp.718-721, 2018
Pęcherski R.B., Nowak Z., Postek E., The concept of virtual cellular material in peridynamic modelling of deformation processes, ICPS5 , 5th International Conference on Protective Structures, 2018-08-19/08-23, Poznań (PL), pp.718-721, 2018

Abstract:
The study of modern cellular materials due to complexity of their internal structure requires the application of efficient computational methods. One of such methods developed in the last 10 years is peridynamics. This approach resulted in the parallelized code that is used in presented analysis. The subject of the study are alumina foams produced by gelcasting method and metallic cellular materials that can be produced in the process of additive manufacturing. The results of microtomoraphy are used to create numerical model reconstructing the structure of foam skeleton. In this way an example of virtual cellular material is obtained. The peridynamic modelling is applied to investigate dynamic damage process under axial compression.

Keywords:
virtual cellular material, peridynamic modelling, cellular skeleton, deformation and damage simulations, alumina foams, additive manufacturing

180.Kowalski T., Faraj R., Graczykowski C., Hinc K., Mikułowski G., Pawłowski P., Wołejsza Z., Development of adaptive airbags for emergency landing of small uav, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.1-2, 2018
181.Faraj R., Graczykowski C., Holnicki-Szulc J., Investigations on shock-absorbers for small airdrop systems, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.1-2, 2018
182.Graczykowski C., Faraj R., Self-adaptive fluid-based absorbers for impact mitigation and vibration damping , ISMA 2018 / USD 2018, International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering / International Conference on Uncertainty in Structural Dynamics, 2018-09-17/09-19, Leuven (BE), pp.217-228, 2018
Graczykowski C., Faraj R., Self-adaptive fluid-based absorbers for impact mitigation and vibration damping , ISMA 2018 / USD 2018, International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering / International Conference on Uncertainty in Structural Dynamics, 2018-09-17/09-19, Leuven (BE), pp.217-228, 2018

Abstract:
The paper presents development of innovative, self-adaptive, fluid-based absorbers and investigation of
their application for mitigation of impacts and forced vibrations. The considered absorbers are composed
of two chambers filled with fluid and separated by a piston equipped with a controllable valve. The valve
enables control of the fluid flow between the chambers and adjustment of the actual value of force
generated by the absorber. The aim of the research is to develop the strategy of valve control providing
self-adaptive operation of the absorber ensuring dissipation of submitted energy by using minimal value of
generated force. The paper includes description of self-adaptive impact absorber, presentation of the
control system and numerical simulation of its effectiveness in the case of impact excitation and harmonic
loading. It is concluded that self-adaptive system provides optimal mitigation of impact excitation, but its
response in the case of harmonic loading is not always optimal and requires further improvement.

183.Orlowska A., Graczykowski C., Gałęzia A., Numerical and experimental investigation of prestress effect on natural frequencies of composite beams, ISMA 2018 / USD 2018, International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering / International Conference on Uncertainty in Structural Dynamics, 2018-09-17/09-19, Leuven (BE), pp.2239-2248, 2018
Orlowska A., Graczykowski C., Gałęzia A., Numerical and experimental investigation of prestress effect on natural frequencies of composite beams, ISMA 2018 / USD 2018, International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering / International Conference on Uncertainty in Structural Dynamics, 2018-09-17/09-19, Leuven (BE), pp.2239-2248, 2018

Abstract:
The paper analyzes the influence of prestressing force on the natural frequencies on Glass Fibre
Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) composite beams. Prestress is introduced by applying initial tensile forces to
the fibres embedded in selected layer of the composite material during the manufacturing process. Release
of prestressing forces results in deformation and self-equilibrated state of stress of the entire composite
which changes both its static properties and dynamic characteristics. The paper is focused on analysis of
shifts in natural frequencies corresponding to initial bending modes of the composite beams of various
fibre volume fraction and prestressed layer location. The problem is analyzed with the use of finite
element simulations and experimental modal analysis. The conducted numerical and experimental work
reveals that shifts in the natural frequencies caused by non-axial prestressing can be significant and they
are important phenomenon which has to be taken into account during design of the composite material.

184.Wołejsza Z., Holnicki-Szulc J., Graczykowski C., Hinc K., Faraj R., Kowalski T., Mikułowski G., Kaźmierczak K., Wiszowaty R., Pawłowski P., Dynamics and control of adaptive airbags for UAV impact protection, ISMA 2018 / USD 2018, International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering / International Conference on Uncertainty in Structural Dynamics, 2018-09-17/09-19, Leuven (BE), pp.3661-3670, 2018
Wołejsza Z., Holnicki-Szulc J., Graczykowski C., Hinc K., Faraj R., Kowalski T., Mikułowski G., Kaźmierczak K., Wiszowaty R., Pawłowski P., Dynamics and control of adaptive airbags for UAV impact protection, ISMA 2018 / USD 2018, International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering / International Conference on Uncertainty in Structural Dynamics, 2018-09-17/09-19, Leuven (BE), pp.3661-3670, 2018

Abstract:
Small drones with total mass of a few kilograms are becoming more and more popular in many
applications increasing the probability of occurrence of emergency situations caused by an equipment
failure or a human error. In case of a fall from a high altitude very often it is possible to use parachute
rescue systems, which however require relatively long time for deployment and development of braking
forces. The touchdown velocity may be large enough to exceed limit accelerations for UAV equipment.
The paper presents the concept of deployable airbag systems, in particular with adaptive flow control,
which provides a possible solution to the above-mentioned problems. The paper discusses the overall
control and adaptation strategy. Simplified methods for mathematical modeling are proposed and
formulated for an example on a cylindrical airbag. The conceptual part is concluded with the presentation
of the methodology of experimental verification and results of initial tests of the integrated airbag system.

185.Manecka A., Pęcherski R.B., Stateczność sprężysta jednowymiarowych nanostruktur.Problem of elastic stability of one-dimensional nanostructures., WDZYDZEANUM 2018, 6th WDZYDZEANUM WORKSHOP ON „FLUID – SOLID INTERACTION” , 2018-09-02/09-04, Wdzydze Kiszewskie (PL), pp.1-1, 2018
Manecka A., Pęcherski R.B., Stateczność sprężysta jednowymiarowych nanostruktur.Problem of elastic stability of one-dimensional nanostructures., WDZYDZEANUM 2018, 6th WDZYDZEANUM WORKSHOP ON „FLUID – SOLID INTERACTION” , 2018-09-02/09-04, Wdzydze Kiszewskie (PL), pp.1-1, 2018

Abstract:
Przedstawiono zagadnienie efektu skali występującego w nieliniowej teorii sprężystości. Omówiono uwzględnienie efektu skali do badań stateczności jednowymiarowych nanostruktur na przykładzie nanoprętów i nanorurek węglowych. Przedstawiono problematykę zjawiska utraty stateczności w ujęciu nieliniowym oraz zaprezentowano, wynikające z wyprowadzonych zależności, postacie postbifurkacyjne (elastyki) z wykorzystaniem oprogramowania Wolfram Mathematica. Omówiono analizę zachowania jednowymiarowego ciała pod wpływem obciążenia ściskającego oraz samodzielne wyprowadzone wzory na krzywiznę nanopręta z uwzględnieniem efektu skali. Porównano wyniki teorii nieliniowej z uwzględnieniem efektu skali oraz bez jego uwzględnienia i przedstawiono je w postaci wykresów wygenerowanych w programie Wolfram Mthematica. Przedyskutowano możliwe zastosowania otrzymanych wyników w technicznych problemach nanotechnologii.

Keywords:
jednowymiarowe struktury, nanopręty, nanorurki węglowe, nieliniowy problem statecznosci, efekt skali, elastyka

186.Pęcherski R.B., Koncepcja energetycznej miary wytężenia według Jerzego Zawadzkiego The concept of energy-based measure of material effort according to Jerzy Zawadzki , WDZYDZEANUM 2018, 6th WDZYDZEANUM WORKSHOP ON „FLUID – SOLID INTERACTION” , 2018-09-02/09-04, Wdzydze Kiszewskie (PL), pp.1-1, 2018
Pęcherski R.B., Koncepcja energetycznej miary wytężenia według Jerzego Zawadzkiego The concept of energy-based measure of material effort according to Jerzy Zawadzki , WDZYDZEANUM 2018, 6th WDZYDZEANUM WORKSHOP ON „FLUID – SOLID INTERACTION” , 2018-09-02/09-04, Wdzydze Kiszewskie (PL), pp.1-1, 2018

Abstract:
Celem pracy jest upowszechnienie oryginalnej koncepcji hipotezy wytężenia, opierającej się na podstawowych założeniach i prawach fizyki ciała stałego, która została zaproponowana blisko pół wieku temu przez ucznia Włodzimierza Burzyńskiego - Jerzego Zawadzkiego. Zawadzki wyprowadził, na gruncie równań fizyki metali oraz fizyki polimerów, miarę wytężenia jako przyrost właściwej energii swobodnej. Daje to możliwość uwzględnienia zmian entropii w czasie procesu odkształcenia, co dla polimerów jest szczególnie istotne. Przewodnią myśl Zawadzkiego można przedstawić następująco. Jeżeli ciało odkształcalne zostaje obciążone, wzrasta jego energia sprężysta w wyniku zmian odległości między atomami lub molekułami. Innymi słowy, dla ciał izotropowych, energia zmian postaciowych i objętościowych ulega zmianie. Nie jest to jedyna zmiana, gdyż w także energia drgań atomów wokół położeń równowagi także się zwiększa, co w konsekwencji może powodować przejście ze stanu sprężystego w stan odkształcenia plastycznego. Ten trafny argument znalazł swoje potwierdzenie w rozwiniętej w późniejszych latach teorii termicznie aktywowanego ruchu dyslokacji jako fizykalnego mechanizmu odpowiedzialnego za proces deformacji lepkoplastycznych.Rozważania przytoczone w pracy Zawadzkiego doprowadziły do wyprowadzenia różnych form energetycznej hipotezy wytężenia. Autor przedyskutował także szczegółowo porównanie własnych kryteriów sprężystych stanów granicznych z tymi, które były dyskutowane wcześniej przez Hubera, Hubera i Beltramiego jak również Burzyńskiego oraz Schleichera.

Keywords:
energetyczna miara wytężenia, przyrost właściwej energii swobodnej jako miara wytężenia, fizyka metali, fizyka polimerów

187.Secomski W., Klimonda Z., Majka K., Olszewski R., Nowicki A., Sonothrombolysis - Dissolving Thrombi by Interaction of the Drug and Ultrasound, IEEE 2018, IEEE Joint Conference - Acoustics, 2018-09-11/09-14, Ustka (PL), DOI: 10.1109/ACOUSTICS.2018.8502412 , pp.290-293, 2018
Secomski W., Klimonda Z., Majka K., Olszewski R., Nowicki A., Sonothrombolysis - Dissolving Thrombi by Interaction of the Drug and Ultrasound, IEEE 2018, IEEE Joint Conference - Acoustics, 2018-09-11/09-14, Ustka (PL), DOI: 10.1109/ACOUSTICS.2018.8502412 , pp.290-293, 2018

Abstract:
Under the influence of pathological changes, the blood coagulates inside the blood vessel, creating a thrombus. The thrombus dissolution process is called thrombolysis. The aim of the study is to evaluate the thrombolysis process by the interaction of the thrombolitic drug and ultrasound. The clot dissolution process was analyzed in a specially designed, transparent for ultrasound parallel plate flow chamber. Inside, a freshly coagulated human blood sample was exposed to ultrasound. A liquid containing the tissue plasminogen activator drug in a concentration of 10 μg/ml passed around the sample. The liquid flow was forced by a peristaltic pump. The source of ultrasound was a 1 MHz flat ultrasonic transducer with a 25 mm diameter. The transducer radiated a 1000 periods burst, repeated every 2500 periods and space averaged time averaged intensities of 0.2-1.6 W/cm2. The efficacy of thrombus dissolution was observed by means of a designed parallel plate flow chamber and the time of thrombus complete dissolution was measured. The best result for the 1 MHz frequency and space averaged time averaged intensity of 1.6 W/cm2 was recorded, where the thrombus was dissolved within 5.5 minutes.

Keywords:
ultrasound, blood, thrombus, thrombolysis, parallel plate flow chamber,

188.Klimonda Z., Dobruch-Sobczak K., Piotrzkowska-Wróblewska H., Karwat P., Litniewski J., Quantitative Ultrasound of Tumor Surrounding Tissue for Enhancement of Breast Cancer Diagnosis, IWBBIO 2018, 6th International Work-Conference, 2018-04-25/04-27, Granada (ES), DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-78759-6_18, Vol.10814, pp.186-197, 2018
Klimonda Z., Dobruch-Sobczak K., Piotrzkowska-Wróblewska H., Karwat P., Litniewski J., Quantitative Ultrasound of Tumor Surrounding Tissue for Enhancement of Breast Cancer Diagnosis, IWBBIO 2018, 6th International Work-Conference, 2018-04-25/04-27, Granada (ES), DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-78759-6_18, Vol.10814, pp.186-197, 2018

Abstract:
Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in female patients. The quantitative ultrasound techniques being developed recently provide useful information facilitating the classification of tumors as malignant or benign. Quantitative parameters are typically determined on the basis of signals scattered within the tumor. The present paper demonstrates the utility of quantitative data estimated based on signal backscatter in the tissue surrounding the tumor. Two quantitative parameters, weighted entropy and Nakagami shape parameter were calculated from the backscatter signal envelope. The ROC curves and the AUC parameter values were used to assess their ability to classify neoplastic lesions. Results indicate that data from tissue surrounding the tumor may characterize it better than data from within the tumor. AUC values were on average 18% higher for parameters calculated from data collected from the tissue surrounding the lesion than from the data from the lesion itself.

Keywords:
uantitative ultrasound, Tissue characterisation, Tumor classification

189.Bajerski P., Chudy D., Pęcherski R.B., Jarecki L., Crystallization kinetics of polyamide 2200 in the modeling of additive manufacturing processes by fe analyses, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.218-219, 2018
Bajerski P., Chudy D., Pęcherski R.B., Jarecki L., Crystallization kinetics of polyamide 2200 in the modeling of additive manufacturing processes by fe analyses, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.218-219, 2018

Abstract:
Additive Manufacturing (AM) process is a very fast and promising technique to build various very complex prototypes and components directly in the industry. One can choose different techniques of AM like Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) dedicated for thermoplastic materials or Direct Laser Metal Sintering (DMLS) for powder metals, or Stereolitography Apparatus (SLA) for thermosets. One of the most common techniques in AM are SLS and FFF for thermoplastic materials. The complexity of the processes and the behaviour of the materials in specific environment have a strong influence on the quality, strength and warpage of the obtained structures. The state of the art of the studies indicates that morphology of the material and the crystallization processes influence the aforementioned characteristics of the created components. The knowledge on the crystallization kinetics of polymers is known since many years but it is still developing in order to get an adequate description of the behaviour of the materials in isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. Furthermore, it is needed to predict the warpage of manufactured components based on the virtual AM process in order to decrease the costs. The available tools dedicated for FE analyses allow to increase functionality and implementation of own material models and techniques to perform the customize simulations. Based on the theory and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results it is possible to predict the behaviour of the materials and start working on simulation of the virtual AM process [1-4]. The extracted curves of the velocity of material crystallization in temperature domain with different cooling rate obtained in FE simulations are shown in Fig. 1. The simulated curves are confronted with the DSC experimental results.

Keywords:
crystallization kinetics, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), polyamide 2200, additive manufacturing, FE analysis

190.Nosewicz S., Rojek J., Wawrzyk K., Kowalczyk P., Maciejewski G., Maździarz M., Multiscale modeling of sintering process of mixture of two-phase powder, 8th KMM-VIN Industrial Workshop: Modelling of composite materials and composite coatings, 2018-10-09/10-10, Freiburg (DE), pp.1-1, 2018
191.Kowalczyk-Gajewska K., Maździarz M., Two-phase mean-field estimate for the effective stiffness tensor of nanocrystalline materials of cubic symmetry, SES2018, 55th Annual Technical Meeting of the Society of Engineering Science, 2018-10-10/10-12, Madrid, Spain (ES), pp.1, 2018
192.Piechocka I.K., Wolska N., Luzak B., Kowalewski T.A., The role of in vitro fibrinogen glycation on FXIII-induced crosslinking and shear flow clot response, Jülich Soft Matter Days 2018, 2018-11-20/11-23, Jülich (DE), pp.155, 2018
193.Grigoryan N., Fourier modal method analysis of light interactions with binary dielectric gratings, IONS Yerevan , 2018-08-30/09-02, Yerevan (AM), pp.1-1, 2018
194.Zawidzki M., Szklarski J., The Ideal House - multicriterial optimization of a Single Family House , The 10th International Conference on Engineering Computational Technology, 2018-09-04/09-06, Barcelona (ES), pp.1-2, 2018
Zawidzki M., Szklarski J., The Ideal House - multicriterial optimization of a Single Family House , The 10th International Conference on Engineering Computational Technology, 2018-09-04/09-06, Barcelona (ES), pp.1-2, 2018

Abstract:
Architectural design is particularly difficult, because it must combine multicriterial engineering optimization with other types of challenges, such as aesthetic and psychological which are usually ill-defined and arbitrary. Single-family house (SFH) is an archetypal architectural problem. Not only because it deals with creating of a habitat for the basic social cell, but also in a nutshell represents the entire spectrum of issues prevailing to architecture. That is environmental, both natural and artificial conditions. Since the scale of this classic problem is relatively small, it is usually manageable by a single architect. Nevertheless, the design conditions (natural and symbolical) are relatively diverse which inspire architects' imagination. This makes SFH probably the most favorable and pleasurable type of architectural design among the architects. In this multicriterial optimization certain aspects are to be minimized (e.g. noise exposition, glare, overheating, etc.) and others to be maximized (e.g. functionality, privacy, etc.). Moreover, some aspects of design have discrete nature (e.g. the functional relationships among rooms), while other are continuous (insolation, etc.). This paper presents preliminary results of the multicriterial architectural optimization of a SFH. A two-step algorithm has been applied: at first, a graph-theoretical combinatorial search produces a set of “good” architectural layouts, which are next evaluated against environmental conditions (noise, insolation and view exposition).

Keywords:
architectural optimization, brute-force, GPU, multicriterial

195.Zawidzki M., Geometrical Universality of Truss-Z System, ICGG 2018, The 18th International Conference on Geometry and Graphics, 2018-08-03/08-07, Mediolan (IT), pp.1167-1176, 2018
Zawidzki M., Geometrical Universality of Truss-Z System, ICGG 2018, The 18th International Conference on Geometry and Graphics, 2018-08-03/08-07, Mediolan (IT), pp.1167-1176, 2018

Abstract:
Standardization and modularization are common means of simplification and economization of engineering structures. Extremely modular systems (EMS) are comprised of very few (ideally just one) types of modules and allow for creation of structurally sound free-form constructions. Truss-Z (TZ) is the EMS considered in this paper. It is a skeletal system for creating free-form pedestrian ramps and ramp networks among any number of terminals in space. TZ structures are composed of four variations of a single basic unit subjected to affine transformations (mirror reflection, rotation and their combination). A family of shapes including: isosceles quadrilaterals (concave and convex), regular and irregular kites and darts, isosceles triangles and trapezoids has been considered for the planar projection of Truss-Z modules (TZMs). It has been shown that isosceles triangles and trapezoids suit best TZ. The universality of TZM has been assessed by measurement of the egularity of distribution reachable points by given TZ built with several such TZMs. It has been shown
that the vertex angle (h) of 32.5° gives the most regularly distributed, thus universal TZ.

Keywords:
Truss-Z, Extremely modular system, Isosceles quadrilateral Regularity

196.Bielski W., Kowalczyk P., Wojnar R., Thermal stresses and two temperature heat transfer, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.234-235, 2018
197.Wojnar R., Movement of coincidence grain boundaries with sigma = 7,13,19,...,49,...,91,...: from isotropy to anisotropy, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.250-251, 2018
198.Bielski W., Wojnar R., Plane flow through the porous medium with chessboard-like distribution of permeability, 2nd Workshop on Porous Media, 2018-06-28/06-30, Olsztyn (PL), pp.7, 2018
199.Larecki W., Role of nonlinearity of the phonon dispersion relation in the wave-type phonon heat transport, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.244-245, 2018
Larecki W., Role of nonlinearity of the phonon dispersion relation in the wave-type phonon heat transport, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.244-245, 2018

Abstract:
The heat transport in non-metallic micro- and nanostructures is predominantly due to phonon processes, and therefore it can be analysed in terms of a flow of a phonon gas. Phonons are quantized lattice vibrations characterized by wave-vectors k from the first Brillouin zone and by the k dependent frequency ω. For simplicity, a single-branch phonon model is adopted, and consequently phonon polarizations are neglected. The dispersion relation ω(k) together with the relaxation times associated with normal and resistive phonon scattering processes determine the behaviour of a phonon gas. The commonly used linear isotropic approximation of the phonon dispersion relation ω(k) = c ǀkǀ employed in the phonon gas hydrodynamics leads to the constant speeds of thermal waves propagating into the region in thermal equilibrium. This contradicts the experimental results on the second sound propagation in solids.
The nonlinearity of the phonon dispersion relation significantly influences the thermal properties of micro- and nanostructures. Several forms of the nonlinear phonon dispersion relation ω(k) have been suggested for various structures and substrates in the literature, motivated either by empirical data or by the first-principle calculations. In micro- and nanostructures, the wave-type heat transport has been observed at low and elevated temperatures with temperature dependent propagation speeds. Hence, the phonon gas hydrodynamics employing the linear isotropic approximation of phonon dispersion relation seems to be inadequate in such cases. The governing conservation equations for energy and the quasi-momentum (understood as a vector internal state variable) are determined by the entropy function and by the additional scalar potential. Both, the entropy function and the additional potential are given by integral formulae involving the nonlinear isotropic phonon dispersion relation. Approximation of the finite domain of phonon wave-vectors by whole space R3 eliminates the additional potential and simplifies the form of conservation equations. For this approximation, the propagation of the waves of weak discontinuity into the region in thermal equilibrium has been analysed, and the dependence of the wave speeds on the temperature in a region ahead the wave front has been determined. In order to compare predictions of the theory derived with the second sound experimental data from the literature, the nonlinear isotropic phonon dispersion relation ǀkǀ = ω c-1 (1+b ω2) is adopted. For the values of the parameters c and b for NaF and Bi given in the literature, the dependence of the speed of weak discontinuity wave on the temperature ahead the wave front has been calculated and compared with the experimentally measured second sound velocity as a function of the sample temperature, and with the calculations based on the alternative second sound theory. Our results are in good agreement with the experimental data as well as with the known theoretical predictions, and show that the nonlinearity of the phonon dispersion relation plays the crucial role in the effect of temperature dependence of thermal wave speeds.

Keywords:
phonon gas, phonon dispersion, phonon heat transport, second sound, nanostructures

200.Pawłowska S., Pierini F., Nakielski P., Piechocka I., Zembrzycki K., Kowalewski T.A., Hydrogel nanofilaments in oscillatory microchannel flow, ISFV 18, 18th International Symposium on Flow Visualization, 2018-06-26/06-29, Zurich (CH), pp.233-235, 2018
201.Olszewski R., Szubielski M., Parol M., Gambin B., Secomski W., Trawiński Z., Nowicki A., Are radial artery flow mediation dilatation and shear rate the new imaging biomarkers in patients with stage B heart failure?, World Congress on Acute Heart Failure, 2018-05-26/05-29, Vienna (AT), DOI: 10.1002/ejhf.1197, Vol.20 (S1), pp.568, 2018
202.Secomski W., Klimonda Z., Majka K., Olszewski R., Nowicki A., Microscopic examination of the sonothrombolysis process inside the transparent to ultrasound parallel plate flow chamber, IUS 2018, 2018 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, 2018-10-22/10-25, KOBE (JP), pp.754-754, 2018
Secomski W., Klimonda Z., Majka K., Olszewski R., Nowicki A., Microscopic examination of the sonothrombolysis process inside the transparent to ultrasound parallel plate flow chamber, IUS 2018, 2018 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, 2018-10-22/10-25, KOBE (JP), pp.754-754, 2018

Abstract:

203.Nowicki A., Gambin B., Trawiński Z., Secomski W., Szubielski M., Parol M., Olszewski R., Radial Artery Reactive Response And Shear Rate Measurements Using 20 MHz System, IUS 2018, 2018 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, 2018-10-22/10-25, KOBE (JP), pp.857-857, 2018
204.Dziekoński C., Jarząbek D.M., Dera W., The investigation of fracture of Silicon nanopillars: study of intrinsic and external size effect., FFW, 7th International Conference on Fracture Fatigue and Wear, 2018-07-09/07-10, Ghent (BE), pp.1, 2018
Dziekoński C., Jarząbek D.M., Dera W., The investigation of fracture of Silicon nanopillars: study of intrinsic and external size effect., FFW, 7th International Conference on Fracture Fatigue and Wear, 2018-07-09/07-10, Ghent (BE), pp.1, 2018

Abstract:
A material strength depends on its microstructure, which in turn, is controlled by an engineering
process. Quantification strongly depends on the characteristic length scale of a particular
microstructure. This microstructural, or intrinsic, size governs the mechanical properties and post-
elastic material deformation at all sample dimensions, as the classical definition of ultimate tensile
strength deems it to be an intensive property, therefore its value does not depend on the size of the
test specimen. However, in the last years, the vast majority of uniaxial deformation experiments and
computations on small-scale structures unambiguously demonstrated that at the micron and sub-
micron scales, this definition no longer holds true.
Study focuses on the both the intrinsic (i.e. microstructural, internal size effect) and extrinsic (i.e.
sample size, external size effect) dimensions which play a non-trivial role in the mechanical properties
and material deformation mechanisms, it is critical to develop an understanding of their interplay and
mutual effects on the mechanical properties and material deformation, especially in small-scale
structures. To obtain its properties and the influence of scale in this study, nanopillars made from
silicon was made and then tested under atomic force microscope in lateral force microscopy (LMF)
mode. The nanopillars were sheared using AFM probes and then with knowledge of shear force the
mechanical properties were obtained. Nanopillars varied in pillar diameter and grain size. The study is
focused on the investigation of mutual dependence fracture strength due to grain size and pillar
diameter.

205.Dziekoński C., Manufacturing Method and Material Characterization of Nanocrystalline Nickel Coatings with Gradient Grain Size., TMS 2018, 147th Annual Meeting and Exhibition, 2018-03-11/03-15, Phoenix (US), pp.1, 2018
Dziekoński C., Manufacturing Method and Material Characterization of Nanocrystalline Nickel Coatings with Gradient Grain Size., TMS 2018, 147th Annual Meeting and Exhibition, 2018-03-11/03-15, Phoenix (US), pp.1, 2018

Abstract:
Nanocrystalline materials exhibit attractive mechanical properties compared to their coarse-grained counterparts. The values of these properties are mainly affected by the size of grains, so it is possible to control the properties of the material by controlling the grain size in the coating. Moreover, due to the fact that nanocrystalline coatings are often deposited on the coarse grained substrate there is sufficient influence of the grain size in the area close to the interface. Thus, a coating that would have a variable microstructure should have better mechanical properties. Hence, the aim of the presentation is to show the results of the investigation of gradient grain sized coatings of nanocrystalline Nickel fabricated using Pulsed Reversed Current electrodeposition. Gradient coatings have continuous change of grain size in the direction of deposition. The presentation focuses on the influence of the microstructure of the material on the strength and wear resistance.

206.Bukowicki M., Ekiel-Jeżewska M., Effect of bending on sedimentation of two deformable microparticles, Bulletin of the American Physical Society, ISSN: 0003-0503, Vol.63, No.13, pp.81, 2018
207.Bławzdziewicz J., Adamczyk Z., Ekiel-Jeżewska M., Streaming current for interfaces covered by clustered particle monolayers, Bulletin of the American Physical Society, ISSN: 0003-0503, pp.118-119, 2018
208.Ekiel-Jeżewska M.L., Gruca M., Bukowicki M., Particles sedimenting in a permeable medium, Bulletin of the American Physical Society, ISSN: 0003-0503, pp.368, 2018
209.Szymczak P., Gruziel-Słomka M., Kondratiuk P., Ekiel-Jeżewska M., Sedimentation of elastic loops in a viscous fluid, Bulletin of the American Physical Society, ISSN: 0003-0503, pp.368, 2018
210.Dobruch-Sobczak K., Piotrzkowska-Wróblewska H., Klimonda Z., Karwat P., Litniewski J., Roszkowska-Purska K., Markiewicz-Grodzicka E., Quantitative ultrasound parameters assessment of advanced breast cancer in evaluation the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 11TH EUROPEAN BREAST CANCER CONFERENCE, 2018-03-21/03-23, Barcelona (ES), DOI: 10.1016/S0959-8049(18)30674-9, Vol.92, pp.149-150, 2018
Dobruch-Sobczak K., Piotrzkowska-Wróblewska H., Klimonda Z., Karwat P., Litniewski J., Roszkowska-Purska K., Markiewicz-Grodzicka E., Quantitative ultrasound parameters assessment of advanced breast cancer in evaluation the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 11TH EUROPEAN BREAST CANCER CONFERENCE, 2018-03-21/03-23, Barcelona (ES), DOI: 10.1016/S0959-8049(18)30674-9, Vol.92, pp.149-150, 2018

Abstract:
Background: Monitoring of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in advanced breast cancer is crucial for assessing the effectiveness of the treatment and overall survival. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of classical ultrasound (US) examination and quantitative ultrasound (QU) parameters to predict the therapy response comparing to histology results after surgical treatment. Material and Methods: Two ultrasound backscatter parameters: the integrated backscatter coefficient, (IBSC) and shape parameter (M) of the homodyned K distribution, were estimated from ultrasonic radiofrequency (RF) signals. Sixteen patient with 22 breast cancer tumor treated with NAC sequential Anthracyclines and Taxanes were prospectively assessed. Data were acquired using 5–14 MHz array transducer, pre-chemotherapy, and four times during treatment (one week after the subsequent courses). The US results were compared with histological response analyzing the stromal changes and the cellularity of the tumor. Results: An increase in IBSC and decrease M parameters was observed in 80% of tumors with complete response after chemotherapy. It correlates with increasing the stromal elements, fibrosis, and elastosis. In patients with partial response, the parameters IBSC and M parameters did not change during subsequent cycles of treatment and allow predicting partial response in 70% of tumors. In pathological results, a similar cluster of cells without fibrosis and elastosis were observed. Conclusions: Ultrasound parameters derived from the RF data give the promise to predict the tumor response to NAC and better personalize the therapy using US QU examination. This study was supported by the National Science Centre, Poland, grant 2016/23/B/ST8/03391. No conflict of interest

211.Proniewska K., Pręgowska A., van Dam P., Szczepański J., Automated ECG and acoustic signal based diagnosis of sleep disorders, NFIC 2018, 19th Interventional Cardiology Workshop New Frontiers in Interventional Cardiology, 2018-12-06/12-06, Kraków (PL), pp.10-11, 2018
212.Starzyński G., Wykorzystanie profilometrii 3d do badań kontaktu powierzchni, XXIV Seminarium NIENISZCZĄCE BADANIA MATERIAŁÓW, 2018-03-14/03-16, Zakopane (PL), pp.59-77, 2018
213.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Wieja K., Love waves propagation in elastic waveguides loaded by viscoelastic media, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.240-241, 2018
Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Wieja K., Love waves propagation in elastic waveguides loaded by viscoelastic media, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.240-241, 2018

Abstract:
It is very important from a practical point of view, to develop new and accurate methods of measuring the rheological parameters (viscosity η, elasticity μ and density ρ) of plastics and polymers. New materials require new methods of measuring their rheological parameters. To evaluate the rheological parameters of plastics so far mechanical methods are used. These methods are cumbersome, outdated and destructive. The use of SH (Shear Horizontal) surface Love waves, to evaluate rheological parameters of polymers, does not possess these disadvantages. The objective of this work is to establish a mathematical model of propagation of Love waves in layered elastic waveguides covered on their surface with viscoelastic materials described by different viscoelastic models, i.e., Kelvin-Voigt, Newton and Maxwell models. To this end, we developed a complex dispersion equation for Love waves propagating in loaded waveguides and performed numerical calculations.

Keywords:
Viscoelasticity, Love waves, Kelvin-Voigt model, Maxwell model, Complex dispersion equation

214.Meissner M., Accuracy assessment of sound burst reproduction in small rectangular rooms, IAB2018, XXII Konferencja Inżynierii Akustycznej i Biomedycznej, 2018-04-10/04-13, Kraków-Zakopane (PL), pp.9-10, 2018
215.Dyniewicz B., Bajer C.I., Smart materials and structures with programmable mechanical properties, 26 Seminaire Franco-Polonais de Mecanique, 2018-05-14/05-15, Warszawa (PL), pp.21, 2018
216.Korczak I., Gambin B., Kruglenko E., Stabilizacja temperatury organu podczas zabiegu transplantacji, IAB2018, XXII Konferencja Inżynierii Akustycznej i Biomedycznej, 2018-04-10/04-13, Kraków-Zakopane (PL), No.1, pp.23, 2018
Korczak I., Gambin B., Kruglenko E., Stabilizacja temperatury organu podczas zabiegu transplantacji, IAB2018, XXII Konferencja Inżynierii Akustycznej i Biomedycznej, 2018-04-10/04-13, Kraków-Zakopane (PL), No.1, pp.23, 2018

Keywords:
hipotermia, transplantacja nerki, urządzenie do chłodzenia narządów

217.Bajkowski J.M., Dyniewicz B., Bajer Cz., Exploring properties on non-typical materials as a possible damping cores of smart beams, 26 Seminaire Franco-Polonais de Mecanique, 2018-05-14/05-15, Warszawa (PL), pp.49, 2018
218.Bajer C., Dyniewicz B., Space-time way to programmable materials, ETAMM 2018, Emerging Trends in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, 2018-06-18/06-22, Jagiellonian University in Krakow (PL), pp.84, 2018
219.Dyniewicz B., Bajkowski J.M., Bajer C., Vibration abatement using sandwich structure with a smart core, ETAMM 2018, Emerging Trends in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, 2018-06-18/06-22, Jagiellonian University in Krakow (PL), pp.85, 2018
220.Basista M., Modeling of fracture of chromium-alumina microcantilever beams in bending, THERMEC 2018, International Conference on PROCESSING & MANUFACTURING OF ADVANCED MATERIALS Processing, Fabrication, Properties, Applications, 2018-07-09/07-13, Paryż (FR), pp.1-1, 2018
221.Dyniewicz B., Bajer C.I., Dynamical behaviour of nonlinear structures under varying load, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.412-413, 2018
222.Bajer C., Non-Classical Problems in Structural Dynamics of Continuous Media, ETAMM 2018, Emerging Trends in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, 2018-06-18/06-22, Jagiellonian University in Krakow (PL), pp.82, 2018
223.Drozd J., Gambin B., Solidification of dental material Clearfil F2 described by composite rheological model, IAB2018, XXII Konferencja Inżynierii Akustycznej i Biomedycznej, 2018-04-10/04-13, Kraków-Zakopane (PL), No.1, pp.24 , 2018
Drozd J., Gambin B., Solidification of dental material Clearfil F2 described by composite rheological model, IAB2018, XXII Konferencja Inżynierii Akustycznej i Biomedycznej, 2018-04-10/04-13, Kraków-Zakopane (PL), No.1, pp.24 , 2018

Abstract:
Processes of polymerization, crystallization and phase changes in viscoelastic materials
are accompanied by a change of material parameters. In particular, viscoelastic
properties of dental restorations made from Clearfil F2 evolve from viscid, almost liquid
substance, to solid material during a short time of photo-polymerization. Below, a new
rheological model is used for description of curing of Clearfill F2. The model consists of
system of parallel and series connected springs and dashpots, which may adapt to the
degree of cure of the material. A method of the system adaptation to the curing process
bases on the concept of the „composite rheological models”. In this concept, the elastic
moduli and viscous coefficients are given as functions of two groups of new parameters.
The first group is called as inner structure coefficients, and the second group as the base
material properties. Relations (functions) between the new introduced parameters and
elastic moduli and viscosity coefficients are built using information of the model structure.
It is assumed that at each time step of the process, the inner structure coefficients
are changing, while the base material parameters remain constant. In the proposed model
the relaxation curve is available for each moment of the process. It is shown that the
numerical simulation of the model response is consistent with the published description
of the experimental polymerization of dental material Clearfil F2.

224.Radziejewska J., Podolak-Lejtas A., Application of Laser Pulse for Evolution of Surface Layer Integrity, AIP Conference Proceedings, ISSN: 0094-243X, DOI: 10.1063/1.5056289, Vol.020026, pp.020026-1-6, 2018
Radziejewska J., Podolak-Lejtas A., Application of Laser Pulse for Evolution of Surface Layer Integrity, AIP Conference Proceedings, ISSN: 0094-243X, DOI: 10.1063/1.5056289, Vol.020026, pp.020026-1-6, 2018

Abstract:
The paper presents the experimental results on the application laser pulses for evaluation of the surface layer integrity of materials and thin films. Short10 ns, strong 0.5-1.2 J pulses have been used to induce a stress wave in the tested materials. The stress wave induced plastic deformation of the surface of the tested materials and delamination of thin films. The hardness test was elaborated at a strain rate of 107 s-1. The method was used to evaluate dynamic hardness of typical materials. The achieved results showed good repeatability of the measured values, and the developed method proved to be sensitive to even small changes in the properties of the tested materials. The residual stresses of thin films using the LST (Laser Spallation Technique) method were also analyzed at work. The tests were carried out for PVD films on steel substrate. Based on the geometry of the separated film, the residual stresses in films can be determined with high accuracy. The residual stress value obtained by the LST method was consisted with XRD method.

225.Kruglenko E., Korczak I., Gambin B., Efektywność hipertermii ultradźwiękowej w agarowych wzorcach tkanki miękkiej domieszkowanych różnymi składnikami, IAB2018, XXII Konferencja Inżynierii Akustycznej i Biomedycznej, 2018-04-10/04-13, Kraków-Zakopane (PL), No.1, pp.24-25, 2018
Kruglenko E., Korczak I., Gambin B., Efektywność hipertermii ultradźwiękowej w agarowych wzorcach tkanki miękkiej domieszkowanych różnymi składnikami, IAB2018, XXII Konferencja Inżynierii Akustycznej i Biomedycznej, 2018-04-10/04-13, Kraków-Zakopane (PL), No.1, pp.24-25, 2018

Abstract:
Lokalna hipertermia, czyli podwyższenie temperatury tkanki w określonym miejscu do temperatury około 44 stopni C, spowodowana absorpcją dostarczonej z zewnątrz energii, jest wykorzystywana np. w leczeniu nowotworów. Hipertermia może być wywołana przez naświetlanie skoncentrowaną wiązką ultradźwiękową lub zmienne pola magnetyczne o określonych mocach i częstotliwościach. Procedury hipertermii powinny być wstępnie kalibrowane na wzorcach tkankowych, czyli na materiałach tkanko-podobnych, aby zapewnić bezpieczeństwo termiczne żywych tkanek. W przypadku hipertermii ultradźwiękowej materiały te powinny posiadać podobne do tkanek właściwości fizyczne, w szczególności powinny w podobny sposób tłumić i rozpraszać ultradźwięki. Najprostsze w przygotowaniu i najczęściej wykorzystywane w doświadczeniach ultradźwiękowych są wzorce na bazie żelu agarowego. Domieszkowanie wzorców agarowych, na przykład, szklanymi kulkami o rozmiarach mikrometrów, jest niezbędne do uzyskanie właściwości akustycznych zbliżonych do właściwości tkanek miękkich. W pracy zbadano wpływ na efektywność hipertermii ultradźwiękowej domieszkowania wzorców agarowych nanocząstkami magnetycznymi w porównaniu do innych cząstek o rozmiarach mikrometrycznych. W tym celu zostały wyprodukowane trzy typy wzorców agarowych: z dodatkiem mikrocząsteczek grafitowych o wymiarach mniejszych niż 20 µm oraz mikro i nanocząstek magnetycznych tlenku żelaza, odpowiednio o rozmiarach 50-100 µm oraz 50-100 nm. Do nagrzewanie wzorców wiązką ultradźwiękową stosowano głowicę ogniskującą o częstotliwości 2.2 MHz z różną mocą sygnału nadawczego od 1W do 4 W. Użyto specjalnie zbudowanego stanowiska pomiarowego, pozwalającego na bardzo precyzyjne ustawienie głowicy i kontrolowanie zmian temperatury wewnątrz wzorca wzdłuż osi wiązki. Rejestracja temperatury w ciągu 5 min naświetlania z częstotliwością co 1 s odbywała się przy użyciu modułu USB-TEMP i 7 termopar. Analiza zarejestrowanych danych pomiarowych pokazała, że najefektywniejszym dodatkiem do agarowych wzorców przy hipertermii ultradźwiękowej wśród badanych typów domieszek są nanocząstki tlenku żelaza. Ich obecność wpływa mocniej na wzrost temperatury podczas działania ultradźwięków, niż obecność domieszek z mikronowych cząstek z tego samego materiału lub grafitu. Obliczono współczynnik absorpcji właściwej (ang. specific absorption rate, SAR), który mierzy efektywność hipertermii. Wartości SAR są najwyższe dla wzorców domieszkowanych nanocząstkami ze wszystkich próbek przy założeniu znajomości ciepła właściwego każdego składnika.

226.Doubrovina O., Tymkiewicz R., Piotrzkowska-Wróblewska H., Gambin B., Linking of structural parameters to properties of ultrasound backscattered signals by the threads phantoms study, IAB2018, XXII Konferencja Inżynierii Akustycznej i Biomedycznej, 2018-04-10/04-13, Kraków-Zakopane (PL), No.1, pp.26, 2018
Doubrovina O., Tymkiewicz R., Piotrzkowska-Wróblewska H., Gambin B., Linking of structural parameters to properties of ultrasound backscattered signals by the threads phantoms study, IAB2018, XXII Konferencja Inżynierii Akustycznej i Biomedycznej, 2018-04-10/04-13, Kraków-Zakopane (PL), No.1, pp.26, 2018

Abstract:
The soft tissue structure possess the multi-scale anatomical inhomogeneities. There
are many types of tissues, where one can recognize at least two main scales: millimeter
scale and micrometer scale which are the basic scattering structures for an ultrasound
wave of the diagnostic frequency range penetrating the tissue . The millimeter scale
is due to the existence of quasi-periodic blocks of cells forming semi-regular lobules
e.g.in the anatomical units of the liver tissue, and the micrometer scale is formed with
many small scatterers like cell walls or large cell nuclei. The breaking of anatomical
structure is often caused by the beginning of the cancer process. It is very important
and unresolved problem to find any tools in qualitative ultrasound to recognize this two
type of scattering. To this end some phantom experiment were performed. 3D thread
structure in the form of nylon threads with a thickness of 0.1 mm (or of 0.35 mm) placed
at regular periodic structure with distances of 1 mm (or of 1.5 mm) was immersed in
the water. This threads structure was used as a model to analyse the properties of
ultrasound signal echoes registered with the use of different transducers, both focusing
and plane ones. The range of carried frequencies for used transducers were of 1MHz to
15 MHz. Additionally, the threads structure with threads of of 0.35 mm thickness and
located in distances of 1.5 mm, immersed in an oil and starch gel instead of the water
were .was used to analyse the influence of the background medium properties on the
ultrasound backscattering signals. Having measured pulse properties of a transducer
and applied the wavelet analysis to the registered signals the identification of the threads
positions in space, namely MSS (Mean Scatterer Spacing) was calculated and some
aspects of the differences between scattering and reflection phenomena were discussed
as a function of ratio between pulse length and geometrical parameters, i.e. threads
thickness and distances between them.

227.Gambin B., Kruglenko E., Litniewski J., Tymkiewicz R., Ultrasonic Measurements of Tissue-Like Composite Materials Properties Applied to Quantify the Influence of Different Components on the Dynamic Elasticity, Acoustic Impedance and Ultrasound Absorption in This Materials, IAB2018, XXII Konferencja Inżynierii Akustycznej i Biomedycznej, 2018-04-10/04-13, Kraków-Zakopane (PL), No.1, pp.27, 2018
Gambin B., Kruglenko E., Litniewski J., Tymkiewicz R., Ultrasonic Measurements of Tissue-Like Composite Materials Properties Applied to Quantify the Influence of Different Components on the Dynamic Elasticity, Acoustic Impedance and Ultrasound Absorption in This Materials, IAB2018, XXII Konferencja Inżynierii Akustycznej i Biomedycznej, 2018-04-10/04-13, Kraków-Zakopane (PL), No.1, pp.27, 2018

Abstract:
We used 7 types of samples, ”pure agar-gel” sample (AG), agar-gel doped with graphite micro-particles (GMP), agar-gel doped with magnetic micro-particles (MMP) and agar-gel doped with magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) with every doping in two different proportion of ingredients, namely of weigh percentage of 0.8 and 1.6 of the added particles. In the series of experiments we registered RF echoes of backscattered signals emitted by single-element transducer with focus posed on the metal reflector and in the focus posed inside the samples. From this data the speed of sound, the frequency dependent attenuation and backscatternig coefficient were obtained for every sample. Additionally, densities of sample materials were determined, and the elasticity coefficient and acoustical impedance of every material were calculated under the assumption of linear propagation. From the differences between attenuation and scattering the estimation of absorption were performed. The measurements demonstrated that adding the nanoparticles increased the density of the material compare to adding microparticles made from the same magnetic material. The elasticity coefficient and impedance are proportional to the fraction of particles and the elasticity of phantom components. The most interesting conclusion concerns in comparison of difference in ultrasonic absorption. The absorption of agar-gel with NMP exhibited the largest value in between all studied cases. This allows us to assume that the local heating of the medium by the ultrasonic beam should be more efficient in this case, and dopes of iron oxide nanoparticles can be considered as ”sono-sensitizers” in performing ultrasonic hyperthermia. It is worth noting, that this result was independently confirmed by the measuring of temperature rise during the heating of phantoms by the focused ultrasound beams of different powers. This result is presented in another paper at this conference.

228.Podolak-Lejtas A., Radziejewska J., Surface layers properties after electrodischarge coating (EDC) supported by ultrasounds, AIP Conference Proceedings, ISSN: 0094-243X, DOI: 10.1063/1.5056285, Vol.020022, pp.020022-1-7, 2018
Podolak-Lejtas A., Radziejewska J., Surface layers properties after electrodischarge coating (EDC) supported by ultrasounds, AIP Conference Proceedings, ISSN: 0094-243X, DOI: 10.1063/1.5056285, Vol.020022, pp.020022-1-7, 2018

Abstract:
The paper will present results of the research on the surface layer condition/integrity after ultrasound treatments supported by the electrodischarge coating (EDC). Features determiningthe product quality like geometric structure of the surface, microhardness or metallographic microstructure will be evaluated. The assumption of ultrasonic treatment introduction during EDC is stabilization of the alloying process reveals in the improvement of the useful properties of object after electrodischarge alloying.

229.Katz T., Sprawdzanie i weryfikacja defektoskopów ultradźwiękowych phased array, XXIV Seminarium NIENISZCZĄCE BADANIA MATERIAŁÓW, 2018-03-14/03-16, Zakopane (PL), pp.155-166, 2018
230.Błachowski B., Tauzowski P., Logo J., Stress intensity driven topology optimization for morphogenesis of 3d elastoplastic structures, LSCE 2018, XXIV LIGHTWEIGHT STRUCTURES in CIVIL ENGINEERING - International Seminar Organized by Polish Chapters of International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures (IASS), 2018-12-07/12-07, Łódź (PL), pp.22-26, 2018
Błachowski B., Tauzowski P., Logo J., Stress intensity driven topology optimization for morphogenesis of 3d elastoplastic structures, LSCE 2018, XXIV LIGHTWEIGHT STRUCTURES in CIVIL ENGINEERING - International Seminar Organized by Polish Chapters of International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures (IASS), 2018-12-07/12-07, Łódź (PL), pp.22-26, 2018

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is a practical engineering formulation of the topology optimization problem for three dimensional elastoplastic structures. The present study constitutes a comprehensive approach to topology optimization of elastoplastic structures, including both the mechanical problem statement and its efficient computer implementation. Instead of the traditional approach based on compliance minimization the aim of this work is to find a minimum weight structure, which is able to carry a given load while satisfying the condition that the corresponding stresses do not exceed an allowable limit. The general form of the problem is based on the classical limit design formulations of plasticity. The proposed method finds the optimal structure in an iterative way using only stress intensity distribution and does not require from the User explicit knowledge of any gradients or sensitivities. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology has been illustrated on two representative examples including simply supported and cantilever beams.

Keywords:
topology optimization, computational morphogenesis, elastoplastic FE analysis

231.Kruglenko E., Korczak I., Litniewski J., Gambin B., Ultrasound Thermal Effect Enriched by Adding Micro and Nano Particles to Tissue Mimicking Materials, ACOUSTICS 2018, JOINT CONFERENCE – ACOUSTICS 2018: 65th Open Seminar on Acoustics, 35th Symposium on Hydroacoustics, Polish-German Structured Conference on Acoustics, 2018-09-11/09-14, Ustka (PL), DOI: 10.24425/123927, No.43, pp.557-558, 2018
232.Nowak Ł., Optimal frequency filtering of auscultation sounds, 175th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, 2018-05-07/05-11, Minneapolis, Minnesota, US (US), DOI: 10.1121/1.5035699, No.143, pp.1746-1746, 2018
Nowak Ł., Optimal frequency filtering of auscultation sounds, 175th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, 2018-05-07/05-11, Minneapolis, Minnesota, US (US), DOI: 10.1121/1.5035699, No.143, pp.1746-1746, 2018

Abstract:
Most of the auscultation sounds do not reveal any significant single-frequency components, and their acoustic energy is concentrated in the low frequency region—up to about 100 Hz, falling even below the threshold of hearing. Such character is determined not only by the vibroacoustic behavior of sources, but mostly by high damping introduced by the sound transmission path through tissues underlying the skin surface. The contained diagnostic information is very subtle, and thus it can be easily masked by internal or external noise sources. Not all of those corrupting signals can be efficiently blocked, hence frequency filtering is the most obvious solution for improving the diagnostic capabilities. Many various filtering strategies and techniques were developed and implemented in both acoustic and electronic stethoscopes, however they are based primarily on (not always correct) intuition and subjective evaluation, without implementation of any accurate and objective measurement means or optimization algorithms. The present study introduces various signal to noise ratio (SNR) measures, applicable for different examination cases. Frequency filtering optimization strategies, for maximizing the values of the introduced coefficients for different heart and lung auscultation sounds, are presented.

233.Maj M., Nowak M., Musiał S., Eksperymentalna analiza obrotu materialnego i obrotu sieci krystalograficznej podczas deformacji multikrysztalu Al, PLASTMET, 11 KONFERENCJA ZINTEGROWANE STUDIA PODSTAW DEFORMACJI PLASTYCZNEJ METALI, 2018-11-27/11-30, Łańcut (PL), pp.71-72, 2018
234.Musiał S., Nowak M., Maj M., Wyznaczanie rozkładu naprężeń z wykorzystaniem metody korelacji obrazów cyfrowych (DIC), PLASTMET, 11 KONFERENCJA ZINTEGROWANE STUDIA PODSTAW DEFORMACJI PLASTYCZNEJ METALI, 2018-11-27/11-30, Łańcut (PL), pp.89-90, 2018
235.Widłaszewski J., Nowak M., Nowak Z., Kurp P., Termomechaniczne kształtowanie profili rurowych wspomagane laserowo, PLASTMET, 11 KONFERENCJA ZINTEGROWANE STUDIA PODSTAW DEFORMACJI PLASTYCZNEJ METALI, 2018-11-27/11-30, Łańcut (PL), pp.162-163, 2018
236.Nowak Z., Nowak M., Widłaszewski J., Kurp P., Symulacje numeryczne laserowo wspomaganego gięcia materiałów wykorzystywanych w przemyśle lotniczym, PLASTMET, 11 KONFERENCJA ZINTEGROWANE STUDIA PODSTAW DEFORMACJI PLASTYCZNEJ METALI, 2018-11-27/11-30, Łańcut (PL), pp.97-98, 2018
237.Nowak Z., Nowak M., Pęcherski R., Propagation of compaction waves in the open-cell copper foams, ESMC, 10th European Solid Mechanics Conference, 2018-07-02/07-06, Bologna (IT), pp.1-1, 2018
238.Postek E., Sadowski T., Model uderzenia z dużą prędkością płytki wykonanej z kompozytu dwufazowego, początek procesu , PLASTMET, 11 KONFERENCJA ZINTEGROWANE STUDIA PODSTAW DEFORMACJI PLASTYCZNEJ METALI, 2018-11-27/11-30, Łańcut (PL), pp.122-123, 2018
Postek E., Sadowski T., Model uderzenia z dużą prędkością płytki wykonanej z kompozytu dwufazowego, początek procesu , PLASTMET, 11 KONFERENCJA ZINTEGROWANE STUDIA PODSTAW DEFORMACJI PLASTYCZNEJ METALI, 2018-11-27/11-30, Łańcut (PL), pp.122-123, 2018

Abstract:
Materiały metaloceramiczne są często stosowane w elementach, które mogą być poddane uderzeniom. Jednak większość prac dotyczących obciążeń dynamicznych dotyczy kompozytów warstwowych. Techniki oceny obciążeń uderzeniowych dla kompozytów dobrze przedstawione są w pracy [1]. Przykładem kompozytu dwufazowego jest WC/Co. Ten rodzaj kompozytu jest często modelowany jako posiadający sprężysto plastyczne wypełnienie oraz sprężyste ziarna. Powodem tego jest wysoka odporność na zniszczenie materiału WC. Przedstawiamy rozszerzenie wcześniej opracowanych modeli [2], w których zakładana była idealna sprężystość ziaren. W nowym modelu zakładamy możliwość zniszczenia ziaren. Badamy układ, w którym próbka uderza o sztywną ścianę z różnymi prędkościami.

Keywords:
Obciążenia uderzeniowe, węglik wolframu, kompozyt dwufazowy, metoda elementów skończonych

239.Postek E., Pęcherski R., Nowak Z., Perydynamiczna symulacja procesów zgniatania otwartokomórkowych pianek miedzianych, PLASTMET, 11 KONFERENCJA ZINTEGROWANE STUDIA PODSTAW DEFORMACJI PLASTYCZNEJ METALI, 2018-11-27/11-30, Łańcut (PL), pp.120-121, 2018
Postek E., Pęcherski R., Nowak Z., Perydynamiczna symulacja procesów zgniatania otwartokomórkowych pianek miedzianych, PLASTMET, 11 KONFERENCJA ZINTEGROWANE STUDIA PODSTAW DEFORMACJI PLASTYCZNEJ METALI, 2018-11-27/11-30, Łańcut (PL), pp.120-121, 2018

Abstract:
W ciągu ostatnich dwudziestu lat opracowano nową metodę bezsiatkową znaną jako perydynamika [1]. Metoda ta posługuje się zrównoleglonym kodem obliczeniowym [2]. Przedmiotem badań jest deformacja miedzianej pianki o strukturze otwartokomórkowej poddanej dynamicznemu ściskaniu, Rys. 1.
Model komputerowy szkieletu pianki otrzymano wykorzystując koncepcję materiału wirtualnego przedstawioną w pracy [3]. W zależności od potrzeb wymiary struktury szkieletu pianki można skalować. Materiałem pianki jest miedź beztlenowa o wysokiej przewodności cieplnej (OFHC), wykorzystywana do wytwarzania wielofunkcyjnych struktur komórkowych takich jak wymienniki lub kondensatory cieplne, itp. W obliczeniach zastosowano lepkoplastyczny model materiału szkieletu pianki, a symulacje przeprowadzono dla różnych prędkości uderzenia. Rezultaty metody perydynamiki porównano z obliczeniami MES podobnych problemów ściskania dynamicznego pianki. Obliczenia wykonano w ICM Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego na komputerze CRAY XC-40 oraz na klastrze HP w centrum TASK w Gdańsku.

Keywords:
Obciążenia uderzeniowe, pianka metaliczna, perydynamika

240.Ekiel-Jeżewska M.L., Bukowicki M., Sedimenting elastic trumbbells, From active matter to complex fluids, 2018-01-08/01-10, Nicea (FR), pp.15, 2018
241.Trombley C., Ekiel-Jeżewska M.L., Stationary states of charged particles settling under gravity in a viscous fluid, From active matter to complex fluids, 2018-01-08/01-10, Nicea (FR), pp.24, 2018
242.Doubrovina O., Gambin B., Piotrzkowska-Wróblewska H., The backscattered ultrasound signal wavelet decomposition applied to recognize of regular positioning of scatterers in a sonicated medium, AMADE-2018, ANALYTICAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS AND DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, Materials of the 9th International Workshop, 2018-09-17/09-21, Minsk (BY), No.1, pp.29, 2018
243.Kruglenko E., Tymkiewicz R., Litniewski J., Gambin B., Tissue Mimicking Materials in Ultrasonic Hyperthermia Study, AMADE-2018, ANALYTICAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS AND DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, Materials of the 9th International Workshop, 2018-09-17/09-21, Minsk (BY), No.1, pp.46, 2018
244.Kiełczyński P., Ptasznik S., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Wieja K., Rostocki A., What Information about High-Pressure Thermophysical Properties of Liquids Can be Provided by Low-Intensity Ultrasonic Waves? , IUS 2018, 2018 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, 2018-10-22/10-25, KOBE (JP), pp.995-995, 2018
Kiełczyński P., Ptasznik S., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Wieja K., Rostocki A., What Information about High-Pressure Thermophysical Properties of Liquids Can be Provided by Low-Intensity Ultrasonic Waves? , IUS 2018, 2018 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, 2018-10-22/10-25, KOBE (JP), pp.995-995, 2018

Abstract:
The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of temperature and high pressure on thermophysical properties of liquids, exemplified by a Camelina sativa (false flax) oil. Camelina sativa oil has gained recently a growing interest due to its health-promoting effect as well as for its potential use in biodiesel production. To achieve the above objective, we measured the speed of sound and density in the selected oil. The speed of sound is directly associated to many thermophysical parameters of liquids. Hence, measurements of ultrasonic longitudinal wave velocity (f = 5 MHz) and liquid density, as a function of pressure and temperature, allowed determination of several important thermophysical parameters of the investigated liquid. The speed of sound in the liquid was determined from the time of flight measured with the cross-correlation method. To perform numerical calculations, it was helpful to introduce a Tammann–Tait type equation of state to approximate the measured density isotherms of the investigated Camelina sativa oil.

Keywords:
Speed of sound, high pressure, cross-correlation method, thermophysical parameters, Camelina sativa oil

245.Jeznach O., Wrzecionek M., Ruskowski P., Gadomska-Gajdhur A., Kołbuk D., Effect of poly(glycerol succinate) addition on properties of PLA electrospun fibres, ESB2018, 29th European Conference on Biomaterials, 2018-09-09/09-13, Maastricht (NL), pp.1084-1085, 2018
246.Kiełczyński P., Badanie parametrów fizykochemicznych olei roślinnych metodami ultradźwiękowymi w zakresie wysokich ciśnień, BEMS 2018, XVIII Konferencja Naukowo-Techniczna Budowa i Eksploatacja Maszyn Przemysłu Spożywczego, 2018-09-04/09-07, Koszalin-Ustronie Morskie (PL), pp.59-59, 2018
Kiełczyński P., Badanie parametrów fizykochemicznych olei roślinnych metodami ultradźwiękowymi w zakresie wysokich ciśnień, BEMS 2018, XVIII Konferencja Naukowo-Techniczna Budowa i Eksploatacja Maszyn Przemysłu Spożywczego, 2018-09-04/09-07, Koszalin-Ustronie Morskie (PL), pp.59-59, 2018

Abstract:
Praca zawiera przegląd metod ultradźwiękowych stosowanych do badania właściwości ter-mofizycznych olei roślinnych w zakresie wysokich ciśnień. Stosując fale ultradźwiękowe możemy wyznaczyć (relatywnie łatwo) szereg parametrów fizykochemicznych olei jadalnych w zakresie wysokich ciśnień. Z drugiej strony, wyznaczenie tych parametrów w zakresie wysokich ciśnień stosując klasyczne metody pomiarowe (np. kalorymetria, spektroskopia Fourierowska w podczerwieni) jest bardzo trudne, praktycznie niemożliwe. Podstawowymi pomiarami ultradźwiękowymi są pomiary prędkości i tłumienia fali ultradźwiękowej. Przed-stawione będzie krótkie omówienie właściwości oraz parametrów opisujących fale ultra-dźwiękowe. Do najważniejszych parametrów termofizycznych olei zaliczamy: 1) ściśliwość adiabatyczną oraz izotermiczną, 2) współczynnik rozszerzalności cieplnej, 3) ciepło właściwe, 4) napięcie powierzchniowe, 5) lepkość, 6) cieplny współczynnik ciśnienia, 7) przewodność cieplną. Znajomość tych parametrów fizykochemicznych olei w zakresie wysokich ciśnień, dla różnych wartości temperatury jest niezbędna przy projektowaniu i optymalizacji wysokoci-śnieniowych procesów technologicznych przetwarzania i konserwacji żywności. Izotermy prędkości fali ultradźwiękowej jako funkcje ciśnienia (do 660 MPa) wyznaczono dla oleju z lnianki siewnej (Camelina sativa). Szczególnie trudny (stosując klasyczne metody pomiaro-we) jest pomiar lepkości olei pod dużym ciśnieniem. Zastosowanie metody ultradźwięko-wych powierzchniowych fal Love’a lub Bleusteina-Gulyaeva B-G (opracowanej w Instytucie Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN) rozwiązuje ten problem, umożliwiając wyznacza-nie lepkości olei dla ciśnień powyżej 200 MPa (do 800 MPa). Ciekawym zjawiskiem, które możemy badać metodami ultradźwiękowymi są wysokociśnieniowe przemiany fazowe zachodzące w olejach jadalnych. Stosując metody ultradźwiękowe wykryto oraz zbadano wysokociśnieniowe przemiany fazowe w wielu olejach jadalnych (np. w oleju z oliwek, w oleju rzepakowym i w oleju z lnianki siewnej). Olej z lnianki siewnej (Camelina sativa) jest bardzo obiecujący jako surowiec do produkcji biopaliw.

Keywords:
Prędkość dźwięku, parametry fizykochemiczne, wysokie ciśnienia, oleje roślinne

247.Taras W., Pyrzanowski P., Gadomski J., Kowalewski Z., Libura T., An influence of fiber orientation and load direction on behaviour of thin composite samples, SME, XXVIII Symposium On Experimental Mechanics of Solids in memory of prof. Jacek Stupnicki, 2018-10-17/10-20, Jachranka (PL), pp.1-1, 2018
248.Kleiber M., Państwo jako lider działań w zakresie cyberbezpieczeństwa, Bezpieczeństwo Europy w dobie przesileń cywilizacyjnych, 2018-04-18/04-19, Jabłonna (PL), pp.109-112, 2018
249.Ekiel-Jeżewska M.L., Konferencje naukowe nauczycieli, PAUZA AKADEMICKA, ISSN: 1689-488X, Vol.421, pp.2-3, 2018
250.Ekiel-Jeżewska M.L., Profesor Krzysztof Zanussi z wizytą u nauczycieli, PAUZA AKADEMICKA, ISSN: 1689-488X, Vol.434, pp.3-4, 2018
251.Walczak J., Partyka M., Duszyński J., Szczepanowska J., Implications of mitochondrial network organization in mitochondrial stress signalling in NARP cybrid and Rho0 cells, Scientific Reports, ISSN: 2045-2322, DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-14964-y, Vol.7, No.14864, pp.1-14, 2017
Walczak J., Partyka M., Duszyński J., Szczepanowska J., Implications of mitochondrial network organization in mitochondrial stress signalling in NARP cybrid and Rho0 cells, Scientific Reports, ISSN: 2045-2322, DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-14964-y, Vol.7, No.14864, pp.1-14, 2017

Abstract:
Mitochondrial dysfunctions lead to the generation of signalling mediators that influence the fate of that organelle. Mitochondrial dynamics and their positioning within the cell are important elements of mitochondria-nucleus communication. The aim of this project was to examine whether mitochondrial shape, distribution and fusion/fission proteins are involved in the mitochondrial stress response in a cellular model subjected to specifically designed chronic mitochondrial stress: WT human osteosarcoma cells as controls, NARP cybrid cells as mild chronic stress and Rho0 as severe chronic stress. We characterized mitochondrial distribution in these cells using confocal microscopy and evaluated the level of proteins directly involved in the mitochondrial dynamics and their regulation. We found that the organization of mitochondria within the cell is correlated with changes in the levels of proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics and proteins responsible for regulation of this process. Induction of the autophagy/mitophagy process, which is crucial for cellular homeostasis under stress conditions was also shown. It seems that mitochondrial shape and organization within the cell are implicated in retrograde signalling in chronic mitochondrial stress.

(40p.)
252.Poma Bernaola A., Cieplak M., Theodorakis P.E., Combining the MARTINI and Structure-Based Coarse-Grained Approaches for the Molecular Dynamics Studies of Conformational Transitions in Proteins, Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, ISSN: 1549-9618, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jctc.6b00986, Vol.13, pp.1366-1374, 2017
Poma Bernaola A., Cieplak M., Theodorakis P.E., Combining the MARTINI and Structure-Based Coarse-Grained Approaches for the Molecular Dynamics Studies of Conformational Transitions in Proteins, Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, ISSN: 1549-9618, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jctc.6b00986, Vol.13, pp.1366-1374, 2017

Abstract:
The application of coarse-grained (CG) models in biology is essential to access large length and time scales required for the description of many biological processes. The ELNEDIN protein model is based on the well-known MARTINI CG force-field and incorporates additionally harmonic bonds of a certain spring constant within a defined cutoff distance between pairs of residues, in order to preserve the native structure of the protein. In this case, the use of unbreakable harmonic bonds hinders the study of unfolding and folding processes. To overcome this barrier we have replaced the harmonic bonds with Lennard–Jones interactions based on the contact map of the native protein structure as is done in Go̅-like models. This model exhibits very good agreement with all-atom simulations and the ELNEDIN. Moreover, it can capture the structural motion linked to particular catalytic activity in the Man5B protein, in agreement with all-atom simulations. In addition, our model is based on the van der Waals radii, instead of a cutoff distance, which results in a smaller contact map. In conclusion, we anticipate that our model will provide further possibilities for studying biological systems based on the MARTINI CG force-field by using advanced-sampling methods, such as parallel tempering and metadynamics.

Keywords:
Martini force field, protein, molecular simulation, stretching AFM, large conformational changes

(40p.)
253.Poma Bernaola A., Chwastyk M., Cieplak M., Elastic moduli of biological fibers in a coarse-grained model: crystalline cellulose and β-amyloids, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, ISSN: 1463-9076, DOI: 10.1039/C7CP05269C, Vol.19, pp.28195-28206, 2017
Poma Bernaola A., Chwastyk M., Cieplak M., Elastic moduli of biological fibers in a coarse-grained model: crystalline cellulose and β-amyloids, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, ISSN: 1463-9076, DOI: 10.1039/C7CP05269C, Vol.19, pp.28195-28206, 2017

Abstract:
We study the mechanical response of cellulose and β-amyloid microfibrils to three types of deformation: tensile, indentational, and shear. The cellulose microfibrils correspond to the allomorphs Iα or Iβ whereas the β-amyloid microfibrils correspond to the polymorphs of either two- or three-fold symmetry. This response can be characterized by three elastic moduli, namely, YL, YT, and S. We use a structure-based coarse-grained model to analyze the deformations in a unified manner. We find that each of the moduli is almost the same for the two allomorphs of cellulose but YL is about 20 times larger than YT (140 GPa vs. 7 GPa), indicating the existence of significant anisotropy. For cellulose we note that the anisotropy results from the involvement of covalent bonds in stretching. For β-amyloid, the sense of anisotropy is opposite to that of cellulose. In the three-fold symmetry case, YL is about half of YT (3 vs. 7) whereas for two-fold symmetry the anisotropy is much larger (1.6 vs. 21 GPa). The S modulus is derived to be 1.2 GPa for three-fold symmetry and one half of it for the other symmetry and 3.0 GPa for cellulose. The values of the moduli reflect deformations in the hydrogen-bond network. Unlike in our theoretical approach, no experiment can measure all three elastic moduli with the same apparatus. However, our theoretical results are consistent with various measured values: typical YL for cellulose Iβ ranges from 133 to 155 GPa, YT from 2 to 25 GPa, and S from 1.8 to 3.8 GPa. For β-amyloid, the experimental values of S and YT are about 0.3 GPa and 3.3 GPa respectively, while the value of YL has not been reported.

Keywords:
Tensile, shear, indentation, Atomic Force Microscopy, amyloid, cellulose

(40p.)
254.Sala D., Motylewski J., Mróz A., Pawłowski P., Vibroacoustic System for Measurement of the Touchdown of a Light Aircraft, Scientific Journal of Silesian University of Technology. Series Transport, ISSN: 0209-3324, DOI: 10.20858/sjsutst.2017.97.13, No.97, pp.147-156, 2017
Sala D., Motylewski J., Mróz A., Pawłowski P., Vibroacoustic System for Measurement of the Touchdown of a Light Aircraft, Scientific Journal of Silesian University of Technology. Series Transport, ISSN: 0209-3324, DOI: 10.20858/sjsutst.2017.97.13, No.97, pp.147-156, 2017

Abstract:
Aircraft touchdown is one of the most difficult and dangerous phases of a flight. The paper presents an aerial light aircraft, prepared and produced by vibroacoustic tests, using an aircraft landing and landing monitoring system (AVI). The concept is based on the use of an ultrasonic transceiver head and vibration transducer, together with an appropriate signal processing and analysis system. The system measures the touchdown speed and altitude of the aircraft in the final phase of the flight and determines the level of load transmitted to the aircraft during the landing. Thanks to data archiving, it allows for better estimation of the wear rate of the structure, which is important in determining the causes of possible malfunction. It can be used with light and ultralight aircraft and, after adaptation, in unmanned aircraft. It can also be used to evaluate the art of piloting during landing.

Keywords:
aircraft landing, landing monitoring system

(9p.)
255.Pałka K., Zaszczyńska A., Kleczewska J., Polymerization shrinkage of dental composites, 26th Annual Conference Biomaterials in Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, 2017-10-12/10-15, Rytro (PL), pp.1, 2017
256.Mróz A., Holnicki-Szulc J., Sekuła K., Prestress Accumulation-Release (PAR) for damping of free vibrations in frame structures. Experimental study of a lab-scale demonstrator with piezo-actuated semi-active nodes, SMART 2017, 8th Conference on Smart Structures and Materials, 2017-06-05/06-08, Madrid (ES), pp.145-156, 2017
Mróz A., Holnicki-Szulc J., Sekuła K., Prestress Accumulation-Release (PAR) for damping of free vibrations in frame structures. Experimental study of a lab-scale demonstrator with piezo-actuated semi-active nodes, SMART 2017, 8th Conference on Smart Structures and Materials, 2017-06-05/06-08, Madrid (ES), pp.145-156, 2017

Abstract:
This paper presents results of experimental tests of a demonstrator structure equipped with variable stiffness nodes for suppression of free vibrations. So called Prestress Accumulation-Release (PAR) strategy for on-off control of these nodes is utilized. The obtained system is semi-active. The core of the controllable nodes are linear piezo-actuators.

Keywords:
Adaptive Structures, On-Off Control, Variable Stiffness Joint

257.Poma Bernaola A., Chwastyk M., Cieplak M., Coarse-grained model of the native cellulose and the transformation pathways to the allomorph, CELLULOSE, ISSN: 0969-0239, DOI: 10.1007/s10570-016-0903-4, Vol.23, pp.1573-1591, 2016
Poma Bernaola A., Chwastyk M., Cieplak M., Coarse-grained model of the native cellulose and the transformation pathways to the allomorph, CELLULOSE, ISSN: 0969-0239, DOI: 10.1007/s10570-016-0903-4, Vol.23, pp.1573-1591, 2016

Abstract:
All-atom simulations are used to derive effective parameters for a coarse-grained description of the crystalline cellulose I

Keywords:
Cellulose, microfibril, allomorphs, structural transition, molecular dynamics, free energy

(45p.)
258.Oparka M., Walczak J., Malińska D., van Oppen L.M.P.E., Szczepanowska J., Koopman W.J.H., Więckowski M.R., Quantifying ROS levels using CM-H2DCFDA and HyPer, Methods, ISSN: 1046-2023, DOI: 10.1016/j.ymeth.2016.06.008, Vol.109, pp.3-11, 2016
Oparka M., Walczak J., Malińska D., van Oppen L.M.P.E., Szczepanowska J., Koopman W.J.H., Więckowski M.R., Quantifying ROS levels using CM-H2DCFDA and HyPer, Methods, ISSN: 1046-2023, DOI: 10.1016/j.ymeth.2016.06.008, Vol.109, pp.3-11, 2016

Abstract:
At low levels, reactive oxygen species (ROS) can act as signaling molecules within cells. When ROS production greatly exceeds the capacity of endogenous antioxidant systems, or antioxidant levels are reduced, ROS levels increase further. The latter is associated with induction of oxidative stress and associated signal transduction and characterized by ROS-induced changes in cellular redox homeostasis and/or damaging effects on biomolecules (e.g. DNA, proteins and lipids). Given the complex mechanisms involved in ROS production and removal, in combination with the lack of reporter molecules that are truly specific for a particular type of ROS, quantification of (sub)cellular ROS levels is a challenging task. In this chapter we describe two strategies to measure ROS: one approach to assess general oxidant levels using the chemical reporter CM-H2DCFDA (5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate), and a second approach allowing more specific analysis of cytosolic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels using protein-based sensors (HyPer and SypHer).

Keywords:
Reactive oxygen species, Hydrogen peroxide, CM-H2DCFDA, HyPer, SypHer

(35p.)
259.Dobrosielski W.T., Szczepański J., Zarzycki H., A Proposal for a Method of Defuzzification Based on the Golden Ratio-GR , IWIFSGN2015, 14th International Workshop on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and Generalized Nets, 2015-10-26/10-28, Kraków (PL), DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-26211-6_7 , Vol.401, pp.75-84, 2016
Dobrosielski W.T., Szczepański J., Zarzycki H., A Proposal for a Method of Defuzzification Based on the Golden Ratio-GR , IWIFSGN2015, 14th International Workshop on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and Generalized Nets, 2015-10-26/10-28, Kraków (PL), DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-26211-6_7 , Vol.401, pp.75-84, 2016

Abstract:
This article presents a proposal for a new method of defuzzification a fuzzy controller, which is based on the concept of the golden ratio, derived from the Fibonacci series [1]. The origin of the method was the observation of numerous instances of the golden ratio in such diverse fields as biology, architecture, medicine, and painting. A particular area of its occurrence is genetics, where we find the golden ratio in the very structure of the DNA molecule [2] (deoxyribonucleic acid molecules are 21 angstroms wide and 34 angstroms long for each full length of one double helix cycle). This fact makes the ratio in the Fibonacci series in some sense a universal design principle used by man and nature alike. In keeping with the requirements, the authors of the present study first explain the essential concepts of fuzzy logic, including in particular the notions of a fuzzy controller and a method of defuzzification. Then, they postulate the use of the golden ratio in the process of defuzzification and call the idea the Golden Ratio (GR) Method. In the subsequent part of the article, the proposed GR-based instrument is compared with the classical methods of defuzzification, including COG, FOM, and LOM. In the final part, the authors carry out numerous calculations and formulate conclusions which serve to classify the proposed method. At the end they present directions of further research.

Keywords:
Fuzzy logic, Fuzy sets, Fuzzy control system, Deffuzification, Fibonacci series

260.Jarzębski P., Wiśniewski K., Performance of the parallel FEAP in calculations of effective material properties using RVE, CMM, 3rd Polish Congress of Mechanics and 21st International Conference on Computer Methods in Mechanics , 2015-09-08/09-11, Gdańsk (PL), pp.241-244, 2016
Jarzębski P., Wiśniewski K., Performance of the parallel FEAP in calculations of effective material properties using RVE, CMM, 3rd Polish Congress of Mechanics and 21st International Conference on Computer Methods in Mechanics , 2015-09-08/09-11, Gdańsk (PL), pp.241-244, 2016

Abstract:
The paper concerns parallelization of an FE code for machines with shared memory in order to speed up computations of large models.
The loop was parallelized over elements in the research code FEAP using OpenMP, which required several modifications of the code
and a specific method of synchronization for assembling, see [2] for details. The parallel solver was also applied.
Performance of the parallelized FEAP, designated as ’ompFEAP’ is demonstrated in calculations of effective properties of materials
using the RVE method. Two RVE examples are computed, for a heterogenous metal-ceramic composite and for a ceramic foam with a
complicated micro-structure. We conclude that ompFEAP provides a very good speedup and efficiency causing only a small increase
in memory usage.

Keywords:
parallelization, OpenMP, finite element method, FEAP, RVE, shells

261.Pieczyska E.A., Maj M., Furuta T., Kuramoto S., Gum Metal - unique properties and results of initial investigation of a new titanium alloy - extended paper, CMM, 3rd Polish Congress of Mechanics and 21st International Conference on Computer Methods in Mechanics , 2015-09-08/09-11, Gdańsk (PL), pp.469-472, 2016
262.Kowalewski T.A., Nakielski P., Pierini F., Zembrzycki K., Pawłowska S., Micro and nano fluid mechanics, CMM, 3rd Polish Congress of Mechanics and 21st International Conference on Computer Methods in Mechanics , 2015-09-08/09-11, Gdańsk (PL), pp.27-34, 2016
Kowalewski T.A., Nakielski P., Pierini F., Zembrzycki K., Pawłowska S., Micro and nano fluid mechanics, CMM, 3rd Polish Congress of Mechanics and 21st International Conference on Computer Methods in Mechanics , 2015-09-08/09-11, Gdańsk (PL), pp.27-34, 2016

Abstract:
The current task of contemporary fluid mechanics evidently moves from modeling large scale turbulence to lower, molecular scale limit, where assumption of a continuous and deterministic description becomes questionable again. Once the scaling length of flow becomes comparable with structure dimensions, transport phenomena are strongly modulated by molecular interactions and its proper interpretation needs involvement of deeper physics. New experimental tools largely help in understanding transport phenomena at nanoscales. In the following review we give few examples of problems appealing for new theoretical and numerical models embracing continuous flow modeling with molecular scale phenomena.

263.Kowalewski Z.L., Grzywna P., Kukla D., Experimental attempts for creep and fatigue damage analysis of materials – state of the art and new challenges, CMM, 3rd Polish Congress of Mechanics and 21st International Conference on Computer Methods in Mechanics , 2015-09-08/09-11, Gdańsk (PL), pp.17-25, 2016
264.Kukla D., Kowalewski Z.L., Influence of aluminum layer thickness on the fatigue properties of super-nickel alloy and crack detection by non-destructive techniques, CMM, 3rd Polish Congress of Mechanics and 21st International Conference on Computer Methods in Mechanics , 2015-09-08/09-11, Gdańsk (PL), pp.317-320, 2016
265.Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Brodecki A., An influence of notch type on material behaviour under monotonic tension, CMM, 3rd Polish Congress of Mechanics and 21st International Conference on Computer Methods in Mechanics , 2015-09-08/09-11, Gdańsk (PL), pp.567-571, 2016
266.Sitko A., Szkodo M., Kucharski S., Influence of nitriding and laser remelting on properties of austenitic stainless steel type x10crni18-8 and cavitation erosion resistance, Advances in Materials Science, ISSN: 1730-2439, DOI: 10.1515/adms-2016-0006, Vol.16, No.2, pp.21-31, 2016
Sitko A., Szkodo M., Kucharski S., Influence of nitriding and laser remelting on properties of austenitic stainless steel type x10crni18-8 and cavitation erosion resistance, Advances in Materials Science, ISSN: 1730-2439, DOI: 10.1515/adms-2016-0006, Vol.16, No.2, pp.21-31, 2016

Abstract:
The paper presents properties of surface layers. Surface layers were obtained by using low temperature glow–discharge nitriding process and laser remelting carried out on austenitic stainless steel type X10CrNi18-8. Investigations were done by using an Ultra Nanoindentation Tester (UNHT) in the Warsaw Institute of Fundamental Technological Research. The influence of the above mentioned treatments on obtained surface layers is shown. The values of the Vickers hardness (HV), the irreversible indentation work (Wir), the reversible work (We) and the maximum depth (hmax) during indentation were determined using the method proposed by Oliver and Pharr [1]. On the basis of mechanical properties, the elasticity (Ie) and ductility (Iir) indexes were calculated. Moreover, microstructure cross-section of the austenitic stainless steel after nitriding process and laser remelting was observed using a scanning electron microscope. Cavitation test was performed at a vibratory rig with stationary specimen. On the basis of erosion curves the cavitation resistance was evaluated.

Keywords:
glow-discharge nitriding process, laser remelting, austenitic stainless steel, diffusion layer, nitrided case, expanded austenite

(11p.)
267.Pałka K., Zaszczyńska A., Kleczewska J., Polymerization shrinkage of new flow-type dental composite using micro-CT, 25th Annual Conference Biomaterials in Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, 2016-10-13/10-16, Rytro (PL), pp.1, 2016
268.Wojewoda M., Walczak J., Duszyński J., Szczepanowska J., Selenite activates the ATM kinase-dependent DNA repair pathway in human osteosarcoma cells with mitochondrial dysfunction, Biochemical Pharmacology, ISSN: 0006-2952, DOI: 10.1016/j.bcp.2015.03.016, Vol.95, No.3, pp.170-176, 2015
Wojewoda M., Walczak J., Duszyński J., Szczepanowska J., Selenite activates the ATM kinase-dependent DNA repair pathway in human osteosarcoma cells with mitochondrial dysfunction, Biochemical Pharmacology, ISSN: 0006-2952, DOI: 10.1016/j.bcp.2015.03.016, Vol.95, No.3, pp.170-176, 2015

Abstract:
Mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced oxidative damage are implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases. Based on our previous findings that ROS level was higher in human osteosarcoma cybrids—Neuropathy, Ataxia and Retinitis Pigmentosa (NARP) and was reduced by selenite treatment, this study was designed to elucidate the effects of selenite administration on oxidative and nitrosative damage to lipids, proteins and DNA.

Oxidative and nitrosative damage to lipids and proteins was not increased in NARP cybrids or mitochondrial DNA-lacking Rho0 cells (displaying mitochondrial dysfunction) when compared with control WT cells. However, we found the enhanced formation of DNA double-strand breaks based on the level of histone γH2AX (phosphorylated at Ser 139), which is known to be phosphorylated by ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated) kinase in response to DNA damage. Selenite increased the activity of ATM kinase in NARP cybrids and Rho0 cells without concomitant increase in levels of histone γH2AX.

Activation of the ATM kinase-dependent DNA repair pathway triggered by selenite could not be associated with enhanced DNA damage but might rather result from selenite-induced activation of ATM-dependent DNA repair mechanisms which could account for protective effects of this agent.

Keywords:
Mitochondrial dysfunction, Selenite, DNA repair, ATM kinase, Oxidative damage

(40p.)
269.Poma Bernaola A., Chwastyk M., Cieplak M., Polysaccharide–protein complexes in a Coarse-Grained Model, JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B, ISSN: 1520-6106, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.5b06141, Vol.119, pp.12028-12041, 2015
Poma Bernaola A., Chwastyk M., Cieplak M., Polysaccharide–protein complexes in a Coarse-Grained Model, JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B, ISSN: 1520-6106, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.5b06141, Vol.119, pp.12028-12041, 2015

Abstract:
We construct two variants of coarse-grained models of three hexaoses: one based on the centers of mass of the monomers and the other associated with the C4 atoms. The latter is found to be better defined and more suitable for studying interactions with proteins described within α-C based models. We determine the corresponding effective stiffness constants through all-atom simulations and two statistical methods. One method is the Boltzmann inversion (BI) and the other, named energy-based (EB), involves direct monitoring of energies as a function of the variables that define the stiffness potentials. The two methods are generally consistent in their account of the stiffness. We find that the elastic constants differ between the hexaoses and are noticeably different from those determined for the crystalline cellulose Iβ. The nonbonded couplings through hydrogen bonds between different sugar molecules are modeled by the Lennard-Jones potentials and are found to be stronger than the hydrogen bonds in proteins. We observe that the EB method agrees with other theoretical and experimental determinations of the nonbonded parameters much better than BI. We then consider the hexaose-Man5B catalytic complexes and determine the contact energies between their the C4−α-C atoms. These interactions are found to be stronger than the proteinic hydrogen bonds: about four times as strong for cellohexaose and two times for mannohexaose. The fluctuational dynamics of the coarse-grained complexes are found to be compatible with previous all-atom studies by Bernardi et al.

Keywords:
Polysaccharide, protein, principal component analysis, coarse graining, molecular simulation

(30p.)
270.Chwastyk M., Poma Bernaola A., Cieplak M., Statistical radii associated with amino acids to determine the contact map: fixing the structure of a type I cohesin domain in the Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome, PHYSICAL BIOLOGY, ISSN: 1478-3967, DOI: 10.1088/1478-3975/12/4/046002, Vol.12, No.046002, pp.1-11, 2015
Chwastyk M., Poma Bernaola A., Cieplak M., Statistical radii associated with amino acids to determine the contact map: fixing the structure of a type I cohesin domain in the Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome, PHYSICAL BIOLOGY, ISSN: 1478-3967, DOI: 10.1088/1478-3975/12/4/046002, Vol.12, No.046002, pp.1-11, 2015

Abstract:
We propose to improve and simplify protein refinement procedures through consideration of which pairs of amino acid residues should form native contacts. We first consider 11 330 proteins from the CATH database to determine statistical distributions of contacts associated with a given type of amino acid. The distributions are set across the distances between the α-C atoms that are in contact. Based on this data, we determine typical radii of effective spheres that can be placed on the α-C atoms in order to reconstruct the distribution of the contact lengths. This is done by checking for overlaps with enlarged van der Waals spheres associated with heavy atoms on other amino acids.The resulting contacts can be used to identify non-native contacts that may arise during the time evolution of structure-based models. Here, the radii are used to guide reconstruction of nine missing side chains in a type I cohesin domain with the Protein Data Bank code 1AOH. We first identify the likely missing contacts and then sculpt the corresponding side chains by standard refinement tools to achieve consistency with the expected contact map. One ambiguity in refinement is resolved by determining all-atom conformational energies.

Keywords:
Cohesin, Go-like model, protein prediction, proteins, AFM, stretching

(25p.)
271.Jain A., Tripathi S.K., Almond shell-based activated nanoporous carbon electrode for EDLCs , Ionics, ISSN: 0947-7047, DOI: 10.1007/s11581-014-1282-1, Vol.21, No.5, pp.1391-1398, 2015
Jain A., Tripathi S.K., Almond shell-based activated nanoporous carbon electrode for EDLCs , Ionics, ISSN: 0947-7047, DOI: 10.1007/s11581-014-1282-1, Vol.21, No.5, pp.1391-1398, 2015

Abstract:
Almondshell-basedchemicallytreatedandactivated nanoporous charcoal powder (AS(T)) has been successfully prepared by chemical activation method using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as an activating agent. The as-synthesized AS(T)wassystematicallycharacterizedbyvarioustechniques like N2 adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Xray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. The AS(T)based nanoporous activated charcoal is tested as an electrode material with ionic liquid-based polymer gel electrolyte for electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). EDLCs prepared from AS(T) exhibit specific capacitance of 986.3 mF cm−2 (equivalent to single-electrodespecific capacitance of 563.6 F g−1). The energy density of 62.8 Wh kg−1 and power density of 2.1 kW kg−1 have been observed for nanoporous AS(T)-based EDLCs.

Keywords:
Almond shell, Nanoporous carbon, Ionicliquid . Electrochemical double-layer capacitor

(20p.)
272.Walczak J., Szczepanowska J., Zaburzenia dynamiki i dystrybucji mitochondriów w komórkach w stwardnieniu zanikowym bocznym (ALS), Postępy Biochemii, ISSN: 0032-5422, Vol.61, No.2, pp.183-190, 2015
Walczak J., Szczepanowska J., Zaburzenia dynamiki i dystrybucji mitochondriów w komórkach w stwardnieniu zanikowym bocznym (ALS), Postępy Biochemii, ISSN: 0032-5422, Vol.61, No.2, pp.183-190, 2015

Abstract:
Stwardnienie zanikowe boczne (ALS) jest chorobą o złożonej etiologii, prowadzącą do degradacji neuronów ruchowych. Jednym z pierwszych objawów w rozwoju wielu chorób neurodegeneracyjnych, m. in. w ALS, są zaburzenia funkcjonowania mitochondriów. Już kilka dekad temu obserwowano zmiany morfologii mitochondriów w tkankach pacjentów cierpiących na to schorzenie. Mitochondria są organellami dynamicznymi, ulegają ciągłym procesom fuzji i fragmentacji oraz przemieszczania się w komórce. Prawidłowy przebieg procesów związanych z dynamiką i dystrybucją mitochondriów jest kluczowy dla funkcjonowania komórek, a w szczególności komórek nerwowych o silnie wydłużonych aksonach. Praca ta stanowi podsumowanie istniejącej wiedzy na temat roli dynamiki i dystrybucji mitochondriów w patofizjologii ALS, formy rodzinnej i sporadycznej.

Keywords:
ALS, dynamika mitochondriów, transport mitochondriów, neurodegeneracja

(5p.)
273.Białecki S., Kaźmierczak B., CALCIUM OSCILLATIONS IN A SPATIALLY EXTENDED THREE COMPARTMENT CELL MODEL, KKZMBM2014, Krajowa Konferencja Zastosowań Matematyki w Biologii i Medycynie, 2014-09-23/09-27, Łochów (PL), pp.15-20, 2014
Białecki S., Kaźmierczak B., CALCIUM OSCILLATIONS IN A SPATIALLY EXTENDED THREE COMPARTMENT CELL MODEL, KKZMBM2014, Krajowa Konferencja Zastosowań Matematyki w Biologii i Medycynie, 2014-09-23/09-27, Łochów (PL), pp.15-20, 2014

Abstract:
We derive a spatially extended three compartment cell model for evolution of calcium ions concetrations.
To obtain specific form of the fluxes between the compartments, we compare it with the model proposed by
Marhl et al. (2000). We examine numerically the period and shape of oscillations as a function of diffusion
coefficients. We demonstrate a decay of the oscillations at the critical value of diffusion of free calcium ions.

274.Poma Bernaola A., Monteferrante M., Bonella S., Ciccotti G., The quantum free energy barrier for hydrogen vacancy diffusion in Na3AlH6, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, ISSN: 1463-9076, DOI: 10.1039/C2CP42536J , Vol.14, pp.15458-15463, 2012
Poma Bernaola A., Monteferrante M., Bonella S., Ciccotti G., The quantum free energy barrier for hydrogen vacancy diffusion in Na3AlH6, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, ISSN: 1463-9076, DOI: 10.1039/C2CP42536J , Vol.14, pp.15458-15463, 2012

Abstract:
The path integral single sweep method is used to assess quantum effects on the free energy barrier for hydrogen vacancy diffusion in a defective Na3AlH6 crystal. This process has been investigated via experiments and simulations due to its potential relevance in the H release mechanism in sodium alanates, prototypical materials for solid state hydrogen storage. Previous computational studies, which used density functional methods for the electronic structure, were restricted to a classical treatment of the nuclear degrees of freedom. We show that, although they do not change the qualitative picture of the process, nuclear quantum effects reduce the free energy barrier height by about 18% with respect to the classical calculation improving agreement with available neutron scattering data.

Keywords:
Alanate, proton transfer, electron hopping, Car-Parrinello MD, molecular dynamics, Free Energy, Path Integral

(40p.)
275.Lewandowski M., Metody rekonstrukcji obrazu z głowic phased array, XVIII Seminarium Nieniszczące Badania Materiałów, 2012-03-13/03-16, Zakopane (PL), pp.1-7, 2012
276.Poma Bernaola A., Site Delle L., Classical to Path-Integral Adaptive Resolution in Molecular Simulation: Towards a Smooth Quantum-Classical Coupling, PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, ISSN: 0031-9007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.250201, Vol.104, pp.250201-1-4, 2011
Poma Bernaola A., Site Delle L., Classical to Path-Integral Adaptive Resolution in Molecular Simulation: Towards a Smooth Quantum-Classical Coupling, PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, ISSN: 0031-9007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.250201, Vol.104, pp.250201-1-4, 2011

Abstract:
Simulations that couple different molecular models in an adaptive way by changing resolution on the fly allow us to identify the relevant degrees of freedom of a system. This, in turn, leads to a detailed understanding of the essential physics which characterizes a system. While the delicate process of transition from one model to another is well understood for the adaptivity between classical molecular models the same cannot be said for the quantum-classical adaptivity. The main reason for this is the difficulty in describing a continuous transition between two different kinds of physical principles: probabilistic for the quantum and deterministic for the classical. Here we report the basic principles of an algorithm that allows for a continuous and smooth transition by employing the path integral description of atoms.

Keywords:
path integral, classical-quantum coupling, adaptive resolution scheme, polymer ring, quantum structure

(45p.)
277.Poma Bernaola A., Site Delle L., Adaptive resolution simulation of liquid para-hydrogen: Testing the robustness of the quantum-classical adaptive coupling, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, ISSN: 1463-9076, DOI: 10.1039/C0CP02865G , Vol.13, pp.10510-10519, 2011
Poma Bernaola A., Site Delle L., Adaptive resolution simulation of liquid para-hydrogen: Testing the robustness of the quantum-classical adaptive coupling, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, ISSN: 1463-9076, DOI: 10.1039/C0CP02865G , Vol.13, pp.10510-10519, 2011

Abstract:
Adaptive resolution simulations for classical systems are currently made within a reasonably consistent theoretical framework. Recently we have extended this approach to the quantum-classical coupling by mapping the quantum nature of an atom onto a classical polymer ring representation within the path integral approach [Poma & Delle Site, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2010, 104, 250201]. In this way the process of interfacing adaptively a quantum representation to a classical one corresponds to the problem of interfacing two regions with a different number of effective “classical” degrees of freedom; thus the classical formulation of the adaptive algorithm applies straightforwardly to the quantum-classical problem. In this work we show the robustness of such an approach for a liquid of para-hydrogen at low temperature. This system represents a highly challenging conceptual and technical test for the adaptive approach due to the extreme thermodynamical conditions where quantum effects play a central role.

Keywords:
Adaptive resolution Scheme, parahydrogen, path integral, polymer ring, quantum fluid

(40p.)
278.Kowalewski Z., Szymczak T., Makowska K., Augustyniak B., A role of destructive and non-destructive tests in creep damage identification, KEY ENGINEERING MATERIALS, ISSN: 1662-9795, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.233-236.269, Vol.488-489, pp.315-318, 2011
Kowalewski Z., Szymczak T., Makowska K., Augustyniak B., A role of destructive and non-destructive tests in creep damage identification, KEY ENGINEERING MATERIALS, ISSN: 1662-9795, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.233-236.269, Vol.488-489, pp.315-318, 2011

Abstract:
The paper presents relationships between strain level generated by creep process and two parameters determined form non-destructive tests, i.e. acoustic birefringence and amplitude of magnetoacoustic emission for three kinds of steel: 40HNMA, P91 and 13HMF. Moreover, the relationships between prior deformation level and selected mechanical parameters resulting from the standard tensile tests subsequently carried out at room temperature were established. As a consequence, this enabled to formulate mutual relationships between these mechanical parameters and parameters obtained from the ultrasonic/magnetic investigations.

Keywords:
creep, damage, yield point, ultimate tensile stress, Young’s modulus, acoustic birefringence, magnetoacoustic emission.

(8p.)
279.Lewandowski M., Systemy głowic wieloprzetwornikowych - podstawy fizyczne, XVII Seminarium Nieniszczące Badania Materiałów, 2011-03-08/03-11, Zakopane (PL), pp.1-10, 2011
280.Holnicki-Szulc J., Pawłowski P., Mikułowski M., Graczykowski C., Adaptive impact absorption and applications to landing devices, Advances in Science and Technology, ISSN: 1662-0356, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AST.56.609, Vol.56, pp.609-613, 2008
Holnicki-Szulc J., Pawłowski P., Mikułowski M., Graczykowski C., Adaptive impact absorption and applications to landing devices, Advances in Science and Technology, ISSN: 1662-0356, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AST.56.609, Vol.56, pp.609-613, 2008

Abstract:
This paper demonstrates progress in Adaptive Impact Absorption (AIA) research field obtained recently in our research group and is based on previously published conference communicates. The monograph (Ref.[1]), under preparation, will present soon more detailed discussion of the considered problems. In contrast to the standard passive systems the proposed AIA approach focuses on active adaptation of energy absorbing structures (equipped with sensor system detecting and identifying impact in real time and controllable semi-active dissipaters, so called structural fuses) with high ability of adaptation to extreme overloading. A semi-active or fully-active solutions can be applied, which depend on constant or time-dependent modifications realized via controllable dissipative devices. Feasible, adaptive dissipative devices under considerations can be based on MR fluids or (hydraulic or pneumatic) piezo-valves. The presentation will be devoted to the following applications of AIA concept: Adaptive Landing Gears (ALG) for mitigation of exploitative aircraft loads and adaptive flow control based airbags for emergency landing of the helicopter.

Keywords:
Adaptive Impact Absorption, Controlled Shock-absorbers, Adaptive Landing Gear, Inflatable Structures

281.Poma Bernaola A., Site Delle L., Separation of variables in molecular-dynamics simulations: A criterion to estimate the quality of the approximation, PHYSICAL REVIEW E, ISSN: 1539-3755, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.78.056703, Vol.78, pp.056703-1-11, 2008
Poma Bernaola A., Site Delle L., Separation of variables in molecular-dynamics simulations: A criterion to estimate the quality of the approximation, PHYSICAL REVIEW E, ISSN: 1539-3755, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.78.056703, Vol.78, pp.056703-1-11, 2008

Abstract:
We propose a simple method to evaluate the approximation of separation of variables in molecular dynamics (MD) and related fields. It is based on a point-by-point evaluation of the difference between the true potential and the corresponding potential where the separation of variables is applied. The major advantage of such an approach is the fact that it requires only the analytical form of the potential as provided in most of the MD codes. We provide two examples of application, namely, a diatomic molecule adsorbing on a flat surface and an alkane (aliphatic) chain.

Keywords:
Quality control, independent DOF, coarse graining, aliphatic chain, intramolecular

282.Wikło M., Holnicki-Szulc J., Impact Load Identification Based on Local Measurements, KEY ENGINEERING MATERIALS, ISSN: 1662-9795, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.293-294.159, Vol.293-294, pp.159-166, 2005
Wikło M., Holnicki-Szulc J., Impact Load Identification Based on Local Measurements, KEY ENGINEERING MATERIALS, ISSN: 1662-9795, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.293-294.159, Vol.293-294, pp.159-166, 2005

Abstract:
A new methodology for load identification is proposed. The global dynamic structural response is modeled using only pre-computed, time dependent, dynamic influence matrix, describing structural response to locally generated unit impulses. Then, the impact load identification procedure is based on distance minimization between the modeled and measured local dynamic responses in sensor locations. The theoretical background as well as numerical examples is presented.

Keywords:
structural health monitoring, impact detection, inverse dynamics

283.Kowalewski Z., Creep of Metals Subjected to Prior Plastic Deformation, KEY ENGINEERING MATERIALS, ISSN: 1662-9795, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.274-276.913, Vol.274-276, pp.913-918, 2004
Kowalewski Z., Creep of Metals Subjected to Prior Plastic Deformation, KEY ENGINEERING MATERIALS, ISSN: 1662-9795, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.274-276.913, Vol.274-276, pp.913-918, 2004

Abstract:
An influence of prior tensile plastic deformation on the basic creep parameters such as minimum creep rate, time to rupture, duration of creep stages and ductility is studied for copper and aluminium alloy. The materials were tested at two different temperatures; copper at 523 K and 573 K; aluminium alloy at 423 K and 473 K. It is shown for both materials, that depending on the deformation history the basic creep parameters may attain values which are more beneficial from engineering point of view than those for the nonprestrained material determined. It is also shown that in some cases prior plastic deformation may lead to the detrimental effects expressed by the lifetime reduction. The experimental data achieved are discussed in detail and used to verify the basic assumptions of the recovery creep theory.

Keywords:
Creep, Plastic Deformation, Creep Rupture, Lifetime, Minimum Creep Rate

284.Kowalewski Z., Turski K., Multiaxial Proportional and Non-Proportional Cyclic Behaviour of 40H Steel and PA6 Aluminium Alloy, KEY ENGINEERING MATERIALS, ISSN: 1662-9795, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.233-236.269, Vol.233-236, pp.269-274, 2003
Kowalewski Z., Turski K., Multiaxial Proportional and Non-Proportional Cyclic Behaviour of 40H Steel and PA6 Aluminium Alloy, KEY ENGINEERING MATERIALS, ISSN: 1662-9795, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.233-236.269, Vol.233-236, pp.269-274, 2003

Abstract:
The phenomena arising during proportional and non-proportional cyclic loadings are experimentally investigated for 40H steel and PA6 aluminium alloy. Variations of the mechanical properties due to different two types of cyclic loading are assessed on the basis of the yield surface evolution. Effects of strain rate and magnitude of cyclic loading amplitude are also considered. Analysis of the stress and strain signals during non-proportional cyclic loading along circular path has shown significant effect of a phase shift of the maximum stress with respect to the corresponding maximum strain, which was not observed during tests carried out along proportional loading paths

Keywords:
Additional Hardening, Non-Proportional Cyclic Loading, Phase Shift, Yield Surfaces

285.Holnicki-Szulc J., Pawłowski P., Wikło M., High-performance impact absorbing materials—the concept, design tools and applications., SMART MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, ISSN: 0964-1726, DOI: 10.1088/0964-1726/12/3/317, No.12(3), pp.461-467, 2003
Holnicki-Szulc J., Pawłowski P., Wikło M., High-performance impact absorbing materials—the concept, design tools and applications., SMART MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, ISSN: 0964-1726, DOI: 10.1088/0964-1726/12/3/317, No.12(3), pp.461-467, 2003

Abstract:
The concept of the design of adaptive materials composed of elements with controllable yield stresses is presented and the corresponding, gradient-based numerical design tools are described. Numerical simulation of the adaptation effect to various impact scenarios is demonstrated. The crucial point to get an additional value of energy dissipation (due to synergy of repetitive use of dissipaters in honeycomb-like cellular microstructure) is
to pre-design an optimal distribution of yield stress level in all controllable elements, triggering the desired sequence of local collapses. High effectiveness of active impact energy absorption by the yield stress adjustment demonstrates the potential application of the concept e.g. in shock-absorbing systems.

286.Dłużewski P., Jurczak G., Maciejewski G., Kret S., Ruterana P., Nouet G., Finite Element Simulation of Residual Stresses in Epitaxial Layers, Materials Science Forum (MSF), ISSN: 1662-9752, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.404-407.141, Vol.404-407, pp.141-146, 2002
Dłużewski P., Jurczak G., Maciejewski G., Kret S., Ruterana P., Nouet G., Finite Element Simulation of Residual Stresses in Epitaxial Layers, Materials Science Forum (MSF), ISSN: 1662-9752, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.404-407.141, Vol.404-407, pp.141-146, 2002

Abstract:
A nonlinear finite element approach presented here is based on the constitutive equations for anisotropic hyperelatic materials. By digital image processing the elastic incompatibilities (lattice mismatch) are extracted from the HRTEM image of GaN epilayer. Such obtained tensorial field of dislocation distribution is used next as the input data to the FE code. This approach is developed to study the stress distribution associated with lattice defects in highly mismatched heterostructures applied as buffer layers for the optically active structures.

Keywords:
Dislocations, Anisotropic Hyperelasticity, Residual Stresses

287.Kossecka E., Correlations Between Structure Dependent and Dynamic Thermal Characteristics of Building Walls, Journal of Thermal Envelope and Building Science , ISSN: 1097-1963, Vol.22, pp.315-333, 1999
Kossecka E., Correlations Between Structure Dependent and Dynamic Thermal Characteristics of Building Walls, Journal of Thermal Envelope and Building Science , ISSN: 1097-1963, Vol.22, pp.315-333, 1999

Abstract:
The effect of the internal thermal structure of building walls and roofs on their frequency responses, of period of 24 h, is examined. The notion of the thermal structure factors of a wall is introduced. Correlation between the fre quency dependent and structure dependent thermal characteristics is analyzed for the representative sets of building walls and roofs from ASHRAE Handbook 1989: Fundamentals. Most evident is the correlation between the decrement factor and the structure dependent time constant, between the admittance response amplitude and the appropriate thermal mass factor, and between the time lag and its estimated value, and also thickness of a wall.

Keywords:
heat transfer, thermal structure, structure factors, frequency re sponse

288.Kossecka E., Method of Averages to Determine Insulation Conductivity under Transient Conditions, Journal of Thermal Envelope and Building Science , ISSN: 1097-1963, Vol.23, pp.145-158, 1999
Kossecka E., Method of Averages to Determine Insulation Conductivity under Transient Conditions, Journal of Thermal Envelope and Building Science , ISSN: 1097-1963, Vol.23, pp.145-158, 1999

Abstract:
A simple method of data analysis, called the averaging technique, is presented which may be useful in long-term field measurements of temperature dependent thermal conductivity of insulating materials, is presented. Its mathematical basis is the integral statement, which follows from the heat conduction equation. For linear dependence of conductivity on temperature, on neglecting capacity terms, it yields simple algorithms to determine thermal conductivity in transient heat flow, for the weighted average temperature, when the heat flux and surface temperatures are measured simultaneously, and also when the heat flux comparator method is employed. The problem of proper control of the temperature inside the exposure test box, in order to minimize the error due to neglecting capacity terms, is discussed.

Keywords:
temperature dependent conductivity, nonlinear heat conduction, Kirchoff’s potential, field measurements, heat comparator method, method of averages

289.Kossecka E., Kosny J., Equivalent wall as a dynamic model of a complex thermal structure, Journal of Thermal Insulation and Building Envelopes, ISSN: 1065-2744, Vol.20, pp.249-268, 1997
Kossecka E., Kosny J., Equivalent wall as a dynamic model of a complex thermal structure, Journal of Thermal Insulation and Building Envelopes, ISSN: 1065-2744, Vol.20, pp.249-268, 1997

Abstract:
The idea of the thermally equivalent wall, the plane mul tilayer structure of dynamic characteristics similar to those for complex structure, in which three-dimensional heat flow occurs, is presented. The notion of structure factors is introduced and the conditions they impose on response factors are derived. Examples of complex structures are analyzed. For the same examples, thermally equivalent walls were generated. Response factors for the nominal complex structures were compared with the response factors for equivalent walls. The good accuracy in reproducing the response factors indicates that the thermally equivalent wall may be used as a sub stitute of a wall with thermal bridges in building design energy simulations

290.Dłużewski P., Continuum Theory of Dislocations in Angular Coordinates, Solid State Phenomena, ISSN: 1662-9779, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/SSP.35-36.539, Vol.35-36, pp.539-544, 1993
Dłużewski P., Continuum Theory of Dislocations in Angular Coordinates, Solid State Phenomena, ISSN: 1662-9779, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/SSP.35-36.539, Vol.35-36, pp.539-544, 1993

Abstract:
The dislocation density tensor is considered as a measure of angular inelastic deformation of crystal lattice. The modelling of plastic deformation of dislocated crystal is done by means of the vector constitutive relation imposed on the force-velocity dependence for dislocations. The force exerted on a dislocation is treated here as a direct reason of the dislocation movement. This force is induced by the elastic deformation of crystal lattice and by the osmotic stress due to the unbalanced concentration of vacancies.

Keywords:
Activation Energy of Dislocation Motion, Constitutive Equations of Dislocation Movement, Continuum Theory of Dislocations, Curvature Tensor, Dislocation Balance Law, Dislocation Density Tensor, Force on Dislocation, Internal Stress, Osmotic Pressure, Peach-Koehler Formula, Residual Stress, Thermodynamic Restrictions, Vacancy Concentration

291.Kossecka E., Formulation of the brittle fracture criterion for three-dimensional problems, ARCHIVES OF MECHANICS, ISSN: 0373-2029, Vol.38, No.1-2, pp.143-150, 1986
Kossecka E., Formulation of the brittle fracture criterion for three-dimensional problems, ARCHIVES OF MECHANICS, ISSN: 0373-2029, Vol.38, No.1-2, pp.143-150, 1986

Abstract:
The clarck propagation in three dimensions is considered. The fracture criterion takes into account the energy balance and the clarck geometry at the same time. For the preferred fracture process, the ratio of the corresponding energy release rate and the magnitude of a newly-created crack surface reaches the maximum.

292.Kossecka E., deWit R., Disclination kinematics, ARCHIVES OF MECHANICS, ISSN: 0373-2029, Vol.29, No.5, pp.633-651, 1977
Kossecka E., deWit R., Disclination kinematics, ARCHIVES OF MECHANICS, ISSN: 0373-2029, Vol.29, No.5, pp.633-651, 1977

Abstract:
A Mathematical theory of moving disclinations is developed. Kinematics is derived for a continuous distribution of disclinations and disiocations as well sa for moving discrete disclination and dislocation lines. the concept of the plastic velocity is used to give the theory a symmetrical form. The new concepts of disclination and dislocation loop currents are introduced. The relation between the disclination theory and the incompatibility theory is given.

293.Kossecka E., Mathematical theory of defects, Part II-Dynamics, ARCHIVES OF MECHANICS, ISSN: 0373-2029, Vol.27, No.1, pp.79-92, 1975
Kossecka E., Mathematical theory of defects, Part II-Dynamics, ARCHIVES OF MECHANICS, ISSN: 0373-2029, Vol.27, No.1, pp.79-92, 1975

Abstract:
The basic formulations of the dynamic theory of defects in the infinite, homogeneous, linearly - elastic coninuum are discussed. The relations between the theory of surface defects in the displacement description and the theory of the medium with defects represented by the incompatible deformation and velocity fields are demonstrated. The dynamic incompatibility problem is examined.