dr Ihor Trots

Zakład Ultradźwięków (ZU)
Pracownia Introskopii Ultradźwiękowej (PIU)
stanowisko: główny specjalista
telefon: (+48) 22 826 12 81 wew.: 285
pokój: 521
e-mail: igortr

Doktorat
2005-11-24Transmisja kodowana i kompresja echa w ultrasonografii medycznej 
promotor -- prof. dr hab. inż. Andrzej Nowicki, IPPT PAN
724 
Ostatnie publikacje
1.Trots I., Nowicki A., Postema M., Ultrasound Image Improvement by Code Bit Elongation, IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS, ISSN: 1070-9908, DOI: 10.1109/LSP.2017.2776040, pp.1-5, 2017

Streszczenie:

This paper analyses the influence of the transducer bandwidth on the compression and the axial resolution of an ultrasound image. The distortion of an electrical signal visible in the final image is a major problem in ultrasonography. To solve this problem, the bit length in Golay-complementary sequences was elongated, narrowing the fractional bandwidth of the coded sequences. Therefore, more energy of the burst signal could be transferred through the ultrasound transducer. The experimental results obtained for transmission of the complementary Golay-coded sequences with two different bit lengths - one-cycle and two-cycles - have been compared, and the efficiency of the pulse compression and its influence on the axial resolution for two fractional bandwidths have been discussed. The results are presented for two transducers having a fractional bandwidth of 25% and 80% and operating at a 6-MHz frequency. The results obtained show that the elongation of the Golay single bit length (doubled in our case) compensate for the limited transducer bandwidth. 2D ultrasound images of a tissue-mimicking phantom are presented and demonstrate the benefits of the use of two-cycle bit length.

Słowa kluczowe:

Coded excitation, Golay sequences, synthetic aperture method, transducer bandwidth, ultrasound imaging

Afiliacje autorów:

Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Postema M.-other affiliation
40p.
2.Nowicki A., Secomski W., Trawiński Z., Lewandowski M., Trots I., Szubielski M., Olszewski R., Estimation of radial artery reactive response using high frequency ultrasound, HYDROACOUSTICS, ISSN: 1642-1817, Vol.19, pp.297-306, 2016

Streszczenie:

Background:
There is a growing interest in the application of non-invasive clinical tools allowing one to assess the endothelial function, preceding atherosclerosis. The precision in estimating of the artery Flow Mediated Vasodilation (FMD) using standard 10-12 MHz linear array probes does not exceed 0.2 mm, far beyond that required.

Methods:
We have introduced a wide-band, high frequency 25-30 MHz, Golay encoded wobbling type imaging to measure dilation of the radial artery instead of the brachial one. 18 young volunteers, and 4 volunteers with cardiac events history, were examined. In the second approach 20 MHz linear scanning combined with 20 MHz pulsed Doppler attached to the linear array was used. The radial artery FMD was normalized using shear rate at the radial artery wall.

Results and Conclusions:
For the “healthy” group, the FMD resulting from reactive hyperemia response was over 20%; while in the “atherosclerotic” group, the FMD was at least twice as small, not exceeding 10%. The shear rate (SR) normalized FMDSR was in the range from 7.8 to 9.9 in arbitrary units, while in patients with minor cardiac history FMDSR was clearly lower, 6.8 to 7.6. The normalized FMDSR of radial artery RARR can be an alternative to the brachial FMD where the precision of measurements is lower and the diameter dilation does not exceed 7-10%.

Słowa kluczowe:

thick film transducers, atherosclerosis, flow mediated vasodilation

Afiliacje autorów:

Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Secomski W.-IPPT PAN
Trawiński Z.-IPPT PAN
Lewandowski M.-IPPT PAN
Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Szubielski M.-Mazovia Regional Hospital in Siedlce (PL)
Olszewski R.-IPPT PAN
6p.
3.Trots I., Tasinkevych Y., Nowicki A., Orthogonal Golay Codes With Local Beam Pattern Correction in Ultrasonic Imaging, IEEE SIGNAL PROCESSING LETTERS, ISSN: 1070-9908, DOI: 10.1109/LSP.2015.2423619, Vol.22, No.10, pp.1681-1684, 2015

Streszczenie:

The goal of this study is to improve the synthetic transmit aperture (STA) imaging method by employing the transducer array element beam pattern correction combined with emission of mutually orthogonal complementary Golay sequences. The transmit-receive scheme based on simultaneous emission of different Golay pairs by adjacent transmit subapertures is implemented to decrease the image reconstruction time. A brief discussion on the fundamentals of the orthogonal Golay complementary sequences is provided and their advantages for the STA imaging method are demonstrated. The performance of the developed approach was tested using FIELD II simulated synthetic aperture data from the point reflectors, which allowed to estimate both; the penetration depth and the lateral resolution. In the work the 128 element, 5 MHz, linear array transducer was used. The obtained results showed that the applying the beam pattern correction leads to the image quality improvement in the vicinity of the transducer face. Specifically, the noise level evaluated between the point reflectors at the depth of 4 mm decreased from - 14.1 dB for the case of omnidirectional source to - 38.7 dB when the element beam pattern correction was implemented. The simulation proved that the overall imaging quality was improved considerably.

Słowa kluczowe:

coded excitation, element directivity, mutually orthogonal Golay codes, synthetic aperture, ultrasound imaging

Afiliacje autorów:

Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Tasinkevych Y.-IPPT PAN
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
30p.
4.Trots I., Mutually Orthogonal Golay Complementary Sequences in Synthetic Aperture Imaging Systems, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, DOI: 10.1515/aoa-2015-0031, Vol.40, No.2, pp.283-289, 2015

Streszczenie:

The main objective of this study is to improve the ultrasound image by employing a new algorithm based on transducer array element beam pattern correction implemented in the synthetic transmit aperture (STA) method combined with emission of mutually orthogonal complementary Golay sequences. Orthogonal Golay sequences can be transmitted and received by different transducer elements simultaneously, thereby decreasing the time of image reconstruction, which plays an important role in medical diagnostic imaging.

The paper presents the preliminary results of computer simulation of the synthetic aperture method combined with the orthogonal Golay sequences in a linear transducer array. The transmission of long waveforms characterized by a particular autocorrelation function allows to increase the total energy of the transmitted signal without increasing the peak pressure. It can also improve the signal-to-noise ratio and increase the visualization depth maintaining the ultrasound image resolution.

In the work, the 128-element linear transducer array with a 0.3 mm pitch excited by 8-bits Golay coded sequences as well as one cycle at nominal frequencies of 4 MHz were used. The comparison of 2D ultrasound images of the phantoms is presented to demonstrate the benefits of a coded transmission. The image reconstruction was performed using the synthetic STA algorithm with transmit and receive signals correction based on a single element directivity function.

Słowa kluczowe:

coded excitation, mutually orthogonal Golay codes, synthetic aperture, ultrasound imaging

Afiliacje autorów:

Trots I.-IPPT PAN
15p.
5.Tasinkevych Y., Trots I., Circular Radon Transform Inversion Technique in Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging: an Ultrasound Phantom Evaluation, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, DOI: 10.2478/aoa-2014-0061, Vol.39, No.4, pp.569-582, 2014

Streszczenie:

The paper presents an overview of theoretical aspects of ultrasound image reconstruction techniques based on the circular Radon transform inversion. Their potential application in ultrasonography in a similar way as it was successfully done in the x-ray computer tomography is demonstrated. The methods employing Radon transform were previously extensively explored in the synthetic aperture radars, geophysics, and medical imaging using x-ray computer tomography. In this paper the main attention is paid to the ultrasound imaging employing monostatic transmit-receive configuration. Specifically, a single transmit and receive omnidirectional source placed at the same spatial location is used for generation of a wide-band ultrasound pulse and detection of back-scattered waves. The paper presents derivation of the closed-form solution of the CRT inversion algorithms by two different approaches: the range-migration algorithm (RMA) and the deconvolution algorithm (DA). Experimentally determined data of ultrasound phantom obtained using a 32-element 5 MHz linear transducer array with 0.48 mm element pitch and 0.36 mm element width and 5 mm height, excited by a 2 sine cycles burst pulse are used for comparison of images reconstructed by the RMA, DA, and conventional synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT). It is demonstrated that both the RMA and SAFT allow better lateral resolution and visualization depth to be achieved as compared to the DA approach. Comparison of the results obtained by the RMA method and the SAFT indicates slight improvement of the lateral resolution for the SAFT of approximately 1.5 and 1.6% at the depth of 12 and 32 mm, respectively. Concurrently, however, the visualization depth increase for the RMA is shown in comparison with the SAFT. Specifically, the scattered echo amplitude increase by the factor of 1.36 and 1.12 at the depth of 22 and 32 mm is demonstrated. It is also shown that the RMA runs about 30% faster than the SAFT and about 12% faster than the DA method.

Słowa kluczowe:

synthetic aperture focusing method, circular Radon Transform, delay-and-sum beamforming, range migration algorithm

Afiliacje autorów:

Tasinkevych Y.-IPPT PAN
Trots I.-IPPT PAN
15p.
6.Tasinkevych Y., Trots I., Nowicki A., Lewin P.A., Modified synthetic transmit aperture algorithm for ultrasound imaging, Ultrasonics, ISSN: 0041-624X, DOI: 10.1016/j.ultras.2011.09.003, Vol.52, pp.333-342, 2012

Streszczenie:

The modified synthetic transmit aperture (STA) algorithm is described. The primary goal of this work was to assess the possibility to improve the image quality achievable using synthetic aperture (SA) approach and to evaluate the performance and the clinical applicability of the modified algorithm using phantoms. The modified algorithm is based on the coherent summation of back-scattered RF echo signals with weights calculated for each point in the image and for all possible combinations of the transmit–receive pairs. The weights are calculated using the angular directivity functions of the transmit–receive elements, which are approximated by a far-field radiation pattern of a narrow strip transducer element vibrating with uniform pressure amplitude over its width. In this way, the algorithm takes into account the finite aperture of each individual element in the imaging transducer array. The performance of the approach developed was tested using FIELD II simulated synthetic aperture data of the point reflectors, which allowed the visualization (penetration) depth and lateral resolution to be estimated. Also, both simulated and measured data of cyst phantom were used for qualitative assessment of the imaging contrast improvement. The experimental data were obtained using 128 elements, 4 MHz, linear transducer array of the Ultrasonix research platform. The comparison of the results obtained using the modified and conventional (unweighted) STA algorithms revealed that the modified STA exhibited an increase in the penetration depth accompanied by a minor, yet discernible upon the closer examination, degradation in lateral resolution, mainly in the proximity of the transducer aperture. Overall, however, a considerable (12 dB) improvement in the image quality, particularly in the immediate vicinity of the transducer’s surface was demonstrated. The modified STA method holds promise to be of clinical importance, especially in the applications where the quality of the ‘‘near-field’’ image, that is the image in the immediate vicinity of the scanhead is of critical importance such as for instance in skin- and breast-examinations.

Słowa kluczowe:

synthetic aperture imaging, ultrasound imaging, directivity function, beamforming

Afiliacje autorów:

Tasinkevych Y.-IPPT PAN
Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Lewin P.A.-Drexel University (US)
25p.
7.Tasinkevych Y., Trots I., Nowicki A., Lewandowski M., Optimization of the Multi-element Synthetic Transmit Aperture Method for Medical Ultrasound Imaging Applications, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.37, No.1, pp.47-55, 2012

Streszczenie:

The paper presents the optimization problem for the multi-element synthetic transmit aperture method (MSTA) in ultrasound imaging applications. The optimal choice of the transmit aperture size is made as a trade-off between the lateral resolution, penetration depth and the frame rate. Results of the analysis obtained by a developed optimization algorithm are presented. The maximum penetration depth and lateral resolution at given depths are chosen as optimization criteria. The results of numerical experiments carried out in MATLAB using synthetic aperture data of point reflectors obtained by the FIELD II simulation program are presented. The visualization of experimental synthetic aperture data of a tissue mimicking phantom and in vitro measurements of the beef liver performed using the SonixTOUCH Research system are also shown.

Słowa kluczowe:

ultrasound imaging, synthetic aperture, beamforming

Afiliacje autorów:

Tasinkevych Y.-IPPT PAN
Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Lewandowski M.-IPPT PAN
15p.
8.Wójcik J., Trots I., Lewandowski M., Nowicki A., Cumulative Method of the Image Reconstruction in Synthetic Aperture. Experimental Results, HYDROACOUSTICS, ISSN: 1642-1817, Vol.15, pp.195-206, 2012

Streszczenie:

An analytical model of imaging using synthetic aperture (SA) methods is presented. This model takes into account: fundamental features of an environment, of an electric transmission/reception path and a description of SA structure - possible schemes of transmission, reception and image formation. Then two schemes are analyzed: a proposed cumulative synthetic transmit aperture (CSTA) and for comparison of the standard STA schemes. For both methods identical basic parameters - equal sequences of transmit and receive transducers were applied. The distinctive feature of CSTA is gathering (summing up) echoes of subsequent transmissions in one acquisition mat ix sufficient for image reconstruction. In traditionally applied STA methods a separate acquisition matrix for each transmission is created. Therefore there are a dozen to several dozen more matrices and the time of image reconstruction is at least several times longer than in CSTA. The presented experimental results obtained using wire and tissue mimicking phantoms have shown the comparable imaging quality in both methods.

Słowa kluczowe:

ultrasound imaging, synthetic aperture

Afiliacje autorów:

Wójcik J.-IPPT PAN
Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Lewandowski M.-IPPT PAN
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
4p.
9.Tasinkevych Y., Trots I., Nowicki A., Lewandowski M., Transmit Sub-aperture Optimization in MSTA Ultrasound Imaging Method, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, ISSN: 2010-376X, Vol.65, pp.422-427, 2012

Streszczenie:

The paper presents the optimization problem for the multi-element synthetic transmit aperture method (MSTA) in ultrasound imaging applications. The optimal choice of the transmit aperture size is performed as a trade-off between the lateral resolution, penetration depth and the frame rate. Results of the analysis obtained by a developed optimization algorithm are presented. Maximum penetration depth and the best lateral resolution at given depths are chosen as the optimization criteria. The optimization algorithm was tested using synthetic aperture data of point reflectors simulated by Filed II program for Matlab® for the case of 5MHz 128-element linear transducer array with 0.48 mm pitch are presented. The visualization of experimentally obtained synthetic aperture data of a tissue mimicking phantom and in vitro measurements of the beef liver are also shown. The data were obtained using the SonixTOUCH Research systemequipped with a linear 4MHz 128 element transducerwith 0.3 mm element pitch, 0.28 mm element width and 70% fractional bandwidth was excited by one sine cycle pulse burst of transducer's center frequency.

Słowa kluczowe:

synthetic aperture method, ultrasound imaging, beamforming

Afiliacje autorów:

Tasinkevych Y.-IPPT PAN
Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Lewandowski M.-IPPT PAN
10.Trots I., Tasinkevych Y., Nowicki A., Lewandowski M., Coded Transmission in Synthetic Transmit Aperture Ultrasound Imaging Method, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, ISSN: 2010-376X, Vol.63, pp.331-336, 2012

Streszczenie:

The paper presents the study of synthetic transmit aperture method applying the Golay coded transmission for medical ultrasound imaging. Longer coded excitation allows to increase the total energy of the transmitted signal without increasing the peak pressure. Signal-to-noise ratio and penetration depth are improved maintaining high ultrasound image resolution. In the work the 128-element linear transducer array with 0.3 mm inter-element spacing excited by one cycle and the 8 and 16-bit Golay coded sequences at nominal frequencies 4 MHz was used. Single element transmission aperture was used to generate a spherical wave covering the full image region and all the elements received the echo signals. The comparison of 2D ultrasound image s of the wire phantom as well as of the tissue mimicking phantom is presented to demonstrate the benefits of the coded transmission. The results were obtained using the synthetic aperture algorithm with transmit and receive signals correction based on a single element directivity function

Słowa kluczowe:

Golay coded sequences, radiation pattern, synthetic aperture, ultrasound imaging

Afiliacje autorów:

Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Tasinkevych Y.-IPPT PAN
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Lewandowski M.-IPPT PAN
11.Trots I., Tasinkevych Y., Nowicki A., Lewandowski M., In Vitro Study of Coded Transmission in Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging Systems, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, ISSN: 2010-376X, Vol.6, No.6, pp.82-87, 2012

Streszczenie:

In the paper the study of synthetic transmit aperture method applying the Golay coded transmission for medical ultrasound imaging is presented. Longer coded excitation allows to increase the total energy of the transmitted signal without increasing the peak pressure. Moreover signal-to-noise ratio and penetration depth are improved while maintaining high ultrasound image resolution. In the work the 128-element linear transducer array with 0.3 mm inter-element spacing excited by one cycle and the 8 and 16- bit Golay coded sequences at nominal frequency 4 MHz was used. To generate a spherical wave covering the full image region a single element transmission aperture was used and all the elements received the echo signals. The comparison of 2D ultrasound images of the tissue mimicking phantom and in vitro measurements of the beef liver is presented to illustrate the benefits of the coded transmission. The results were obtained using the synthetic aperture algorithm with transmit and receive signals correction based on a single element directivity function.

Słowa kluczowe:

Golay coded sequences, radiation pattern, signal, processing, synthetic aperture, ultrasound imaging

Afiliacje autorów:

Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Tasinkevych Y.-IPPT PAN
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Lewandowski M.-IPPT PAN
12.Trots I., Tasinkevych Y., Nowicki A., Lewandowski M., Golay Coded Sequences in Synthetic Aperture Imaging Systems, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.36, No.4, pp.913-926, 2011

Streszczenie:

The paper presents the theoretical and experimental study of synthetic transmit aperture (STA) method combined with Golay coded transmission for medical ultrasound imaging applications. The transmission of long waveforms characterized by a particular autocorrelation function allows to increase the total energy of the transmitted signal without increasing the peak pressure. It can also improve signal-to-noise ratio and increase the visualization depth maintaining the ultrasound image resolution.
In the work the 128-element linear transducer array with 0.3 mm pitch excited by the 8 and 16-bits Golay coded sequences as well as a one cycle at nominal frequencies 4 MHz were used. The comparison of 2D ultrasound images of the tissue mimicking phantoms is presented to demonstrate the benefits of coded transmission. The image reconstruction was performed using synthetic STA algorithm with transmit and receive signals correction based on a single element directivity function.

Słowa kluczowe:

ultrasound imaging, synthetic aperture, beamforming, radiation pattern, coded sequences, Golay codes

Afiliacje autorów:

Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Tasinkevych Y.-IPPT PAN
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Lewandowski M.-IPPT PAN
15p.
13.Trots I., Tasinkevych Y, Nowicki A., Lewandowski M., Multi-Element Synthetic Transmit Aperture Method in Medical Ultrasound Imaging, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, ISSN: 2010-376X, Vol.80, pp.562-567, 2011

Streszczenie:

The paper presents the multi-element synthetic transmit aperture (MSTA) method with a small number of elements transmitting and all elements receiving apertures in medical ultrasound imaging. Compared to other methods the MSTA allows to increase the system frame rate and provides the best compromise between penetration depth and lateral resolution.
In the experiments a 128-element linear transducer array with 0.3 mm inter-element spacing and a burst pulse of 125 ns duration were used. The comparison of 2D ultrasound images of tissue mimicking phantom obtained using the STA and the MSTA methods is presented to demonstrate the benefits of the second method. The obtained results were performed using SA algorithm with transmit and receive signals correction based on a single element directivity function.

Słowa kluczowe:

beamforming, frame rate, synthetic aperture, ultrasound imaging

Afiliacje autorów:

Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Tasinkevych Y-IPPT PAN
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Lewandowski M.-IPPT PAN
14.Trots I., Nowicki A., Lewandowski M., Tasinkevych Y., Multi-element synthetic transmit aperture in medical ultrasound imaging, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.35, No.4, pp.687-699, 2010

Streszczenie:

Synthetic aperture (SA) technique is a novel approach to present day commercial systems and has previously not been used in medical ultrasound imaging. The basic idea of SA is to combine information acquired simultaneously from all directions over a number of emissions and to reconstruct the full image from these data. The paper presents the multi-element STA (MSTA) method for medical ultrasound imaging. The main difference with the STA approach is the use of a few elements in the transmit mode in contrast to a single element aperture. This allows increasing the system frame rate, decreasing the number of emissions, and provides the best compromise between the penetration depth and lateral resolution. Besides, a modified MSTA is proposed with a corresponding RF signal correction in the receive mode, which accounts for the element directivity property. In the experiments a 32-element linear transducer array with 0.48 mm interelement spacing and a burst pulse of 100 ns duration were used. Two elements wide transmission aperture was used to generate an ultrasound wave covering the full image region. The comparison of 2D ultrasound images of a tissue mimicking phantom obtained using the STA and MSTA methods is presented to demonstrate the benefits of the second one.

Słowa kluczowe:

ultrasound imaging, synthetic aperture, beamforming

Afiliacje autorów:

Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Lewandowski M.-IPPT PAN
Tasinkevych Y.-IPPT PAN
9p.
15.Trots I., Nowicki A., Lewandowski M., Synthetic transmit aperture method in medical ultrasonic imaging, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, ISSN: 2010-376X, Vol.64, pp.202-205, 2010

Streszczenie:

The work describes the use of a synthetic transmit aperture (STA) with a single element transmitting and all elements receiving in medical ultrasound imaging. STA technique is a novel approach to today’s commercial systems, where an image is acquired sequentially one image line at a time that puts a strict limit on the frame rate and the amount of data needed for high image quality. The STA imaging allows to acquire data simultaneously from all directions over a number of emissions, and the full image can be reconstructed.
In experiments a 32-element linear transducer array with 0.48 mm inter-element spacing was used. Single element transmission aperture was used to generate a spherical wave covering the full image region. The 2D ultrasound images of wire phantom are presented obtained using the STA and commercial ultrasound scanner Antares to demonstrate the benefits of the SA imaging.

Słowa kluczowe:

ultrasound imaging, synthetic aperture, frame rate, beamforming

Afiliacje autorów:

Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Lewandowski M.-IPPT PAN
16.Trots I., Nowicki A., Lewandowski M., Synthetic transmit aperture in ultrasound imaging, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.34, No.4, pp.685-695, 2009

Streszczenie:

The paper describes the use of synthetic transmit aperture (STA) imaging in medical ultrasound. The synthetic aperture (SA) imaging is a novel approach to today's commercial systems. In these systems the image is acquired sequentially one image line at a time that puts a strict limit on the frame rate and the possibility of acquiring a sufficient amount of data for high image quality. This limitation can be lifted by employing SA imaging where the data are acquired simultaneously from all directions over a number of emissions, and the full image can be reconstructed from those data. Due to the complete data set, it is possible to have full transmitting and receiving focusing at the entire image region to improve the contrast dynamic and spatial resolution. The paper describes the STA imaging with a single element transmitting and all elements receiving apertures. In experiments, 32-element linear transducer array with 0.48 mm inter-element spacing and a burst pulse of 100ns duration were used. The single element transmission aperture was used to generate a spherical wave covering the full image region. The 2D ultrasound images of wire phantom are presented to demonstrate the benefits of SA imaging.

Słowa kluczowe:

ultrasound imaging, synthetic aperture, beamforming

Afiliacje autorów:

Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Lewandowski M.-IPPT PAN
9p.
17.Trots I., Nowicki A., Lewandowski M., Laboratory setup for synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.33, No.4, pp.573-580, 2008

Streszczenie:

The paper describes the synthetic transmit aperture (STA) imaging system with a single element transmitting and multi-element reception in medical ultrasound. Synthetic aperture method allows to achieve high electronic signal-to-noise ratio and good contrast resolution. A laboratory setup for acquisition of RF signals from linear transducer array was built. Simulated multichannel acquisition by multiplexing individual transducer was performed. In experiments 32-element linear transducer array with 0.48 mm inter-element spacing and a burst pulse with time duration 100 ns was used. Single element in the transducer transmitting aperture was used to generate a spherical wave covering the full image region. The echo signals were sampled independently by individual elements for each transmission. The comparison of 2D ultrasound images of wire phantom obtained using STA method and standard linear array scanning with commercial ultrasonograph is given. The results show excellent image resolution of the STA method and its robustness to refraction, attenuation and multiple reflection of ultrasound waves.

Słowa kluczowe:

ultrasound imaging, synthetic aperture, contrast resolution

Afiliacje autorów:

Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Lewandowski M.-IPPT PAN
18.Trots I., Nowicki A., Lewandowski M., Secomski W., Litniewski J., Double pulse transmission - signal to noise ratio improvement in ultrasound imaging, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.33, No.4, pp.593-601, 2008

Streszczenie:

This study investigates a new composing method of double transmission of short coded sequences based on well-known Golay complementary codes, which allow to obtain the higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and increase penetration depth. The proposed method can potentially find application in small parts ultrasonography and play important role in examination of superficial structures, e.g. in dermatology, ophthalmology, etc., where using longer coded sequences leads to increase of a dead zone and single pulse transmission of short sequences does not assure sufficient SNR. This paper discusses the comparison of results obtained during the examination of four different lengths pairs of Golay coded sequences excited at 3.7 MHz: the single 64-bits pair of Golay sequences and combined sequences consisting of two 8-, 16-, and 32-bits Golay codes separated in time. The experimental results have shown that using the double pulse transmission allows to suppress considerably the noise level, the SNR increases by 5.7 dB in comparison with the single pulse transmission of Golay sequences of the same length. The results of this work indicate that double pulse transmission enhances SNR while maintaining the dead zone short.

Słowa kluczowe:

Golay complementary sequences, double pulse transmission, dead zone

Afiliacje autorów:

Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Lewandowski M.-IPPT PAN
Secomski W.-IPPT PAN
Litniewski J.-IPPT PAN
19.Secomski W., Trots I., Nowicki A., Golay code excitation of ultrasonic transducers with different backing, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.33, No.4S, pp.21-26, 2008

Streszczenie:

Two 3.7 MHz focused ultrasonic transducers were built. One without backing and the second loaded on back. The primary application of the first transducer is Doppler blood flow measuring ultrasonic devices, the second is most useful for the B-mode imaging devices. The electrical and acoustical properties were tested and finally the results of the different Golay code excitations were compared. Efficiency of the not backed transducer was 4.1 dB higher. The not backed transducer performed maximum sensitivity for 8 bit two periods per bit code excitation. The backed transducer achieved maximum axial resolution for 16 bit one period per bit excitation.

Słowa kluczowe:

ultrasonic transducers, imaging, backing, coded excitation, Golay codes

Afiliacje autorów:

Secomski W.-IPPT PAN
Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
20.Trots I., Nowicki A., Lewandowski M., Secomski W., Litniewski J., The influence of the transducer bandwidth and double pulse transmission on the encoded imaging ultrasound, HYDROACOUSTICS, ISSN: 1642-1817, Vol.11, pp.419-430, 2008

Streszczenie:

An influence effect of fractional bandwidth of ultrasound imaging transducer on the gain of compressed echo signal being the complementary Golay sequences (CGS) with different spectral widths is studied in this paper. Also, a new composing transmission method of CGS is discussed together with compression technique applied in order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and penetration.
The CGS with two different bit lengths, one-cycle and two-cycles are investigated. Two transducers with fractional bandwidth of 25% and 80% at centre frequency 6 MHz are used. The experimental results are presented, clearly proofing that increasing of the code length leads to compressed echo amplitude enhancement. The smaller the bandwidth is the larger is this effect; the pulse-echo sensitivity of the echo amplitude increases by 1.88 for 25% fractional bandwidth and 1.47 for 80% while preserving time resolution. The presented results of double transmission of short codes show the penetration and SNR improvement while maintaining dead zone.

Słowa kluczowe:

ultrasound, transducer, bandwidth, Golay code

Afiliacje autorów:

Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Lewandowski M.-IPPT PAN
Secomski W.-IPPT PAN
Litniewski J.-IPPT PAN
21.Nowicki A., Trots I., Lewin P.A., Secomski W., Tymkiewicz R., Influence of the ultrasound transducer bandwidth on selection of the complementary Golay bit code length, Ultrasonics, ISSN: 0041-624X, DOI: 10.1016/j.ultras.2007.07.003, Vol.47, pp.64-73, 2007

Streszczenie:

In contrast to previously published papers [A. Nowicki, Z. Klimonda, M. Lewandowski, J. Litniewski, P.A. Lewin, I. Trots, Comparison of sound fields generated by different coded excitations – Experimental results, Ultrasonics 44 (1) (2006) 121–129; J. Litniewski, A. Nowicki, Z. Klimonda, M. Lewandowski, Sound fields for coded excitations in water and tissue: experimental approach, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 33 (4) (2007) 601–607], which examined the factors influencing the spatial resolution of coded complementary Golay sequences (CGS), this paper investigates the effect of ultrasound imaging transducer’s fractional bandwidth on the gain of the compressed echo signal for different spectral widths of the CGS. Two different bit lengths were considered, specifically one and two cycles. Three transducers having fractional bandwidth of 25%, 58% and 80% and operating at frequencies 6, 4.4 and 6 MHz, respectively were examined (one of the 6 MHz sources was focused and made of composite material). The experimental results have shown that by increasing the code length, i.e. decreasing the bandwidth, the compressed echo amplitude could be enhanced. The smaller the bandwidth was the larger was the gain; the pulse-echo sensitivity of the echo amplitude increased by 1.88, 1.62 and 1.47, for 25%, 58% and 80% bandwidths, respectively. These results indicate that two cycles bit length excitation is more suitable for use with bandwidth limited commercially available imaging transducers. Further, the time resolution is retained for transducers with two cycles excitation providing the fractional bandwidth is lower than approximately 90%. The results of this work also show that adjusting the code length allows signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) to be enhanced while using limited (less that 80%) bandwidth imaging transducers. Also, for such bandwidth limited transducers two cycles excitation would not decrease the time resolution, obtained with ‘‘conventional’’ spike excitation. Hence, CGS excitation could be successfully implemented with the existing, relatively narrow band imaging transducers without the need to use usually more expensive wideband, composite ones.

Słowa kluczowe:

ultrasound imaging, transducer bandwidth, complementary Golay sequences

Afiliacje autorów:

Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Lewin P.A.-Drexel University (US)
Secomski W.-IPPT PAN
Tymkiewicz R.-IPPT PAN
22.Trots I., Nowicki A., Secomski W., Tymkiewicz R., The influence of the transducer bandwidth on the efficient Golay codes compression, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.32, No.4, pp.101-110, 2007

Streszczenie:

The maximization of penetration depth with concurrent retaining or enhancement of image resolution constitutes one of the time invariant challenges in ultrasound imaging. To solve this problem a pulse compression technique employing long coded sequences is now under intensive investigation and in fact some of the corresponding techniques were already implemented in commercial scanning machines. This paper investigates the influence of the effective bandwidth of the transducer on the behaviour of the encoding/compression technique and its potential influence on the axial resolution. We have investigated two different bits lengths – one and two periods – in the Golay sequences resulting in substantial difference of the bandwidth of the transmitted sequences. Three transducers with different fractional bandwidths were used in the experiments: 6 MHz focused transducer with 25% fractional bandwidth, 4.4 MHz flat transducer with 58% fractional bandwidth and 6 MHz flat, composite transducer with 80% fractional bandwidth. The experimental results are clearly showing that the elongation of the Golay single bit length (two cycles in our case) compensates for the limited transducer bandwidth. For 25% bandwidth peak-to-peak echo increased by 1.89 times; for 58% bandwidth peak-to-peak echo amplitude increased by 1.62 times, and for 80% bandwidth peak-to-peak echo increased by 1.47 times.

Słowa kluczowe:

ultrasound imaging, transducer bandwidth, Golay complementary sequences

Afiliacje autorów:

Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Secomski W.-IPPT PAN
Tymkiewicz R.-IPPT PAN
23.Trots I., Nowicki A., Influence of transducer bandwidth on compressed ultrasonic echoes, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.32, No.4, pp.903-915, 2007

Streszczenie:

The aim of this work is to explore and analyze the influence of the transducer bandwidth on the compressed echoes resulted from the Golay complementary codes transmission. For that reason, a computer simulation and experimental verification were performed that reflected the influence of the transducer bandwidth on the distortion of a signal. This study helps to elucidate why the echoes ringing is present for narrow bandwidth transducers. As known, the shape and symmetry of the pulse waveform and its interaction with the transducer bandwidth and its tuning circuitry have a profound effect on the pulse echo performance achievable from a medical scanning probe. The computer simulation was performed using the Matlab software for different fractional transducer bandwidths - from wideband transducers of 100% (ideal case), 90%, 75% to narrowband ones of 50% and 25%. The 16-bits Golay complementary sequences at nominal frequency of 1 MHz were used to illustrate the transducer bandwidth influence on the resulted signal. It was shown that the decreasing of the transducer bandwidth results in a considerable drop of the amplitude of the compressed echoes from 20.1 V for the 90% fractional bandwidth down to: 17.1 V, 12.5 V and 6.6 V for 75%, 50% and 25% bandwidths, respectively. The widths of the compressed echoes were widening at the same time from 708 ns up to 2.38 μs reducing the axial resolution from about 1 mm to over 3.6 mm. In the experiments, two transducers with different fractional bandwidths of 70% and 35% and nominal frequencies of 4.8 MHz and 6 MHz, respectively, were used.

Słowa kluczowe:

transducer, signal analysis, distortion, filtering, Golay sequences

Afiliacje autorów:

Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
24.Nowicki A., Klimonda Z., Lewandowski M., Litniewski J., Lewin P.A., Trots I., Comparison of sound fields generated by different coded excitations experimental results, Ultrasonics, ISSN: 0041-624X, Vol.44, pp.121-129, 2006

Streszczenie:

This work reports the results of measurements of spatial distributions of ultrasound fields obtained from five energizing schemes. Three different codes, namely, chirp signal and two sinusoidal sequences were investigated. The sequences were phase modulated with 13 bits Barker code and 16 bits Golay complementary codes. Moreover, two reference signals generated as two and sixteen cycle sine tone bursts were examined. Planar, 50% (fractional) bandwidth, 15 mm diameter source transducer operating at 2 MHz center frequency was used in all measurements. The experimental data were collected using computerized scanning system and recorded using wideband, PVDF membrane hydrophone (Sonora 804). The measured echoes were compressed, so the complete pressure field in the investigated location before and after compression could be compared. In addition to a priori anticipated increase in the signal to noise ratio (SNR) for the decoded pressure fields, the results indicated differences in the pressure amplitude levels, directivity patterns, and the axial distance at which the maximum pressure amplitude was recorded. It was found that the directivity patterns of non-compressed fields exhibited shapes similar to the patterns characteristic for sinusoidal excitation having relatively long time duration. In contrast, the patterns corresponding to compressed fields resembled those produced by brief, wideband pulses. This was particularly visible in the case of binary sequences. The location of the maximum pressure amplitude measured in the 2 MHz field shifted towards the source by 15 mm and 25 mm for Barker code and Golay code, respectively. The results of this work may be applicable in the development of new coded excitation schemes. They could also be helpful in optimizing the design of imaging transducers employed in ultrasound systems designed for coded excitation. Finally, they could shed additional light on the relationship between the spatial field distribution and achievable image quality and in this way facilitate optimization of the images obtained using coded systems.

Słowa kluczowe:

coded excitation, sound fields

Afiliacje autorów:

Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Klimonda Z.-IPPT PAN
Lewandowski M.-IPPT PAN
Litniewski J.-IPPT PAN
Lewin P.A.-Drexel University (US)
Trots I.-IPPT PAN
25.Trots I., Nowicki A., Lewandowski M., Litniewski J., Secomski W., Golay complementary codes, double pulse repetition frequency transmission, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.31, pp.35-40, 2006

Streszczenie:

This study concerns the development and investigation of a new composing method of short coded sequences and their transmission based on well-known Golay complementary codes and applied compression technique allowing to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and penetration. This new method can potentially play important role in examination of superficial structures, e.g. dermatology, ophthalmology, etc. This paper reports the results of examination of the two pairs 3.5 MHz coded sequences of the same duration: the single 32-bits pair Golay sequences and combined sequences consisting of two 16-bits Golay codes separated in time. The results clearly demonstrate the potential of the combined coded transmission obtaining the SNR = 22.6 dB that is 2.6 dB higher than for the traditional Golay sequences and it is in case when coded length is two times shorter. For obtaining the same SNR using traditional method the code length should be at least 64 bits long, resulting in the increased dead zone up to 1.4 cm.

Słowa kluczowe:

Golay complementary sequences, double transmission, dead zone

Afiliacje autorów:

Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Lewandowski M.-IPPT PAN
Litniewski J.-IPPT PAN
Secomski W.-IPPT PAN
26.Klimonda Z., Lewandowski M., Nowicki A., Trots I., Lewin P.A., Direct and post-compressed sound fields for different coded excitations - experimental results, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.30, No.4, pp.507-514, 2005

Streszczenie:

Coded ultrasonography is intensively studied in many laboratories due to its remarkable properties: increased depth penetration, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gain and improved axial resolution. However, no data concerning the spatial behavior of the pressure field generated by coded bursts transmissions were reported so far. Five different excitation schemes were investigated. Flat, circular transducer with 15 mm diameter, 2 MHz center frequency and 50% bandwidth was used. The experimental data was recorded using the PVDF membrane hydrophone and collected with computerized scanning system developed in our laboratory. The results of measured pressure fields before and after compression were then compared to those recorded using standard ultrasonographic short-pulse excitation. The increase in the SNR of the decoded pressure fields is observed. The modification of the spatial pressure field distribution, especially in the intensity and shape of the sidelobes is apparent. Coded sequences are relatively long and, intuitively, the beam shape could be expected to be very similar to the sound field of long-period sine burst. This is true for non-compressed distributions of examined signals. However, as will be shown, the compressed sound fields, especially for the measured binary sequences, are similar rather to field distributions of short, wideband bursts.

Słowa kluczowe:

coded excitation, ultrasonic field distribution, pulse compression, matched filtration, medical imaging

Afiliacje autorów:

Klimonda Z.-IPPT PAN
Lewandowski M.-IPPT PAN
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Lewin P.A.-Drexel University (US)
27.Nowicki A., Litniewski J., Secomski W., Trots I., Lewandowski M., Tymkiewicz R., Coded ultrasonography, Annual Report - Polish Academy of Sciences, ISSN: 1640-3754, pp.56-57, 2005
28.Wójcik J., Trots I., Lewandowski M., Nowicki A., Formulation of anisotropic failure criteria incorporating a microstructure tensor, COMPUTERS AND GEOTECHNICS, ISSN: 0266-352X, DOI: 10.1016/S0266-352X(99)00034-8, Vol.26, No.2, pp.105-112, 2000

Streszczenie:

Anisotropy is inherently related to microstructural arrangement within a representative volume of material. The microstructure can be represented by a second order tensor whose eigenvectors specify the orientation of the axes of material symmetry. In this paper, failure criteria for geomaterials are formulated in terms of the stress state and a microstructure tensor. The classical criteria for isotropic materials are generalized for the case of orthotropy as well as transverse isotropy. The proposed approach is illustrated by a simple example demonstrating the sensitivity of the uniaxial strength of the material to the orientation of the sample relative to the loading direction.

Afiliacje autorów:

Wójcik J.-IPPT PAN
Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Lewandowski M.-IPPT PAN
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN

Lista rozdziałów w ostatnich monografiach
1.
326
Nowicki A., Litniewski J., Trots I., Lewandowski M., Hydroacoustics of shallow water, rozdział: Encoded Ultrasound, Wydawnictwo Instytutu Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN, Warszawa, pp.181-208, 2013
2.
263
Trots I., Tasinkevych Y., Nowicki A., Acoustical Imaging, rozdział: Coded Excitation with Directivity Correction in Synthetic Aperture Imaging System, Springer, Nowicki A., Litniewski J., Kujawska T. (Eds.), 31, pp.157-167, 2012
3.
308
Tasinkevych Y., Trots I., Nowicki A., Acoustical Imaging, rozdział: Optimization in the multi-element synthetic transmit aperture method for ultrasound imaging, Springer, Nowicki A., Litniewski J., Kujawska T. (Eds.), pp.147-156, 2012
4.
254
Trots I., Nowicki A., Lewandowski M., Tasinkevych Y., Ultrasound Imaging, rozdział: Synthetic Aperture Method in Ultrasound Imaging, Masayuki Tanabe, pp.37-56, 2011
5.
126
Nowicki A., Klimonda Z., Lewandowski M., Litniewski J., Lewin P.A., Trots I., Acoustical imaging, rozdział: Direct and post-compressed sound fields for different coded excitations, Springer, André M.P. et al (Eds.), 28, pp.399-407, 2007

Prace konferencyjne
1.Wójcik J., Trots I., Nowicki A., Lewandowski M., Cumulative method of image reconstruction in synthetic aperture - theory and experimental results, IUS 2013, IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, 2013-07-21/07-25, Praga (CZ), DOI: 10.1109/ULTSYM.2013.0528, Vol.1, pp.2068-2071, 2013

Streszczenie:

The Synthetic Aperture (SA) method provides a new solution in ultrasound diagnostics. It has particular importance in applications where frame rate and image resolution are crucial. Our new approach named Cumulative Synthetic Transmit Aperture (CSTA) allows optimizing SA in terms of memory size and computational power. The proposed CSTA algorithm requires 25 times less memory than a reference STA method for 64 elements transducer. This makes feasible implementation of CSTA on a low-power embedded GPU.

Słowa kluczowe:

ultrasonic imaging, synthetic aperture, GPU

Afiliacje autorów:

Wójcik J.-IPPT PAN
Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Lewandowski M.-IPPT PAN
2.Tasinkevych Y., Klimonda Z., Lewandowski M., Trots I., Nowicki A., Sound field directivity in multi-element synthetic transmit aperture method for ultrasound imaging, Conference on Medical Imaging - Physics of Medical Imaging, 2012-02-05/02-08, San Diego (US), DOI: 10.1117/12.910584, Vol.8313, pp.831369-1, 2012

Streszczenie:

A modified multi-element synthetic transmit aperture (MSTA) method for ultrasound imaging with RF echoes correction taking into account the influence of the element directivity is presented. The property is significant as the element width becomes commensurable with the wavelength of the emitted signal. The angular dependence of the radiation efficiency of the transmit/receive aperture is obtained from exact solution of the corresponding mixed boundary-value problem for periodic baffle system, modeling the transducer array. It is evaluated at the nominal frequency of the excitation signal and is implemented in the developed MSTA algorithm as apodization weights calculated for each imaging point and all combinations of the transmit/receive apertures. The performance of developed method is tested using FIELDII simulated synthetic aperture data of the point reflectors to estimate the visualization depth and lateral resolution. Besides, a FIELDII simulated and measurement data of cyst phantom are used for qualitative assessment of the imaging contrast. Comparison of the results obtained by the modified and conventional MSTA algorithms is given which reveals considerable improvement of the image quality in the area neighboring to the transducer’s aperture, and increase of the visualization depth at the cost of slight degradation of lateral resolution near the transducer face.

Słowa kluczowe:

synthetic aperture, ultrasound imaging, beamforming

Afiliacje autorów:

Tasinkevych Y.-IPPT PAN
Klimonda Z.-IPPT PAN
Lewandowski M.-IPPT PAN
Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
3.Trots I., Tasinkevych Y., Nowicki A., Lewandowski M., Golay coded sequences in synthetic aperture imaging systems, 58 Otwarte Seminarium z Akustyki, 2011-08-13/08-16, Jurata (PL), pp.347-357, 2011

Streszczenie:

The paper presents the theoretical and experimental study of synthetic transmit aperture (STA) method combined with Golay coded transmission for medical ultrasound imaging applications. The transmission of long waveforms characterized by a particular autocorrelation function allows to increase the total energy of the transmitted signal without increasing the peak pressure. It can also improve signal-to-noise ratio and increase the visualization depth maintaining the ultrasound image resolution.
In the work the 128-element linear transducer array with 0.3 mm pitch excited by the 8 and 16-bits Golay coded sequences as well as a one cycle at nominal frequencies 4 MHz were used. The comparison of 2D ultrasound images of the tissue mimicking phantoms is presented to demonstrate the benefits of coded transmission. The image reconstruction was performed using synthetic STA algorithm with transmit and receive signals correction based on a single element directivity function.

Słowa kluczowe:

Golay codes, coded sequences, synthetic aperture, ultrasound imaging

Afiliacje autorów:

Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Tasinkevych Y.-IPPT PAN
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Lewandowski M.-IPPT PAN
4.Tasinkevych Y., Trots I., Nowicki A., Lewandowski M., Optimal aperture in MSTA method for medical ultrasound imaging applications, 58 Otwarte Seminarium z Akustyki, 2011-08-13/08-16, Jurata (PL), pp.323-334, 2011
5.Trots I., Nowicki A., Lewandowski M., Tasinkevych Y., Multielement synthetic transmit aperture in medical ultrasound imaging, 57 Otwarte Seminarium z Akustyki, 2010-09-20/09-24, Gliwice (PL), pp.205-208, 2010

Streszczenie:

Synthetic aperture (SA) technique is a novel approach to today's commercial systems and has previously not been used in medical ultrasound imaging. The basic idea of SA is to combine information acquired simultaneously from all directions over a number of emissions and to reconstruct the full image from these data.
The paper describes the multielement STA method in medical ultrasound imaging with a small number of elements transmitting and all elements receiving apertures. Compared to other methods the multielement STA allows to increase the system frame rate and provides the best compromise between penetration depth and lateral resolution. In the experiments a 32-element linear transducer array with 0.48 mm inter-element spacing and a burst pulse of 100 ns duration were used. Two elements wide transmission aperture was used to generate an ultrasound wave covering the full image region. The comparison of 2D ultrasound images of tissue mimicking phantom obtained using STA and multielement STA methods are presented to demonstrate the benefits of the second method.

Słowa kluczowe:

synthetic aperture, ultrasound imaging

Afiliacje autorów:

Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Lewandowski M.-IPPT PAN
Tasinkevych Y.-IPPT PAN
6.Tasinkevych Y., Nowicki A., Trots I., Element directivity influence in the synthetic focusing algorithm for ultrasound imaginig, 57 Otwarte Seminarium z Akustyki, 2010-09-20/09-24, Gliwice (PL), pp.197-200, 2010
7.Trots I., Nowicki A., Secomski W., Litniewski J., Lewandowski M., Transducer Bandwidth Influence on the Golay Encoded Ultrasound Echoes, IUS, IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 2007-10-28/10-31, New York (US), DOI: 10.1109/ULTSYM.2007.320, pp.1274-1277, 2007

Streszczenie:

This paper investigates the effect of ultrasound imaging transducer’s fractional bandwidth on the gain of the compressed echo signal for different spectral widths of the complementary Golay sequences (CGS). Two different bit lengths were investigated, specifically one and two cycles. Three transducers having fractional bandwidth of 25%, 58% and 80% and operating at frequencies 6 MHz, 4.4 MHz and 6 MHz, respectively were examined (one of the 6 MHz sources was made of composite material). The experimental results have shown that by increasing the code length, i.e. decreasing the bandwidth, the compressed echo amplitude could be enhanced. The smaller the bandwidth was the larger was the gain; the pulse-echo sensitivity of the echo amplitude increased by 1.88, 1.62 and 1.47, for 25%, 58% and 80% bandwidths, respectively. These results indicate that two cycles bit length excitation is more suitable for use with bandwidth limited commercially available imaging transducers. Further, the time resolution is retained for transducers with two cycles excitation providing the fractional bandwidth is lower than approximately 90%. The results of this work indicate that adjusting the code length allows signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) to be enhanced while using limited (less that 80%) bandwidth imaging transducers. Also, for such transducers two cycles excitation would not decrease the time resolution, obtained with ’conventional’ spike excitation. These results also indicate that CGS excitation could be successfully implemented with the existing, relatively narrow band imaging transducers without the need to use usually more expensive wide-band, composite ones.

Słowa kluczowe:

ultrasound imaging, coded transmission, transducer badnwidth, Golay codes

Afiliacje autorów:

Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Secomski W.-IPPT PAN
Litniewski J.-IPPT PAN
Lewandowski M.-IPPT PAN

Abstrakty konferencyjne
1.Nowicki A., Lewandowski M., Trots I., Olszewski R., High Frequency Thick Film Ultrasonic Transducers Used for Estimation of Flow-Mediated Vasodilation of the Radial Artery, SENSORDEVICES 2015, 6th International Conference on Sensor Device Technologies and Applications, 2015-08-23/08-28, Wenecja (IT), pp.99-100, 2015

Streszczenie:

Preceding atherosclerosis is an endothelial dysfunction. Therefore there is a growing interest in the application of non - invasive clinical tools to assess endothelial function. Commercially available ultrasound machines can measure flow - mediated vasodilatation of the brachial artery using maximum 10-12 MH z linear probes. The higher the probe frequency, the better the axial resolution. Recently, a new technology of piezoelectric transducers based on PZT thick film technology has been developed in Meggitt (Denmark) as a response to a call for devices working at higher frequencies. The thick films exhibited at least 30% bandwidth broadening comparing to the standard PZ 27 transducers, resulting in an increase in match filtering encoding output by a factor of 1.4 - 1.5 and finally resulting in a signal to noise gain of the same order. The introduction of a high frequency 25 - 30 MHz ultrasound scanner to measure radial artery diameter after reactive hyperemia open s a new window for more precise imaging of endothelial function.

Słowa kluczowe:

thick film transducers, atherosclerosis, flow mediated vaso dilation

Afiliacje autorów:

Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Lewandowski M.-IPPT PAN
Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Olszewski R.-other affiliation