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Polish Academy of Sciences

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A.A. Kasperlik-Załuska



Recent publications
1.  Słapa R.Z., Kasperlik-Załuska A.A., Migda B., Otto M., Dobruch-Sobczak K., Jakubowski W.S., Echogenicity of benign adrenal focal lesions on imaging with new ultrasound techniques – report with pictorial presentation, Journal of Ultrasonography, ISSN: 2084-8404, DOI: 10.15557/JoU.2015.0034, Vol.15, pp.368-376, 2015

Abstract:
Aim: The aim of the research was to assess the echogenicity of benign adrenal focal lesions using new ultrasound techniques. Material and method: 34 benign adrenal masses in 29 patients were analyzed retrospectively. The examinations were conducted using Aplio XG (Toshiba, Japan) ultrasound scanner with a convex probe 1–6 MHz in the B-mode presentation with the combined use of new ultrasound techniques: harmonic imaging and spatial compound sonography. The size of the adrenal tumors, their echogenicity and homogeneity were analyzed. Statistical analysis was conducted using the STATISTICA 10 software. Results: The following adrenal masses were assessed: 12 adenomas, 10 nodular hyperplasias of adrenal cortex, 7 myelolipomas, 3 pheochromocytomas, a hemangioma with hemorrhage and a cyst. The mean diameter of nodular hyperplasia of adrenal cortex was not statistically different from that of adenomas (p = 0.075). The possibility of differentiating between nodular hyperplasia and adenoma using the parameter of hypoechogenicity or homogeneity of the lesion was demonstrated with the sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 41.7%, respectively. The larger the benign adrenal tumor was, the more frequently did it turn out to have a mixed and inhomogenous echogenicity (p < 0.05; ROC areas under the curve: 0.832 and 0.805, respectively). Conclusions: A variety of echogenicity patterns of benign adrenal focal lesions was demonstrated. The image of an adrenal tumor correlates with its size. The ultrasound examination, apart from its indisputable usefulness in detecting and monitoring adrenal tumors, may also allow for the differentiation between benign lesions. However, for lesions found incidentally an algorithm for the assessment of adrenal incidentalomas is applicable, which includes computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

Keywords:
adrenal glands, adrenal masses, ultrasound, echogenicity

Affiliations:
Słapa R.Z. - other affiliation
Kasperlik-Załuska A.A. - other affiliation
Migda B. - other affiliation
Otto M. - other affiliation
Dobruch-Sobczak K. - IPPT PAN
Jakubowski W.S. - other affiliation
2.  Słapa R.Z., Jakubowski W.S., Dobruch-Sobczak K., Kasperlik-Załuska A.A., Standards of ultrasound imaging of the adrenal glands, Journal of Ultrasonography, ISSN: 2084-8404, DOI: 10.15557/JoU.2015.0035, Vol.15, pp.377-387, 2015

Abstract:
Adrenal glands are paired endocrine glands located over the upper renal poles. Adrenal pathologies have various clinical presentations. They can coexist with the hyperfunction of individual cortical zones or the medulla, insufficiency of the adrenal cortex or retained normal hormonal function. The most common adrenal masses are tumors incidentally detected in imaging examinations (ultrasound, tomography, magnetic resonance imaging), referred to as incidentalomas. They include a range of histopathological entities but cortical adenomas without hormonal hyperfunction are the most common. Each abdominal ultrasound scan of a child or adult should include the assessment of the suprarenal areas. If a previously non-reported, incidental solid focal lesion exceeding 1 cm (incidentaloma) is detected in the suprarenal area, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging should be conducted to confirm its presence and for differentiation and the tumor functional status should be determined. Ultrasound imaging is also used to monitor adrenal incidentaloma that is not eligible for a surgery. The paper presents recommendations concerning the performance and assessment of ultrasound examinations of the adrenal glands and their pathological lesions. The article includes new ultrasound techniques, such as tissue harmonic imaging, spatial compound imaging, three-dimensional ultrasound, elastography, contrast-enhanced ultrasound and parametric imaging. The guidelines presented above are consistent with the recommendations of the Polish Ultrasound Society.

Keywords:
adrenal glands, adrenal masses, ultrasound, standards

Affiliations:
Słapa R.Z. - other affiliation
Jakubowski W.S. - other affiliation
Dobruch-Sobczak K. - IPPT PAN
Kasperlik-Załuska A.A. - other affiliation

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