Institute of Fundamental Technological Research
Polish Academy of Sciences

Partners

Maryna Chernyshova

Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (PL)


Recent publications
1.  Chernyshova M., Malinowski K., Jabłoński S., Casiraghi I., Demchenko I.N., Melikhov Y., Development of 2D GEM-based SXR plasma imaging for DTT device: focus on readout structure, Fusion Engineering and Design, ISSN: 0920-3796, DOI: 10.1016/j.fusengdes.2021.112443, Vol.169, pp.112443-1-12, 2021

Abstract:
Creation and development of a new diagnostics useful for future thermonuclear reactors and helpful in studying impurity profiles, MHD modes/localization, and imaging are among urgent tasks in plasma research field. Global SXR imaging for DTT device in support of power exhaust programme and its consecutive impact for plasma core is an example of applicability of such diagnostics. This contribution presents the results of the ongoing development of the elaborated plasma X-ray imaging technology focusing on the design of the relevant structure of readout electrode. In order to achieve that, the details on the expected plasma radiation for the selected scenario for DTT machine were assessed. Then, the spatial distribution of plasma radiation intensity flux that will be reaching the detector window of the GEM based detector was simulated. Taking it into account along with the physical properties of the detector, the spatial and temporal distributions of charge cloud that will be reaching the readout plane were evaluated. The special design of the readout structure has been proposed that fulfil critical conditions originated from technological and physical constraints. The final effectiveness of the GEM based detector was evaluated proving that such detector is well suited for an effective plasma radiation imaging.

Keywords:
X-ray detectors, GEM detector simulations, gas-electron multiplier (GEM) detector, SXR plasma imaging, DTT device

Affiliations:
Chernyshova M. - Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (PL)
Malinowski K. - Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (PL)
Jabłoński S. - Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (PL)
Casiraghi I. - other affiliation
Demchenko I.N. - Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Melikhov Y. - IPPT PAN
2.  Demchenko I.N., Melikhov Y., Walczak M.S., Ratajczak R., Sobczak K., Barcz A., Minikaev R., Dynowska E., Domagała J.Z., Chernyshova M., Syryanyy Y., Gavrilov N.V., Sawicki M., Effect of rapid thermal annealing on damage of silicon matrix implanted by low-energy rhenium ions, JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS, ISSN: 0925-8388, DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2020.156433, Vol.846, pp.156433-1-10, 2020

Abstract:
The structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of low-energy rhenium implanted c-Si are examined for the first time. The damage created by rhenium ions and the following partial reconstruction of the silicon host matrix after rapid thermal annealing (RTA) are investigated as a function of the fluence. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) results reveal that the implanted ions are located in the near-surface region with the distribution maximum at about 23 nm below the surface. The analysis of rhenium-depth distribution using the McChasy code shows that the implanted Re-ions are located in the interstitial lattice positions. The RTA leads to a partial recovery of the silicon crystal structure. According to the RBS results, the formed inclusions are not coherent with the silicon host matrix causing an increase of the lattice distortion. Analysis of channeled RBS/c spectra carried out by the McChasy code revealed different levels of bent channels in damaged regions suggesting bimodal distribution of inclusions in the silicon. Studies of high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) conducted after the RTA showed the shift of Re 4f7/2 binding energy (BE) by +0.68 and + 0.85 eV with respect to metallic rhenium for the samples with lower/higher fluencies, respectively. Complex XPS, density functional theory (DFT) simulations, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data analysis allowed us to conclude that the near-surface layer of the sample (~10 nm) consists of nanoinclusions with cubic and/or hexagonal ReSi. In the middle area of the samples, much larger nanoinclusions (>10/20 nm for higher/lower fluencies, respectively) containing pure metallic rhenium inside are formed. The RTA increases the magnetic moment of the sample with the lower dose nearly 20-fold, whereas in the sample with the higher dose a 3-fold increment is observed only. The magnetic response of the examined systems after the RTA indicates a presence of magnetic interactions between the nanoinclusions resulting in the system exhibiting super-spin glass or super-ferromagnetism.

Keywords:
rhenium-implanted silicon, RBS, XPS, RTA, TEM, DFT

Affiliations:
Demchenko I.N. - Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Melikhov Y. - IPPT PAN
Walczak M.S. - other affiliation
Ratajczak R. - National Centre for Nuclear Research (PL)
Sobczak K. - other affiliation
Barcz A. - Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Minikaev R. - other affiliation
Dynowska E. - other affiliation
Domagała J.Z. - Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Chernyshova M. - Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (PL)
Syryanyy Y. - Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Gavrilov N.V. - other affiliation
Sawicki M. - other affiliation
3.  Chernyshova M., Malinowski K., Czarski T., Demchenko I.N., Melikhov Y., Kowalska-Strzęciwilk E., Wojeński A., Krawczyk R.D., Effect of charging-up and regular usage on performance of the triple GEM detector to be employed for plasma radiation monitoring, Fusion Engineering and Design, ISSN: 0920-3796, DOI: 10.1016/j.fusengdes.2020.111755, Vol.158, pp.111755-1-6, 2020

Abstract:
After the problem of high-temperature plasma confinement, construction of diagnostics that is able to identify plasma contamination with impurities and to determine impurity distribution is another critically important issue. Solution of this problem would enable progress towards the success in controlled thermonuclear fusion. A new diagnostics, based on Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology, has been recently developed for poloidal tomography focused on radiation of the metal impurities by monitoring in Soft X-Ray (SXR) region. GEM based detectors would undergo much less damage by neutrons than standard semiconductor diodes which results in better operational stability. This paper emphasizes the results of the latest examination of this type of detectors, showing influence of the charging-up effect on the detector performance and its physical properties for expected plasma radiation intensity. In addition, an undesired influence of aging of the detector window's material on the performance of the GEM detector is also shown: regular (moderate or active) usage could lead to changes of material's morphology as well as its composition. This study confirms the importance of further research into material’s optimization of GEM detectors used as a base for SXR tomographic diagnostics aimed to work under different plasma radiation conditions.

Keywords:
nuclear instruments for hot plasma diagnostics, X-ray detectors, electron multipliers (gas), micropattern gaseous detectors, charging-up effect, detector window's material

Affiliations:
Chernyshova M. - Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (PL)
Malinowski K. - Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (PL)
Czarski T. - Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (PL)
Demchenko I.N. - Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Melikhov Y. - other affiliation
Kowalska-Strzęciwilk E. - Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (PL)
Wojeński A. - Warsaw University of Technology (PL)
Krawczyk R.D. - Warsaw University of Technology (PL)
4.  Chernyshova M., Malinowski K., Czarski T., Kowalska-Strzęciwilk E., Linczuk P., Wojeński A., Krawczyk R.D., Melikhov Y., Advantages of Al based GEM detector aimed at plasma soft−semi hard X-ray radiation imaging, Fusion Engineering and Design, ISSN: 0920-3796, DOI: 10.1016/j.fusengdes.2019.01.153, Vol.146, pp.1039-1042, 2019

Abstract:
Development of gaseous detectors, more specifically Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) based detectors, for application at tokamak plasma radiation monitoring/imaging in Soft−Semi Hard X-ray (S−SH) region is an ongoing research activity aiming to deliver valuable information on plasma shape, magnetic configuration, non-axisymmetry phenomena of the plasma, etc. Wide radiation range and brightness of plasma radiation impose some restrictions on choice of materials in the detecting chamber, as their interaction with the incident radiation may disrupt original signals. This work proposes usage of aluminum as GEM foils electrodes for the first time. The detector based on these foils was constructed and examined. The operational characteristics and spectral capabilities of such detector were compared with the ones based on the standard (commonly used) copper GEM foils. The laboratory tests were performed using X-ray tube and 55Fe sources to examine detectors' capabilities in energy-resolved imaging. Additionally, simulations of origin and number of the generated electrons, which determine the detector signal, were performed for Al and Cu GEM foils for a wide energy range of incident photons. The experimental and modelling data demonstrated that Cu based GEM detector produces higher parasitic signal than Al one necessitating total elimination of copper from detector's chamber.

Keywords:
nuclear instruments for hot plasma diagnostics, X-ray detectors, SXR imaging, electron multipliers (gas), micropattern gaseous detectors, aluminum GEM foils

Affiliations:
Chernyshova M. - Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (PL)
Malinowski K. - Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (PL)
Czarski T. - Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (PL)
Kowalska-Strzęciwilk E. - Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (PL)
Linczuk P. - Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (PL)
Wojeński A. - Warsaw University of Technology (PL)
Krawczyk R.D. - Warsaw University of Technology (PL)
Melikhov Y. - other affiliation
5.  Demchenko I.N., Syryanyy Y., Melikhov Y., Nittler L., Gladczuk L., Lasek K., Cozzarini L., Dalmiglio M., Goldoni A., Konstantynov P., Chernyshova M., X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis as a tool to assess factors influencing magnetic anisotropy type in Co/MgO system with gold interlayer, SCRIPTA MATERIALIA, ISSN: 1359-6462, DOI: 10.1016/j.scriptamat.2017.10.006, Vol.145, pp.50-53, 2018

Abstract:
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies of Au/Co/Au(0.3 nm)/MgO and Au/Co/MgO systems were conducted in order to monitor the electronic structure modification at Co/MgO interface with/without gold interlayer. A detailed analysis of Co 2p states revealed that the amount of minor oxygen contribution at Co/MgO interface decreased after the Au interlayer was added. The obtained XPS results together with density functional theory (DFT) allowed explanation of the increase of surface anisotropy energy in the sample with the gold interlayer in terms of (i) noble and transitional metal d-d orbital hybridization; (ii) interfacial Co 3d and O 2p; and (iii) interface imperfection.

Affiliations:
Demchenko I.N. - Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Syryanyy Y. - Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Melikhov Y. - other affiliation
Nittler L. - Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Gladczuk L. - Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Lasek K. - Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Cozzarini L. - Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A. (IT)
Dalmiglio M. - Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A. (IT)
Goldoni A. - Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A. (IT)
Konstantynov P. - Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Chernyshova M. - Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (PL)
6.  Chernyshova M., Malinowski K., Melikhov Y., Kowalska-Strzęciwilk E., Czarski T., Wojeński A., Linczuk P., Krawczyk R.D., Study of the optimal configuration for a Gas Electron Multiplier aimed at plasma impurity radiation monitoring, Fusion Engineering and Design, ISSN: 0920-3796, DOI: 10.1016/j.fusengdes.2018.03.031, Vol.136, pp.592-596, 2018

Abstract:
For the purpose of monitoring the level of plasma impurity (especially tungsten) and its distribution reconstruction at tokamaks (ITER in particular), a Soft X-Ray (SXR) tomographic diagnostics based on Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors with energy discrimination has been extensively considered for a while. Coupled with advanced electronics, GEM detectors offer excellent time and space resolution, as well as a charge spectrum from which the SXR photon spectrum can be deconvolved. In addition, they are less subjected to a neutron damage as compared to standard semiconductor diodes. This contribution highlights the latest studies supporting the development of such diagnostics focusing on laboratory tests to examine: (a) the impact of GEM holes geometry on the properties and distribution of the electron avalanche; (b) the effect of the high rate photon flux on GEM foil performance; and (c) the optimal electric field distribution.

Keywords:
Nuclear instruments for hot plasma diagnostics, X-ray detectors, Electron multipliers (gas), Micropattern gaseous detectors (MSGC; GEM; THGEM; RETHGEM; MHSP; MICROPIC; MICROMEGAS; InGrid; etc.)

Affiliations:
Chernyshova M. - Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (PL)
Malinowski K. - Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (PL)
Melikhov Y. - other affiliation
Kowalska-Strzęciwilk E. - Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (PL)
Czarski T. - Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (PL)
Wojeński A. - Warsaw University of Technology (PL)
Linczuk P. - Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (PL)
Krawczyk R.D. - Warsaw University of Technology (PL)
7.  Chernyshova M., Czarski T., Malinowski K., Melikhov Y., Kasprowicz G., Kowalska-Strzęciwilk E., Linczuk P., Wojeński A., Krawczyk R.D., 2D GEM based imaging detector readout capabilities from perspective of intense soft x-ray plasma radiation, REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS, ISSN: 0034-6748, DOI: 10.1063/1.5039278, Vol.89, No.10, pp.10G106-1-5, 2018

Abstract:
A detecting system based on the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology is considered for tokamak plasma radiation monitoring. In order to estimate its capabilities in processing and recording intense photon flux (up to similar to 0.1 MHz/mm(2)), the imaging effectiveness of GEM detectors was tested with different patterned anode planes (i. e., different signal readouts): a simple hexagonal readout structure and three structures with interconnected electrodes (XY square, XY rectangular, and UXV). It was found that under intense photon flux, all the readouts fail to account for a considerable amount of the incoming signals due to mostly photon position determination ambiguity and overlapped signals. Analysis of the signals that can be used to determine photon position and energy unambiguously showed that the UXV readout structure is more effective among the readouts with interconnected electrodes. Along with similar spatial resolution and accuracy, the UXV based layout could be considered as a quite promising base of the interconnected anode electrodes configuration, keeping in mind that the photon rate capability has to be improved for the final application.

Affiliations:
Chernyshova M. - Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (PL)
Czarski T. - Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (PL)
Malinowski K. - Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (PL)
Melikhov Y. - other affiliation
Kasprowicz G. - Warsaw University of Technology (PL)
Kowalska-Strzęciwilk E. - Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (PL)
Linczuk P. - Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (PL)
Wojeński A. - Warsaw University of Technology (PL)
Krawczyk R.D. - Warsaw University of Technology (PL)

Category A Plus

IPPT PAN

logo ippt            Pawińskiego 5B, 02-106 Warsaw
  +48 22 826 12 81 (central)
  +48 22 826 98 15
 

Find Us

mapka
© Institute of Fundamental Technological Research Polish Academy of Sciences 2021