Institute of Fundamental Technological Research
Polish Academy of Sciences

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W.A. Berger



Recent publications
1.  Radulescu E.G., Lewin P.A., Wójcik J., Nowicki A., Berger W.A., The influence of finite aperture and frequency response of ultrasonic hydrophone probes On the determination of acoustic output, Ultrasonics, ISSN: 0041-624X, DOI: 10.1016/j.ultras.2003.11.019, Vol.42, No.1-9, pp.367-372, 2004

Abstract:
The influence of finite aperture and frequency response of piezoelectric ultrasonic hydrophone probes on the Thermal and Mechanical Indices was investigated using a comprehensive acoustic wave propagation model. The experimental verification of the model was obtained using a commercially available, 8 MHz, dynamically focused linear array and a single element, 5 MHz, focused rectangular source. The pressure–time waveforms were recorded using piezoelectric polymer hydrophone probes of different active element diameters and bandwidths. The nominal diameters of the probes ranged from 50 to 500 μm and their usable bandwidths varied between 55 and 100 MHz. The Pulse Intensity Integral (PII), used to calculate the Thermal Index (TI), was found to increase with increasing bandwidth and decreasing effective aperture of the probes. The Mechanical Index (MI), another safety indicator, was also affected, but to a lesser extent. The corrections needed were predicted using the model and successfully reduced the discrepancy as large as 30% in the determination of PII. The results of this work indicate that by accounting for hydrophones' finite aperture and correcting the value of PII, all intensities derived from the PII can be corrected for spatial averaging error. The results also point out that a caution should be exercised when comparing acoustic output data. In particular, hydrophone's frequency characteristics of the effective diameter and sensitivity are needed to correctly determine the MI, TI, and the total acoustic output power produced by an imaging transducer.

Keywords:
Ultrasound imaging, Nonlinear propagation, Spatial averaging, Safety indices

Affiliations:
Radulescu E.G. - other affiliation
Lewin P.A. - Drexel University (US)
Wójcik J. - IPPT PAN
Nowicki A. - IPPT PAN
Berger W.A. - other affiliation

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