Institute of Fundamental Technological Research
Polish Academy of Sciences


C.P. Fernandez

Recent publications
1.  Nabavian Kalat M., Staszczak M., Urbański L., Fernandez C., Vega C., Cristea M., Ionita D., Lantada A., Pieczyska E.A., Investigating a shape memory epoxy resin and its application to engineering shape-morphing devices empowered through kinematic chains and compliant joints, MATERIALS AND DESIGN, ISSN: 0264-1275, DOI: 10.1016/j.matdes.2023.112263, Vol.233, No.112263, pp.1-15, 2023

4D printing is the additive manufacturing (3D printing) of objects that can transform their shape in a controlled and predictable way when subjected to external stimuli. A thermo-responsive shape memory polymer (SMP) is a highly suitable material to 4D print smart devices, due to its actuation function and the capability of recovering its original shape from the deformed one upon heating. This study presents the results of employing an epoxy resin in the additive manufacturing of complex-shaped smart devices with shape-morphing properties using laser stereolithography (SLA). To quantify the shape memory behaviour of the shape memory epoxy (SMEp), we first investigate the thermomechanical properties of the 3D-printed specimens in a tensile testing machine coupled with an environmental thermal chamber. This approach allows us to determine the shape fixity and recovery of SMEp. Next, we propose effective designs of complex-shaped devices, with the aim of promoting shape morphing through micro-actuators and compliant joints acting as active regions in combination with multiplying mechanisms or kinematic chains in each of the devices. We manufacture the complex-shaped prototypes by using SLA directly from the computer-aided designs. The shape memory trials of the 3D-printed prototypes reveal quite precise shape recovery of the devices, illustrating their shape-memory. In fact, the inclusion of micro-actuators and compliant joints within the complex-geometry devices allows for local triggering, deformation and recovery, resulting in a prompt response of the devices to heat. Therefore, innovative designs, along with the suitable smart material and high-quality manufacturing process, lead to 4D printed devices with fast actuation and shape-morphing properties. Overall, this research may contribute to the development of smart materials and 4D printing technology for applications in fields such as biomedical engineering, robotics, transport and aerospace engineering

Shape memory polymers,Shape memory epoxy,Shape morphing structures,Laser stereolithography,3D and 4D printing

Nabavian Kalat M. - IPPT PAN
Staszczak M. - IPPT PAN
Urbański L. - IPPT PAN
Fernandez C. - other affiliation
Vega C. - other affiliation
Cristea M. - Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry (RO)
Ionita D. - other affiliation
Lantada A. - other affiliation
Pieczyska E.A. - IPPT PAN

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