Institute of Fundamental Technological Research
Polish Academy of Sciences


Magdalena Garlinska

National Center for Research and Development (PL)

Recent publications
1.  Garlinska M., Osial M., Proniewska K., Pregowska A., The Influence of Emerging Technologies on Distance Education, Electronics , ISSN: 2079-9292, DOI: 10.3390/electronics12071550, Vol.12, No.7, pp.1550-1-29, 2023


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The Influence of Emerging Technologies on Distance Education
by Magdalena Garlinska
1,†, Magdalena Osial
1 [ORCID] , Klaudia Proniewska
2,3 [ORCID] and Agnieszka Pregowska
1,*,† [ORCID]
Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Pawinskiego 5B, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland
Center for Digital Medicine and Robotics, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kopernika 7E Str., 31-034 Krakow, Poland
Department of Bioinformatics and Telemedicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Medyczna 7 Str., 30-688 Krakow, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

These authors contributed equally to this work.
Electronics 2023, 12(7), 1550;
Received: 17 February 2023 / Revised: 22 March 2023 / Accepted: 23 March 2023 / Published: 25 March 2023
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Computer Science & Engineering)
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Recently, during the COVID-19 pandemic, distance education became mainstream. Many students were not prepared for this situation—they lacked equipment or were not even connected to the Internet. Schools and government institutions had to react quickly to allow students to learn remotely. They had to provide students with equipment (e.g., computers, tablets, and goggles) but also provide them with access to the Internet and other necessary tools. On the other hand, teachers were trying to adopt new technologies in the teaching process to enable more interactivity, mitigate feelings of isolation and disconnection, and enhance student engagement. New technologies, including Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR), Mixed Reality (MR), Extended Reality (XR, so-called Metaverse), Big Data, Blockchain, and Free Space Optics (FSO) changed learning, teaching, and assessing. Despite that, some tools were implemented fast, and the COVID-19 pandemic was the trigger for this process; most of these technologies will be used further, even in classroom teaching in both schools and universities. This paper presents a concise review of the emerging technologies applied in distance education. The main emphasis was placed on their influence on the efficiency of the learning process and their psychological impact on users. It turned out that both students and teachers were satisfied with remote learning, while in the case of undergraduate children and high-school students, parents very often expressed their dissatisfaction. The limitation of the availability of remote learning is related to access to stable Internet and computer equipment, which turned out to be a rarity. In the current social context, the obtained results provided valuable insights into factors affecting the acceptance and emerging technologies applied in distance education. Finally, this paper suggests a research direction for the development of effective remote learning techniques.

distance education, artificial intelligence (AI), virtual reality, augmented reality, mixed reality, free space optics (FSO), blockchain, big data

Garlinska M. - IPPT PAN
Osial M. - IPPT PAN
Proniewska K. - Jagiellonian University (PL)
Pregowska A. - IPPT PAN
2.  Garlinska M., Pręgowska A., Gutowska I., Osial M., Szczepański J., Experimental study of the free space optics communication system operating in the 8–12 μm spectral range, Electronics , ISSN: 2079-9292, DOI: 10.3390/electronics10080875, Vol.10, No.8, pp.875-1-13, 2021

(1) Background: Free space optics communication (FSO) has improved wireless communication and data transfer thanks to high bandwidth, low power consumption, energy efficiency, a high transfer capacity, and a wide applicability field. The FSO systems also have their limitations, including weather conditions and obstacles in the way of transmission. (2) Methods: This research assesses the atmospheric conditions’ influence on the intensity of received radiation, both experimentally and theoretically. The construction of a laboratory test stand of the FSO system, which is operating in the third-atmosphere transmission window (8–12 μm), is proposed. Next, considering different atmospheric conditions, the experimental validation was conducted, both in a laboratory and real conditions. (3) Results: The measurements were carried out for two optical links working with wavelengths of 1.5 μm and 10 μm. It was found that optical radiation with a wavelength of about 10 μm is characterized by better transmission properties in the case of limited visibility (e.g.,light rain and fogs) than in the case of near-infrared waves. The same conclusion was found in analytical investigations. (4) Conclusions: The results obtained show that optical radiation with a wavelength of about 10 μm in limited visibility is characterized by better transmission properties than near-infrared waves. This demonstrates the validity of designing FSO links operating in the range 8–12 μm band, e.g., based on quantum cascade lasers and HgCdTe photodiodes.

free space optical communication, IR photodetector, quantum cascade laser, wireless communication

Garlinska M. - National Center for Research and Development (PL)
Pręgowska A. - IPPT PAN
Gutowska I. - Oregon State University (US)
Osial M. - other affiliation
Szczepański J. - IPPT PAN
3.  Garlinska M., Pręgowska A., Masztalerz K., Osial M., From mirrors to free-space optical communication-historical aspects in data transmission, Future Internet, ISSN: 1999-5903, DOI: 10.3390/fi12110179, Vol.12, No.11, pp.179-1-18, 2020

Fast communication is of high importance. Recently, increased data demand and crowded radio frequency spectrum have become crucial issues. Free-Space Optical Communication (FSOC) has diametrically changed the way people exchange information. As an alternative to wire communication systems, it allows efficient voice, video, and data transmission using a medium like air. Due to its large bandwidth, FSOC can be used in various applications and has therefore become an important part of our everyday life. The main advantages of FSOC are a high speed, cost savings, compact structures, low power, energy efficiency, a maximal transfer capacity, and applicability. The rapid development of the high-speed connection technology allows one to reduce the repair downtime and gives the ability to quickly establish a backup network in an emergency. Unfortunately, FSOC is susceptible to disruption due to atmospheric conditions or direct sunlight. Here, we briefly discuss Free-Space Optical Communication from mirrors and optical telegraphs to modern wireless systems and outline the future development directions of optical communication.

free-space optical communication, telecommunications, wireless communication, data transfer history, communication networks

Garlinska M. - National Center for Research and Development (PL)
Pręgowska A. - IPPT PAN
Masztalerz K. - other affiliation
Osial M. - other affiliation

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