Assoc. Prof. Piotr Kiełczyński, Ph.D., Dr. Habil., Eng.

Department of Theory of Continuous Media and Nanostructures (ZTOCiN)
Division of Acoustoelectronics (ZeBAk)
position: professor IPPT
telephone: (+48) 22 826 12 81 ext.: 416
room: 531
e-mail: pkielczy

Doctoral thesis
1979Propagacja poprzecznych fal powierzchniowych w ośrodkach sprężystych o zmiennych własnościach fizycznych 
supervisor -- Prof. Wincenty Pajewski, Ph.D., Dr. Habil., Eng., IPPT PAN
323 
Habilitation thesis
2000Pola akustyczne przetworników i układów ultradźwiękowych o niejednorodnym rozkładzie amplitudy drgań na powierzchni 
Recent publications
1.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Wieja K., Rostocki A., Ptasznik S., Evaluation of High-Pressure Thermophysical Parameters of the Diacylglycerol (DAG) Oil Using Ultrasonic Waves, Food and Bioprocess Technology, ISSN: 1935-5130, DOI: 10.1007/s11947-016-1827-6, Vol.10, No.2, pp.358-369, 2017
Abstract:

Modeling of high-pressure technological processes in the food industry requires knowledge of thermophysical parameters of processed foodstuffs in a broad range of pressures and temperatures. However, the high-pressure thermophysical parameters of foodstuffs are very rarely published in the literature. Therefore, further research is necessary to achieve a deeper insight into the biophysical and thermophysical phenomena under pressure to provide better control of technological processes and optimize the effects of pressure. The essential goal of this work is to evaluate the impact of high pressure and temperature on the thermophysical parameters of liquid foodstuffs on the example of diacylglycerol (DAG) oil (which attracted recently a considerable attention from research and industrial communities due to its remarkable benefits for health), using ultrasonic wave velocity and density measurements. Isotherms of adiabatic and isothermal compressibility, isobaric thermal expansion coefficient, internal pressure, and thermal pressure coefficient versus pressure were evaluated, based on the measurement of the compressional ultrasonic wave velocity and density of DAG oil at high pressures (up to 500 MPa) and at various temperatures. The adiabatic compressibility is affected mostly by the changes of pressure, i.e., it grows about four times when the pressure increases from the atmospheric pressure (0.1 MPa) to 400 MPa at a temperature of 50 °C. By contrast, the internal pressure is a pronounced function of the temperature, i.e., it increases six times when the temperature rises from 20 to 50 °C at a pressure of a 200 MPa. To perform numerical calculations, it was convenient to introduce a Tammann–Tait type equation of state to approximate the measured density isotherms of the investigated DAG oil. The results obtained in this paper can be applied in modeling and optimization of high-pressure technological processes and processing of foodstuffs. Evaluation of high-pressure isotherms of the considered thermophysical parameters of the DAG oil is an original authors’ contribution to the state-of-the-art.

Keywords:

High-pressure food processing, Diacylglycerols, Thermophysical parameters, Isothermal compressibility, Isobaric thermal expansion coefficient, Ultrasonic methods

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
Balcerzak A.-IPPT PAN
Wieja K.-IPPT PAN
Rostocki A.-other affiliation
Ptasznik S.-Air Force Institute of Technology (PL)
2.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Wieja K., Propagation of ultrasonic Love waves in nonhomogeneous elastic functionally graded materials, Ultrasonics, ISSN: 0041-624X, DOI: 10.1016/j.ultras.2015.10.001, Vol.65, pp.220-227, 2016
Abstract:

This paper presents a theoretical study of the propagation behavior of ultrasonic Love waves in nonhomogeneous functionally graded elastic materials, which is a vital problem in the mechanics of solids. The elastic properties (shear modulus) of a semi-infinite elastic half-space vary monotonically with the depth (distance from the surface of the material). The Direct Sturm–Liouville Problem that describes the propagation of Love waves in nonhomogeneous elastic functionally graded materials is formulated and solved by using two methods: i.e., (1) Finite Difference Method, and (2) Haskell-Thompson Transfer Matrix Method.

The dispersion curves of phase and group velocity of surface Love waves in inhomogeneous elastic graded materials are evaluated. The integral formula for the group velocity of Love waves in nonhomogeneous elastic graded materials has been established. The effect of elastic non-homogeneities on the dispersion curves of Love waves is discussed. Two Love wave waveguide structures are analyzed: (1) a nonhomogeneous elastic surface layer deposited on a homogeneous elastic substrate, and (2) a semi-infinite nonhomogeneous elastic half-space. Obtained in this work, the phase and group velocity dispersion curves of Love waves propagating in the considered nonhomogeneous elastic waveguides have not previously been reported in the scientific literature. The results of this paper may give a deeper insight into the nature of Love waves propagation in elastic nonhomogeneous functionally graded materials, and can provide theoretical guidance for the design and optimization of Love wave based devices.

Keywords:

Ultrasonic Love waves, Functionally graded materials, Profiles of elastic constants, Direct Sturm–Liouville Problem, Group velocity

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
Balcerzak A.-IPPT PAN
Wieja K.-IPPT PAN
3.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Wieja K., Inverse Method for Determining Profiles of Elastic Parameters in the Functionally Graded Materials using Love Waves, ACTA ACUSTICA UNITED WITH ACUSTICA, ISSN: 1610-1928, DOI: 10.3813/AAA.918961, Vol.102, pp.428-435, 2016
Abstract:

This paper presents the use of SH (Shear Horizontal) surface Love waves to determine the distributions of elastic parameters in nonhomogeneous Functionally Graded Materials. The advantage of Love waves applied to investigate the elastic properties of materials is that the Love wave energy (in contrast to the other types of waves, e.g., plate Lamb waves) is concentrated in the vicinity of the surface layer. The penetration depth of the SH surface Love waves depends on the frequency. Therefore, Love waves are particularly suitable for investigating the profiles of the mechanical properties in nonhomogeneous Graded Materials. Direct Problem (Direct Sturm-Liouville Problem) that describes the propagation of Love waves in nonhomogeneous graded materials has been formulated and solved numerically by applying the Transfer Matrix Method. The Inverse Procedure (Inverse Sturm-Liouville Problem) for determining the distribution of elastic properties versus depth in the nonhomogeneous materials has been developed. Love wave dispersion curves in nonhomogeneous graded materials were evaluated numerically (synthetic data). Using the evaluated dispersion curves of Love waves and a developed Inverse Procedure the distributions of elastic shear coefficient as a function of depth (distance from the surface of the material into the bulk) in a heterogeneous surface layer deposited on a homogeneous substrate have been evaluated. Power type profiles (i.e., root square, linear and quadratic) of the shear elastic coefficient in the surface layer were considered. The results of this study can be useful in the investigation of elastic properties of Graded Materials in electronics as well as in geophysics and seismology.

Keywords:

Love waves, Inverse Methods, Functionally Graded Materials, Elastic parameters, Sturm-Liouville Problem

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
Balcerzak A.-IPPT PAN
Wieja K.-IPPT PAN
4.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Wieja K., Rostocki A.J., Siegoczyński R.M., Ultrasonic Evaluation of Thermodynamic Parameters of Liquids Under High Pressure, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ULTRASONICS FERROELECTRICS AND FREQUENCY CONTROL, ISSN: 0885-3010, DOI: 10.1109/TUFFC.2015.007053, Vol.62, No.6, pp.1122-1131, 2015
Abstract:

In many technological processes (e.g., in the chemical, petrochemical, food, and plastics industries), liquids are subjected to high pressures and temperatures. Therefore, knowledge of their thermodynamic properties is essential for understanding, design, and control of the process technology. Direct evaluation of the thermodynamic parameters of liquids under high pressure, using conventional methods, is very difficult. Therefore, the application of these methods in industrial conditions, particularly in on-line control of the technological parameters of liquids, is practically impossible. Ultrasonic methods (e.g., sound speed measurements) are very suitable for this purpose because of their simplicity and accuracy. The sound velocity is closely related to numerous thermodynamic properties of liquids. The objective of this paper is to address the influence of temperature and pressure on the thermodynamic parameters of liquids, using the example of diacylglycerol (DAG) oil, employing ultrasonic methods. In this paper, we present ultrasonic velocity and density measurements (performed by the authors) in DAG oil over a range of pressures and temperatures. On the basis of experimental results (the sound velocity and liquid density versus pressure and temperature) a series of DAG oil thermodynamic parameters such as specific heat ratio, intermolecular free path length, Van der Waals constant b, surface tension, and effective Debye temperature were evaluated as functions of pressure and temperature.

Keywords:

Thermodynamical properties of liquid, High pressure food processing, ultrasonic methods, sound velocity, surface tension

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
Balcerzak A.-IPPT PAN
Wieja K.-IPPT PAN
Rostocki A.J.-other affiliation
Siegoczyński R.M.-other affiliation
5.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Wieja K., Group and Phase Velocity of Love Waves Propagating in Elastic Functionally Graded Materials, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, DOI: 10.1515/aoa-2015-0030, Vol.40, No.2, pp.273-281, 2015
Abstract:

This paper presents a theoretical study of the propagation behaviour of surface Love waves in nonhomogeneous functionally graded elastic materials, which is a vital problem in acoustics. The elastic properties (shear modulus) of a semi-infinite elastic half-space vary monotonically with the depth (distance from the surface of the material). Two Love wave waveguide structures are analyzed: 1) a nonhomogeneous elastic surface layer deposited on a homogeneous elastic substrate, and 2) a semi-infinite nonhomogeneous elastic half-space. The Direct Sturm-Liouville Problem that describes the propagation of Love waves in nonhomogeneous elastic functionally graded materials is formulated and solved 1) analytically in the case of the step profile, exponential profile and 1cosh2 type profile, and 2) numerically in the case of the power type profiles (i.e. linear and quadratic), by using two numerical methods: i.e. a) Finite Difference Method, and b) Haskell-Thompson Transfer Matrix Method.

The dispersion curves of phase and group velocity of surface Love waves in inhomogeneous elastic graded materials are evaluated. The integral formula for the group velocity of Love waves in nonhomogeneous elastic graded materials has been established. The results obtained in this paper can give a deeper insight into the nature of Love waves propagation in elastic nonhomogeneous functionally graded materials.

Keywords:

surface Love waves, group velocity, phase velocity, functionally graded materials, profiles of elastic constants, direct Sturm-Liouville problem

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
Balcerzak A.-IPPT PAN
Wieja K.-IPPT PAN
6.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Wieja K., Rostocki A.J., Siegoczyński R.M., Ptasznik S., Application of ultrasonic wave celerity measurement for evaluation of physicochemical properties of olive oil at high pressure and various temperatures, LWT-FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ISSN: 0023-6438, DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2014.01.027, Vol.57, pp.253-259, 2014
Abstract:

High-pressure processing is a powerful technology for food preservation. The knowledge of foods properties in the high-pressure range is important to develop and optimize such processes by means of mathematical modeling and simulation. Ultrasonic methods are rapid, non-invasive and can be used to characterize foods like edible oils (e.g., composition, purity, and quality assessment). In this paper, they were applied for the investigation of physicochemical properties of olive oil at high pressure at different temperatures. The sound wave velocity was measured by the pulse-transmission method and the corresponding oil density was additionally determined from the monitoring of sample volume change. Measurements were conducted in the pressure range up to 600 MPa, for temperatures from 20 to 50°C. Intermolecular free length, isothermal and adiabatic compressibility versus pressure were calculated using measured sound speed and density isotherms. Discontinuities in the measured isotherms of sound speed and density versus pressure indicate the presence of liquid-to-solid phase transitions. The kinetics of the liquid-to-solid phase transition was also investigated. The transformation times of olive oil augment with increasing temperature. This study can be broadened to other liquid foodstuffs to investigate the influence of temperature on their physicochemical properties at high pressure.

Keywords:

Physicochemical properties, Intermolecular free length, Ultrasonic velocity, High-pressure food processing, Olive oils

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
Balcerzak A.-IPPT PAN
Wieja K.-IPPT PAN
Rostocki A.J.-other affiliation
Siegoczyński R.M.-other affiliation
Ptasznik S.-Air Force Institute of Technology (PL)
7.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Inverse procedure for simultaneous evaluation of viscosity and density of Newtonian liquids from dispersion curves of Love waves, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, ISSN: 0021-8979, DOI: 10.1063/1.4891018, Vol.116, pp.044902-1-7, 2014
Abstract:

Simultaneous determination of the viscosity and density of liquids is of great importance in the monitoring of technological processes in the chemical, petroleum, and pharmaceutical industry, as well as in geophysics. In this paper, the authors present the application of Love waves for simultaneous inverse determination of the viscosity and density of liquids. The inversion procedure is based on measurements of the dispersion curves of phase velocity and attenuation of ultrasonic Love waves. The direct problem of the Love wave propagation in a layered waveguide covered by a viscous liquid was formulated and solved. Love waves propagate in an elastic layered waveguide covered on its surface with a viscous (Newtonian) liquid. The inverse problem is formulated as an optimization problem with appropriately constructed objective function that depends on the material properties of an elastic waveguide of the Love wave, material parameters of a liquid (i.e., viscosity and density), and the experimental data. The results of numerical calculations show that Love waves can be efficiently applied to determine simultaneously the physical properties of liquids (i.e., viscosity and density). Sensors based on this method can be very attractive for industrial applications to monitor on-line the parameters (density and viscosity) of process liquid during the course of technological processes, e.g., in polymer industry.

Keywords:

Viscosity, Inverse problems, Wave attenuation, Mechanical waves, Viscosity measurements

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
Balcerzak A.-IPPT PAN
8.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Wieja K., Malanowski A., Kościesza R., Tarakowski R., Rostocki A.J., Siegoczyński R.M., Determination of physicochemical properties of diacylglycerol oil at high pressure by means of ultrasonic methods, Ultrasonics, ISSN: 0041-624X, DOI: 10.1016/j.ultras.2014.06.013, Vol.54, No.8, pp.2134-2140, 2014
Abstract:

The purpose of the paper is to address, using ultrasonic methods, the impact of temperature and pressure on the physicochemical properties of liquids on the example of diacylglycerol (DAG) oil. The paper presents measurements of sound velocity, density and volume of DAG oil sample in the pressure range from atmospheric pressure up to 0.6 GPa and at temperatures ranging from 20 to 50°C.

Sound speed measurements were performed in an ultrasonic setup with a DAG oil sample located in the high-pressure chamber. An ultrasonic method that uses cross-correlation method to determine the time-of-flight of the ultrasonic pulses through the liquid was employed to measure the sound velocity in DAG oil. This method is fast and reliable tool for measuring sound velocity. The DAG oil density at high pressure was determined from the monitoring of sample volume change. The adiabatic compressibility and isothermal compressibility have been calculated on the basis of experimental data. Discontinuities in isotherms of the sound speed versus pressure point to the existence of phase transitions in DAG oil. The ultrasonic method presented in this study can be applied to investigate the physicochemical parameters of other liquids not only edible oils.

Keywords:

Ultrasonic methods, Sound velocity, Phase transitions, High pressure food processing, Physicochemical parameters

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
Balcerzak A.-IPPT PAN
Wieja K.-IPPT PAN
Malanowski A.-other affiliation
Kościesza R.-other affiliation
Tarakowski R.-other affiliation
Rostocki A.J.-other affiliation
Siegoczyński R.M.-other affiliation
9.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Transistor Effect in the Cochlear Amplifier, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, DOI: 10.2478/aoa-2014-0012, Vol.39, No.1, pp.117-124, 2014
Abstract:

The paper presents a new electromechanical amplifying device i.e., an electromechanical biological transistor. This device is located in the outer hair cell (OHC), and constitutes a part of the Cochlear amplifier. The physical principle of operation of this new amplifying device is based on the phenomenon of forward mechanoelectrical transduction that occurs in the OHC's stereocilia. Operation of this device is similar to that of classical electronic Field Effect Transistor (FET). In the considered electromechanical transistor the input signal is a mechanical (acoustic) signal. Whereas the output signal is an electric signal. It has been shown that the proposed electromechanical transistor can play a role of the active electromechanical controlled element that has the ability to amplify the power of input AC signals. The power required to amplify the input signals is extracted from a battery of DC voltage. In the considered electromechanical transistor, that operates in the amplifier circuit, mechanical input signal controls the flow of electric energy in the output circuit, from a battery of DC voltage to the load resistance. Small signal equivalent electrical circuit of the electromechanical transistor is developed. Numerical values of the electrical parameters of the equivalent circuit were evaluated. The range, which covers the levels of input signals (force and velocity) and output signals (voltage, current) was determined. The obtained data are consistent with physiological data. Exemplary numerical values of currents, voltages, forces, vibrational velocities and power gain (for the assumed input power levels below 1 picowatt (10-12 W)), were given. This new electromechanical active device (transistor) can be responsible for power amplification in the cochlear amplifier in the inner ear.

Keywords:

cochlear amplifier, acoustoelectric transducers, electromechanical transistor, equivalent circuits, field effect transistors, ion currents

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
10.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Wieja K., Rostocki A.J., Siegoczyński R.M., Thermodynamic Method for Measuring the B/A Nonlinear Parameter Under High Pressure, ENGINEERING TRANSACTIONS (ROZPRAWY INŻYNIERSKIE), ISSN: 0867-888X, Vol.62, No.1, pp.5-15, 2014
Abstract:

The nonlinearity parameter B/A is a measure of the nonlinearity of the equation of state for a fluid. The nonlinearity parameter B/A is a physical parameter often used in acoustics, from underwater acoustics to biology and medicine. It can provide information about structural properties of the medium, internal pressure and inter-molecular spacing. The thermodynamic method has been applied for determination of B/A parameter in diacylglycerol (DAG) oil as a function of pressure at various temperatures. Isotherms of the density and phase velocity of longitudinal ultrasonic wave as a function of pressure have been measured. Using the thermo- dynamic method along with measured isotherms of sound speed and density, the nonlinearity parameter B/A (for DAG oil) was evaluated as a function of pressure (up to 220 MPa) at various temperatures ranging from 20 to 50◦C.

Keywords:

Nonlinearity parameter B/A, thermodynamic method, high pressure, longitudinal ultrasonic wave velocity

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
Balcerzak A.-IPPT PAN
Wieja K.-IPPT PAN
Rostocki A.J.-other affiliation
Siegoczyński R.M.-other affiliation
11.Rostocki A.J., Tarakowski R., Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Ptasznik S., The Ultrasonic Investigation of Phase Transition in Olive Oil up to 0,7 GPa, JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN OIL CHEMISTS SOCIETY, ISSN: 0003-021X, DOI: 10.1007/s11746-013-2223-2, Vol.90, No.6, pp.813-818, 2013
Abstract:

This paper presents measurements of sound velocity and attenuation in olive oil, with known chemical composition, as a function of pressure, within the range of pressure up to 0.7 GPa. Dependencies of sound velocity, relative ultrasonic wave attenuation, volume, and adiabatic compressibility on pressure show discontinuities. This proves the existence of the first order phase transition in olive oil (liquid to solid-like phase transition). Rapid and large changes in relative attenuation testify to the existence of a phase transition in olive oil. Moreover, the kinetics of phase transition was also investigated. Measurement of acoustic wave velocity and relative attenuation in olive oil during the phase transition and in the high-pressure phase is a novelty. The results obtained can be useful in the development of new methods in food (edible oils) control, processing, and preservation.

Keywords:

Vegetable oils, Sound velocity, Triacylglycerols, Phase transition, High pressure

Affiliations:
Rostocki A.J.-other affiliation
Tarakowski R.-other affiliation
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
Balcerzak A.-IPPT PAN
Ptasznik S.-Air Force Institute of Technology (PL)
12.Rostocki A.J., Malanowski A., Tarakowski R., Szlachta K., Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Ptasznik S., The sound velocity measurement in diacylglycerol oil under high pressure, HIGH PRESSURE RESEARCH, ISSN: 0895-7959, DOI: 10.1080/08957959.2013.769975, Vol.33, No.1, pp.172-177, 2013
Abstract:

In this article, the influence of high pressure on sound velocity at 293 K has been presented. The investigated diacylglycerol oil (DAG – [D82T18]AG) was composed of 82% DAGs and 18% triacylglycerols. The variation of sound velocity with hydrostatic pressure for DAG was evaluated up to 400 MPa. The phase transformation in DAG has been observed as a discontinuity of the dependence of sound velocity on pressure. The sound velocity during the phase transition has shown distinct increment. Also the volume changes have been measured. It has shown the rapid drop of the volume at the phase transformation pressure due to the possible crystallization of DAG oil.

Keywords:

high pressure, velocity, DAG

Affiliations:
Rostocki A.J.-other affiliation
Malanowski A.-other affiliation
Tarakowski R.-other affiliation
Szlachta K.-other affiliation
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
Balcerzak A.-IPPT PAN
Ptasznik S.-Air Force Institute of Technology (PL)
13.Malanowski A., Rostocki A.J., Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Kościesza R., Tarakowski R., Ptasznik S., Siegoczyński R.M., Viscosity and compressibility of diacylglycerol under high pressure, HIGH PRESSURE RESEARCH, ISSN: 0895-7959, DOI: 10.1080/08957959.2013.775649, Vol.33, No.1, pp.178-183, 2013
Abstract:

The influence of high pressure on viscosity and compressibility of diacylglycerol (DAG) oil has been presented in this paper. The investigated DAG oil was composed of 82% of DAGs and 18% TAGs (triacylglycerols). The dynamic viscosity of DAG was investigated as a function of the pressure up to 400 MPa. The viscosity was measured by means of the surface acoustic wave method, where the acoustic waveguides were used as sensing elements. As the pressure was rising, the larger ultrasonic wave attenuation was observed, whereas amplitude decreased with the liquid viscosity augmentation. Measured changes of physical properties were most significant in the pressure range near the phase transition. Deeper understanding of DAG viscosity and compressibility changes versus pressure could shed more light on thermodynamic properties of edible oils.

Keywords:

DAG viscosity, compressibility, phase transitions, transmitted and scattered light

Affiliations:
Malanowski A.-other affiliation
Rostocki A.J.-other affiliation
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
Balcerzak A.-IPPT PAN
Kościesza R.-other affiliation
Tarakowski R.-other affiliation
Ptasznik S.-Air Force Institute of Technology (PL)
Siegoczyński R.M.-other affiliation
14.Kiełczyński P., Power Amplification and Selectivity in the Cochlear Amplifier, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, DOI: 10.2478/aoa-2013-0010, Vol.38, No.1, pp.83-92, 2013
Abstract:

This paper presents a new model that describes the physical phenomena occurring in an individual Outer Hair Cell (OHC) in the human hearing organ (Cochlea). The new model employs the concept of parametric amplification and piezoelectricity. As a consequence, the proposed model may explain in a natural way many as yet unresolved problems about the mechanisms of: 1) power amplification, 2) nonlinearity, 3) fine tuning, or 4) high sensitivity that take place in the human hearing organ. Mathematical analysis of the model is performed. The equivalent electrical circuits of an individual OHC are established. The high selectivity of the OHC parametric amplifier is analyzed by solving the resulting Mathieu and Ince differential equations. An analytical formula for the power gain in the OHC’s parametric amplifier has been developed. The proposed model has direct physical interpretation and all its elements have their physical counterparts in the actual structure of the cochlea. The numerical values of the individual elements of the electrical equivalent circuits are consistent with the experimental physiological data. It is anticipated that the proposed new model may contribute in future improvements of human cochlear implants as well as in development of new digital audio standards.

Keywords:

piezoelectricity, parametric amplification, mechanism of hearing, electroacoustic transducers

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
15.Piekarski S., Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Rewekant M., Computer-based simulation of plasma concentration time-profiles of drug in nonlinear two-compartment model, COMPUTER ASSISTED METHODS IN ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE, ISSN: 2299-3649, Vol.20, pp.279-288, 2013
Abstract:

The main interest of pharmacokinetics is the study of the fate of drugs in the living organism. This work proposes the system of the conservation laws that describes time-dependent concentrations of a drug, after a single intravenous administration. Compared with others, the proposed model considers both free and protein-bound drug concentrations at the same time. Plasma protein binding captured in the model enters the nonlinearity arising from the Guldberg-Waage law. According to our best knowledge, the analytical solution for our system does not exist. Our model allows the calculation of the free and bound-drug protein concentrations at any time point and at any dose after single intravenous bolus dose administration. In order to compare the empirical with simulated data, a numerical approach has been proposed. On the basis of published experimental data the model validation has been carried out. The goodness of fit was satisfactory (R2 = 0.99) and the experimental and simulated AUC (area under the curve) values, as the measure of the bioavailability of drug, were similar (150 M/hxh−1). The preliminary assessment of the model credibility was positive and encouraged further studies.

Keywords:

Evolution equations, non-linear model, drug protein binding

Affiliations:
Piekarski S.-IPPT PAN
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
Rewekant M.-Medical University of Warsaw (PL)
16.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Malanowski A., Siegoczyński R.M., Ptasznik S., Investigation of high-pressure phase transitions in DAG (diacylglycerol) oil using the Bleustein–Gulyaev ultrasonic wave method, FOOD RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL, ISSN: 0963-9969, DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2012.07.025, Vol.49, pp.60-64, 2012
Abstract:

In this paper, phase transitions in diacylglycerol (DAG) oil are investigated by using an ultrasonic method for measuring viscosity. Viscosity of diacylglycerol (DAG) oil is measured over a wide range of hydrostatic pressures up to 500 MPa, and at temperatures ranging from 10 to 40 °C. The observed discontinuities in the viscosity versus pressure curves (isotherms) indicate phase transitions. An original ultrasonic method that uses the surface acoustic Bleustein–Gulyaev (B–G) wave was employed to measure the viscosity of DAG oil at high pressure range. This method allows for fast and reliable measurement of DAG oil viscosity along various isotherms. Moreover, the kinetics of the observed phase transformations at various temperatures was analyzed. The results of the study are a novelty, and can be helpful in evaluating the physicochemical properties of edible oils.

Keywords:

Edible oils, Ultrasonic methods, Diacylglycerols, Viscosity, Phase transitions, High pressure

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
Balcerzak A.-IPPT PAN
Malanowski A.-other affiliation
Siegoczyński R.M.-other affiliation
Ptasznik S.-Air Force Institute of Technology (PL)
17.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Effect of a viscous liquid loading on Love wave propagation, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES, ISSN: 0020-7683, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2012.04.030, Vol.49, No.17, pp.2314-2319, 2012
Abstract:

This paper describes a theory of surface Love waves propagating in a layered elastic waveguide loaded on its surface by a viscous (Newtonian) liquid. An analytical expression for the complex dispersion equation of Love waves has been established. The real and imaginary parts of the complex dispersion equation were separated and resulting system of nonlinear algebraic equations was solved numerically. The influence of the viscosity of liquid on the dispersion curves of phase velocity, the wave attenuation and the distribution of the Love wave amplitude is analyzed numerically. The propagation loss is produced only by the viscosity of liquids. Elastic layered waveguide is assumed to be loss-less. The numerical solutions show the dependence of the phase velocity change, the wave attenuation and the wave amplitude distribution in terms of the liquid viscosity and the wave frequency. The results of the investigations are fundamental and can be applied in the design and development of liquid viscosity sensors and biosensors, in Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) of materials, in geophysics and seismology.

Keywords:

Love waves, Viscous liquids, Dispersion relations, Attenuation, Viscosity sensors

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
Balcerzak A.-IPPT PAN
18.Rostocki A.J., Siegoczyński R.M., Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Zduniak M., Employment of a novel ultrasonic method to investigate high pressure phase transitions in oleic acid, HIGH PRESSURE RESEARCH, ISSN: 0895-7959, Vol.31, No.2, pp.334-338, 2011
Abstract:

In this work, the variation of sound velocity with hydrostatic pressure for oleic acid is evaluated up to 350MPa. During the measurement, we identified the phase transformation of oleic acid and the presence of the hysteresis of the dependence of sound velocity on pressure. From the performed measurements, it can be seen that the dependence of sound velocity on pressure can be used to investigate phase transformations in natural oils. Ultrasonic waves were excited and detected using piezoelectric LiNbO3(Y-36 cut) 5MHz transducers. The phase velocity of the longitudinal ultrasonicwaveswas measured using a cross-correlation method to evaluate the time of flight.

Keywords:

Sound velocity, oleic acid, high pressure, phase transition

Affiliations:
Rostocki A.J.-other affiliation
Siegoczyński R.M.-other affiliation
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
Balcerzak A.-IPPT PAN
Zduniak M.-other affiliation
19.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Rostocki A.J., Tefelski D.B., Application of SH surface acoustic waves for measuring the viscosity of liquids in function of pressure and temperature, Ultrasonics, ISSN: 0041-624X, Vol.51, No.8, pp.921-924, 2011
Abstract:

Viscosity measurements were carried out on triolein at pressures from atmospheric up to 650 MPa and in the temperature range from 10 C to 40 C using ultrasonic measuring setup. Bleustein–Gulyaev SH surface acoustic waves waveguides were used as viscosity sensors. Additionally, pressure changes occurring during phase transition have been measured over the same temperature range. Application of ultrasonic SH surface acoustic waves in the liquid viscosity measurements at high pressure has many advantages. It enables viscosity measurement during phase transitions and in the high-pressure range where the classical viscosity measurement methods cannot operate. Measurements of phase transition kinetics and viscosity of liquids at high pressures and various temperatures (isotherms) is a novelty. The knowledge of changes in viscosity in function of pressure and temperature can help to obtain a deeper insight into thermodynamic properties of liquids.

Keywords:

SH surface acoustic waves, Viscosity, High pressure, Phase transitions

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
Balcerzak A.-IPPT PAN
Rostocki A.J.-other affiliation
Tefelski D.B.-other affiliation
20.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., An inverse method for determining the elastic properties of thin layers using Love surface waves, INVERSE PROBLEMS IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, ISSN: 1741-5977, Vol.19, No.1, pp.31-43, 2011
Abstract:

Estimation of the mechanical and geometrical parameters of thin coatings and surface layers in materials is of great practical importance in engineering and technology. Indeed, surface properties of many vital engineering components, such as turbine blades, pistons, or bearings, directly affect longevity and safety of the modern machinery. In this article, the authors present a novel inversion procedure for simultaneous determination of thickness, shear elastic constant, and density of thin coating layers in materials. The inversion procedure is based on measurements of the dispersion curve for surface acoustic waves of the Love type. The inverse problem is formulated as an optimization problem with the appropriately designed objective function, depending on the material parameters of the coating layer, ultrasonic frequency, and the experimental data, i.e. measured phase velocity of the surface Love wave. The minimization of the objective function provides three parameters of a thin layer, i.e. its thickness, shear elastic constant, and density. The proposed inverse method was checked experimentally for different layered structures, such as copper layer on steel substrate or ceramics-on-ceramics. The agreement between the results of calculations with the proposed inversion method and the experimental data was good.

Keywords:

Inverse problems, Love surface waves, elastic constants, acoustic wave dispersion, thin layers

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
21.Rostocki A.J., Siegoczyński R.M., Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., An application of Love SH waves for the viscosity measurement of triglycerides at high pressures, HIGH PRESSURE RESEARCH, ISSN: 0895-7959, Vol.30, No.1, pp.88-92, 2010
Abstract:

A new ultrasonic method of viscosity measurement at a high-pressure condition has been presented. The method is based on the Love wave amplitude measurement. The same electronic setup as in the Bleustein– Gulyaev (B–G)wave method applied by the authors recently for a high-pressure measurementwas adopted. The new transducers were made of metallic materials which make them more reliable at high-pressure conditions. The method has been successfully applied for the viscosity measurement of some triglycerides at high-pressure conditions up to 1GPa. The results have been compared with the earlier results obtained using B–G waves. This comparison has shown that Love wave method sensors are more reliable than B–G wave sensors and cheaper in fabrication, although the sensitivity of Love wave sensors was lower. During the measurement, the phase transitions in the investigated liquids were observed.

Keywords:

Love SH waves, viscosity, phase transitions, sensors

Affiliations:
Rostocki A.J.-other affiliation
Siegoczyński R.M.-other affiliation
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
22.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Determination of the elastic properties of thin layers and graded materials using generalized Love waves, IEICE Technical Report, ISSN: 0913-5685, Vol.109, No.388, pp.117-122, 2010
Abstract:

The elastic properties of coatings and graded materials are very important in the design and evaluation for engineering purposes. It is well known that the velocity of the ultrasonic surface waves propagating in the layered structures and graded materials is strongly dependent on the elastic properties of the medium. Thus, by using an appropriate inverse algorithm, the elastic properties can be deduced from the measured phase velocity dispersion curves (dependence of velocity on frequency) of the surface wave.
In this study we applied generalized shear surface waves (i.e., generalized Love waves) to investigate the elastic parameters of the layered media and graded materials. Generalized Love waves posses only one component of the mechanical displacement what is an advantage. Due to this reason, the mathematical description of the propagation of generalized Love waves is simpler than that using Rayleigh waves.
In this article an inversion procedure for determining the elastic and geometrical parameters of thin coating layers from the measured dispersion curves of ultrasonic shear surface waves (i.e., Love waves) is presented. The inverse problem is formulated as an optimization problem with appropriately developed objective function. The objective function depends on the material parameters of the coating layer, frequency, and experimental data (phase velocity of the surface Love wave). The minimization of the objective function leads to a set of the optimum mechanical parameters of the thin layers (e.g., thickness, shear elastic constants). Good conformity between the experimental dispersion curves and those resulting from the inverse method can prove the correctness of the proposed inverse procedure.

Keywords:

Inverse Problems, Love waves, elastic constants, acoustic dispersion, thin layers, graded materials

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
23.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Siegoczyński R.M., Rostocki A.J., New ultrasonic Bleustein-Gulyaev wave method for measuring the viscosity of liquids at high pressure, REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS, ISSN: 0034-6748, Vol.79, No.2, pp.26109-0, 2008
Abstract:

In this paper, a new method for measuring the viscosity of liquids at high pressure is presented. To this end the authors have applied an ultrasonic method using the Bleustein-Gulyaev (BG) surface acoustic wave. By applying the perturbation method, we can prove that the change in the complex propagation constant of the BG wave produced by the layer of liquid loading the waveguide surface is proportional to the shear mechanical impedance of the liquid. In the article, a measuring setup employing the BG wave for the purpose of measuring the viscosity of liquids at high pressure (up to 1 GPa) is presented. The results of high-pressure viscosity measurements of triolein and castor oil are also presented. In this paper the model of a Newtonian liquid was applied. Using this new method it is also possible to measure the viscosity of liquids during the phase transition and during the decompression process hysteresis of the dependence of viscosity on pressure.

Keywords:

Bleustein-Gulyaev (B-G) waves, high pressure, viscosity measurements, phase transitions

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
Siegoczyński R.M.-other affiliation
Rostocki A.J.-other affiliation
24.Kiełczyński P., Metody ultradźwiękowe identyfikacji własności sprężystych materiałów gradientowych, INŻYNIERIA MATERIAŁOWA, ISSN: 0208-6247, Vol.3, pp.157-164, 2008
Abstract:

In the paper the application of the generalized shear surface waves for the determination of the elastic parameters of non-uniform Functionally Graded Materials, based on the example of steel samples subjected to the laser hardening was presented. In the article, the use of the bulk and surface ultrasonic waves for evaluation of the mechanical parameters of materials is discussed. Ultrasonic methods for investigation of the material properties are non-destructive methods. This is a main advantage of the ultrasonic methods in relation to the mechanical methods used for investigation of the mechanical properties of materials. Moreover, ultrasonic methods can be computerized. Due to this reason, ultrasonic methods can be employed directly on the production line for measuring the mechanical parameters of materials.
The importance of the shear surface waves (i.e., Love waves, and generalized shear surface waves) in the investigations of elastic parameters of Functionally Graded Materials - FGM was stressed. Energy of the shear surface waves (in contrast to the other types of waves, e.g., plate Lamb waves) is concentrated in the surface layer. The penetration depth of the shear surface waves depends on frequency. Therefore, they are very useful to determine the profiles of the mechanical properties of non-homogeneous Functionally Graded Materials.
Employing the variational method (Rayleigh quotient), the inverse method (Inverse Sturm-Liouville problem) was presented which enabled the determination of the profiles of elastic properties as a function of depth in the investigated non-homogeneous material.
By using the measured dispersion curves of the Love waves (generalized shear surface waves) and developed inverse procedure, the distributions of the elastic compliance versus depth (the distance from the surface of steel 45 exposed to laser hardening) were determined, along with the case depths in the investigated steel samples.

Keywords:

Love waves, Functionally Graded Materials, elastic properties, Inverse methods, nondestructive testing

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
25.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Compound piezoelectric cylindrical resonators as sensors of the rheological parameters of viscoelastic media, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ULTRASONICS FERROELECTRICS AND FREQUENCY CONTROL, ISSN: 0885-3010, DOI: 10.1109/TUFFC.2007.373, Vol.54, No.6, pp.1199-1206, 2007
Abstract:

The electro-elastic behavior of a viscoelastically loaded layered cylindrical resonator (sensor) comprising two coupled hollow cylinders is presented. The inner cylinder is a piezoelectric ceramic tube. The outer cylinder is a non-piezoelectric (passive) metallic cylinder. An analytical formula for the electrical admittance of a compound layered cylindrical resonator loaded with a viscoelastic liquid is established. Admittance (conductance) diagrams were obtained using a continuum electromechanical model. The established analytical formulas enable the determination of the influence of the liquid viscosity, material, and geometrical parameters of a compound cylindrical resonator on the response characteristics of the compound sensor. In the paper, the sensor implications resulting from the performed analysis are described. Moreover, the algorithm of the method developed by the authors to evaluate the rheological parameters of a viscoelastic liquid is presented. Good agreement between the theoretical results and experimental data is shown. The analysis presented in this paper can be utilized for the design and construction of cylindrical piezoelectric viscosity sensors, annular accelerometers, filters, transducers, and multilayer resonators.

Keywords:

Compound piezoelectric resonators, admittance diagrams, viscosity measurements, sensors of rheological parameters

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
26.Kiełczyński P., The Analog of the Kanazawa-Gordon Formula for Cylindrical Resonators, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ULTRASONICS FERROELECTRICS AND FREQUENCY CONTROL, ISSN: 0885-3010, DOI: 10.1109/TUFFC.2004.1367474, Vol.51, No.11, pp.1367-1372, 2004
Abstract:

In this paper, a formula relating the shift in the resonant frequency of a shear piezoceramic cylindrical resonator to the viscosity of a Newtonian liquid that loads the resonator surface was established. This formula is analogous to the classical Kanazawa-Gordon formula that describes the change in the resonant frequency of a shear planar resonator loaded with a Newtonian liquid. To this end, the author applied the perturbation method to analyze the behavior of the piezoceramic cylindrical resonators vibrating in a shear mode and loaded with a viscous liquid. The shift in resonant frequency obtained using the perturbation method (mechanical model) was compared to an exact value of the shift in resonant frequency obtained from the complete electromechanical model (admittance diagrams) that describes shear vibrations of a piezoceramic cylindrical resonator loaded with a viscous liquid. Good conformity between the two types of results obtained can prove the correctness of the analytical formulas established in this paper. The results of this work can be applied for the design and construction of viscosity sensors.

Keywords:

Viscosity, Resonant frequency, Perturbation methods, Elasticity, Piezoelectric materials, Admittance, Surface acoustic waves, Vibrations, Surface impedance, Resonance

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
27.Kiełczyński P., Pajewski W., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Measurement of the shear storage modulus and viscosity of liquids using the Bleustein–Gulyaev wave, REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS, ISSN: 0034-6748, DOI: 10.1063/1.1765760, Vol.75, No.7, pp.2362-2367, 2004
28.Kiełczyński P., Pola akustyczne przetworników i układów ultradźwiękowych o niejednorodnym rozkładzie amplitudy drgań na powierzchni (Praca habilitacyjna), Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.5, pp.1-72, 1996

List of chapters in recent monographs
1.
25
Kiełczyński P., Acoustic Waves, rozdział: Application of acoustic waves to investigate the physical properties of liquids at high pressure, Ed. D.W. Dissanayake, Sciyo, Rijeka, Croatia, pp.317-340, 2010

Conference papers
1.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Wieja K., Evaluation of viscoelastic parameters of surface layers by ultrasonic Love waves, IUS 2016, IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, 2016-09-18/09-21, Tours (FR), DOI: 10.1109/ULTSYM.2016.7728446, pp.1-4, 2016
Abstract:

Simultaneous determination of the rheological parameters of viscoelastic surface layers is very important in many applications such as: sensors, geophysics, seismology, and in the NDT of materials. Love wave energy is concentrated near the waveguide surface, so that Love waves are especially suited to study the material properties of surface layers. In this work, the Direct Sturm-Liouville Problem for the Love wave propagation in a layered viscoelastic waveguide have been presented and solved. Next, the Inverse Problem was created and solved as an Optimization Problem. The adequately formulated objective function that depends on the elastic and viscoelastic parameters of a waveguide of the Love wave and the experimental data was used. The solution of the Inverse Problem allows to determine unknown values of the viscosity and shear elasticity of a viscoelastic medium from measurements of the dispersion curves of Love waves.

Keywords:

Love waves, rheological properties, viscoelastic materials, inverse problems, viscosity, shear elasticity

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
Balcerzak A.-IPPT PAN
Wieja K.-IPPT PAN
2.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Wieja K., Rostocki A.J., Ptasznik S., Investigation of high-pressure phase transitions in biofuels by means of ultrasonic methods, IUS 2016, IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, 2016-09-18/09-21, Tours (FR), DOI: 10.1109/ULTSYM.2016.7728444, pp.1-4, 2016
Abstract:

The fundamental goal of this work is to verify the hypothesis of the existence of high-pressure phase transitions in biofuel components on the example of rapeseed fatty acid methyl esters (RME), by using ultrasonic methods. in a wide range of pressures (from atmospheric pressure to 300 MPa) and for various temperatures from 5 to 20 °C. Investigation of phase transitions in biofuels at high pressures is of great importance in the design of injection systems in modern diesel engines (common rail). Direct examination of phase transitions in liquids under high pressure, using classical methods, is very difficult. To overcome this disadvantage, the authors applied ultrasonic methods (viscosity measurement), which in contrast to the classical methods allow in a relatively simple way the investigation of high-pressure properties of liquids. Viscosity was measured by the original method that uses ultrasonic surface waves of the Bleustein-Gulyaev type, developed by the authors at the Institute of Fundamental Technological Research in Warsaw. From the measured viscosity isotherms, the occurrence of high-pressure phase transitions in methyl esters were evaluated.

Keywords:

high-pressure phase transitions, biofuels, ultrasonic Bleustein-Gulyaev waves, viscosity measurements

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
Balcerzak A.-IPPT PAN
Wieja K.-IPPT PAN
Rostocki A.J.-other affiliation
Ptasznik S.-Air Force Institute of Technology (PL)
3.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Wieja K., Inverse method for evaluation of elastic parameters in functionally graded materials using ultrasonic Love wave, IUS 2015, IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, 2015-10-21/10-24, Taipei (TW), DOI: 10.1109/ULTSYM.2015.0344, pp.1-4, 2015
Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the inverse procedure to determine profiles (as a function of depth) of the mechanical properties of inhomogeneous FGM resulting from the application of various technological processes of surface treatment. First, the Direct Sturm-Liouville Problem for Love waves propagating in elastic graded materials with various profiles of the shear stiffness as a function of the distance from the surface, has been solved using the Finite Difference Method and Transfer Matrix Method (Haskell-Thompson method). Love wave dispersion curves were evaluated in the frequency range from 4 to 23 MHz. The Inverse Problem was formulated as an Optimization Problem with appropriately constructed objective function that depended on the material properties of an elastic waveguide of the Love wave and the experimental data. To minimize the considered objective function, optimization procedures of the Nelder-Mead type from Scilab software package were employed.

Keywords:

Love waves, Inverse Methods, Functionally Graded Materials, Elastic parameters, Sturm-Liouville Problem

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
Balcerzak A.-IPPT PAN
Wieja K.-IPPT PAN
4.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Wieja K., Rostocki A.J., Siegoczyński R.M., Ptasznik S., Ultrasonic studies of physicochemical parameters of biofuels in a broad range of pressures and temperatures, IUS 2015, IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, 2015-10-21/10-24, Taipei (TW), DOI: 10.1109/ULTSYM.2015.0345, pp.1-4, 2015
Abstract:

The aim of the study was to investigate the phase transitions in biofuel components by using ultrasonic methods on the example of methyl esters of fatty acids, in a wide range of pressures (from atmospheric pressure to 400 MPa) and for various temperatures from 5 to 20 °C. Investigation of phase transitions in biofuels at high pressures is of great importance in the design of injection systems in modern diesel engines (common rail). Direct examination of phase transitions in liquids under high pressure, using classical methods, is very difficult. To overcome this disadvantage, the authors applied ultrasonic methods (viscosity measurement), which in contrast to the classical methods allow in a relatively simple way the investigation high-pressure properties of liquids. Viscosity was measured by the original method that uses ultrasonic surface waves of the Bleustein-Gulyaev type, developed by the authors at the Institute of Fundamental Technological Research in Warsaw. From the measured viscosity isotherms, the occurrence and kinetics of high-pressure phase transitions in methyl esters were evaluated.

Keywords:

High pressure phase transitions, physicochemical parameters of biofuels, ultrasonic viscosity measurements, rapeseed methyl esters

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
Balcerzak A.-IPPT PAN
Wieja K.-IPPT PAN
Rostocki A.J.-other affiliation
Siegoczyński R.M.-other affiliation
Ptasznik S.-Air Force Institute of Technology (PL)
5.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Wieja K., Density and viscosity of liquids determination using an inverse method for Love wave propagation, IUS 15, IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, 2014-09-03/09-06, Chicago (US), DOI: 10.1109/ULTSYM.2014.0496, pp.1992-1995, 2014
Abstract:

The aim of this work was to establish an inversion procedure for the simultaneous determination of the viscosity and density of liquids. To this end, measurements of dispersion curves of the phase velocity and attenuation of shear horizontal Love waves were applied. Love waves propagate in an elastic layered waveguide covered on its surface with an investigated viscous (Newtonian) liquid. Firstly, the Direct Sturm-Liouville Problem of the Love wave propagation in a such waveguide was formulated and solved. Subsequently, the Inverse Problem was formulated and solved as an Optimization Problem. The appropriately constructed objective function that depends on the material properties of a waveguide of the Love wave, material properties of an investigated liquid (viscosity and density), and the experimental data was employed. The simultaneous determination of both liquid density and viscosity is important in the monitoring of technological processes in many industries (e.g. chemical, petroleum, pharmaceutical industry) as well as in geophysics.

Keywords:

Love waves, Inverse Methods, Density, Viscosity of liquids , Sturm-Liouville Problem

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
Balcerzak A.-IPPT PAN
Wieja K.-IPPT PAN
6.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Wieja K., Rostocki A.J., Siegoczyński R.M., Ultrasonic evaluation of thermodynamic parameters of liquids under high pressure, IUS 15, IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, 2014-09-03/09-06, Chicago (US), DOI: 10.1109/ULTSYM.2014.0497, pp.1996-1999, 2014
Abstract:

In many technological processes (e.g. in chemical, petrochemical, food and plastics industry) liquids are subjected to high pressures and temperatures. Therefore knowledge of their thermodynamic properties is essential for understanding, design and control of the process technology. Direct evaluation of thermodynamic parameters of liquids under high pressure, using conventional methods, is very difficult. Therefore, these methods are useless in industrial conditions, particularly in on-line control of the technological parameters of liquids. Ultrasonic methods (e.g., sound speed measurements) due to their simplicity and accuracy are very suitable for this purpose. The sound velocity is closely related with numerous thermodynamic properties of liquids. In this paper we report ultrasonic velocity and density measurements (performed by the authors) in diacylglycerol (DAG) oil over a range of pressures and temperatures. On the basis of experimental results (the sound velocity and liquid density versus pressure and temperature) the thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat capacity at constant pressure, isothermal and adiabatic compressibility of DAG oil were calculated as a function of pressure and temperature.

Keywords:

Themodynamic parameters of liquids, high pressure, ultrasonic velocity, density, compressibility

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
Balcerzak A.-IPPT PAN
Wieja K.-IPPT PAN
Rostocki A.J.-other affiliation
Siegoczyński R.M.-other affiliation
7.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Wieja K., Rostocki A.J., Siegoczyński R.M., Thermodynamic method for measuring the B/A nonlinear parameter under high pressure, IUS 2013, IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, 2013-07-21/07-25, Praga (CZ), DOI: 10.1109/ULTSYM.2013.0424, Vol.1, pp.1665-1667, 2013
Abstract:

The nonlinearity parameter B/A is a measure of the nonlinearity of the equation of state for a fluid. It plays a significant role in acoustics, from underwater acoustics to biology and medicine. The nonlinearity parameter is important because it determines distortion of a finite amplitude wave propagating in the fluid. Moreover, it can be related to the molecular dynamics of the medium and it can to provide information about structural properties of medium, internal pressures, clustering, intermolecular spacing, etc. Importance of the B/A parameter increases with the development of high-pressure technologies. The thermodynamic method has been applied for determination of B/A parameter in diacylglycerol (DAG) oil as a function of pressure at various temperatures.

Keywords:

Nonlinearity parameter B/A, Thermodynamic method, ultrasoniv velocity, high pressure,

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
Balcerzak A.-IPPT PAN
Wieja K.-IPPT PAN
Rostocki A.J.-other affiliation
Siegoczyński R.M.-other affiliation
8.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Wieja K., Rostocki A.J., Siegoczyński R.M., Ptasznik S., Ultrasonic investigation of physicochemical properties of liquids under high pressure, IUS 2013, IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, 2013-07-21/07-25, Praga (CZ), DOI: 10.1109/ULTSYM.2013.0414, Vol.1, pp.1626-1629, 2013
Abstract:

High pressure research of the physicochemical properties of liquids has been stimulated by the fast development of such technologies as biodiesel production, high-pressure food processing and conservation, modification of biotechnological properties. Monitoring and studying liquid viscosity and ultrasonic wave velocity in liquids as a function of pressure and temperature enable to evaluate many important physicochemical parameters of liquids. These methods allow also insight into the phenomena governing the microstructural modifications occurring in treated substances, i.e. phase transitions. The knowledge of physicochemical properties (e.g. density, relaxation time, internal pressure or free volume) of pressurized substances is essential for understanding, design and control of the process technology. Measurements were conducted on the example of diacylglycerol oil (DAG oil), that is an important constituent of oils and fats.

Keywords:

Physicochemical parameters of liquids, high pressure, ultrasonic velocity, viscosity of liquids, DAG oil

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
Balcerzak A.-IPPT PAN
Wieja K.-IPPT PAN
Rostocki A.J.-other affiliation
Siegoczyński R.M.-other affiliation
Ptasznik S.-Air Force Institute of Technology (PL)
9.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Malanowski A., Rostocki A.J., Application of the Bleustein-Gulyaev wave method for investigation of high-pressure phase transitions in diacylglycerol oil, IUS 2012, IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, 2012-10-07/10-10, Dresden (DE), DOI: 10.1109/ULTSYM.2012.0127, pp.511-514, 2012
Abstract:

Phase transitions in diacylglycerol (DAG) oil were investigated by using an ultrasonic method for measuring viscosity. Viscosity of DAG oil was measured over a wide range of hydrostatic pressures up to 500 MPa, and at temperatures ranging from 10 to 40 °C. The observed discontinuities in the viscosity versus pressure curves (isotherms) indicate phase transitions. An original ultrasonic method that uses the surface acoustic Bleustein-Gulyaev (B-G) wave was employed to measure the viscosity of DAG oil at high pressure range. This method allowed for fast and reliable measurement of DAG oil viscosity along various isotherms. Moreover, the kinetics of the observed phase transformations at various temperatures was analyzed.

Keywords:

Viscosity, Temperature measurement, Ultrasonic variables measurement, Acoustics, Pressure measurement, Acoustic measurements, Liquids

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
Balcerzak A.-IPPT PAN
Malanowski A.-other affiliation
Rostocki A.J.-other affiliation
10.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Inverse problem of the Love wave propagation in elastic waveguides loaded with a viscous liquid, IUS 2012, IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, 2012-10-07/10-10, Dresden (DE), DOI: 10.1109/ULTSYM.2012.0375, pp.1501-1504, 2012
Abstract:

The problem of propagation of Love waves in elastic waveguides loaded on the surface by a viscous (Newtonian) liquid is important in many applications such as geophysics, seismology, investigation of the physical properties of liquids. Love wave energy is concentrated near the waveguide surface, so that Love waves are especially suited to study the material properties of surface layers. In this work, the direct problem and the inverse problem of the Love wave propagation in a layered elastic waveguides loaded with a viscous liquid have been formulated and solved. The inverse problem relies on the determination of the material parameters (e.g., the unknown value of liquid viscosity) from measurements of the dispersion curves of Love waves.

Keywords:

Liquids, Viscosity, Inverse problems, Surface waves, Dispersion, Linear programming, Liquid waveguides

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
Balcerzak A.-IPPT PAN
11.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Balcerzak A., Rostocki A.J., Measurements of the viscosity of liquids in function of pressure and temperature using SH surface acoustic waves, IUS 2011, IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, 2011-10-18/10-21, Orlando (US), DOI: 10.1109/ULTSYM.2011.0129, pp.535-538, 2011
Abstract:

Triolein viscosity was measured at pressures from atmospheric up to 650 MPa and in the temperature range from 10° C to 40° C using ultrasonic measuring setup. Bleustein-Gulyaev SH surface acoustic waves waveguides were used as viscosity sensors. Application of SH surface acoustic waves in the liquid viscosity measurements at high pressure has many advantages. It enables viscosity measurement during phase transitions and in the high-pressure range where the classical viscosity measurement methods cannot operate. The knowledge of changes in viscosity in function of pressure and temperature can help to obtain a deeper insight into thermodynamic properties of liquids. Measurements of phase transition kinetics and viscosity of liquids at high pressures and various temperatures (isotherms) is a novelty.

Keywords:

Temperature measurement, Viscosity, Liquids, Ultrasonic variables measurement, Acoustic measurements, Pressure measurement, Acoustics

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
Balcerzak A.-IPPT PAN
Rostocki A.J.-other affiliation
12.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Inverse determination of thickness and elastic properties of thin layers and graded materials using generalized Love waves, IUS 2010, IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, 2010-10-11/10-14, San Diego (US), DOI: 10.1109/ULTSYM.2010.5935480, pp.2235-2238, 2010
Abstract:

Determination of the mechanical and geometrical parameters of thin coatings and surface layers in materials is of great practical importance in engineering and technology. In this work the authors present a novel inversion procedure for simultaneous determination of thickness, shear elastic constant and density of thin coating layers in materials. The inversion procedure is based on measurements of the dispersion curve for Love surface acoustic waves. The inverse problem is formulated as an optimization problem with the appropriately designed objective function, depending on the material parameters of the coating layer, ultrasonic frequency, and the experimental data, i.e., measured phase velocity of the surface Love wave. The minimization of the objective function provides three parameters of a thin layer, i.e., its thickness, shear elastic constant and density. The agreement between the results of calculations with the proposed inversion method and the experimental data was good.

Keywords:

Inverse problems, Dispersion, Surface waves, Substrates, Copper, Coatings

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
13.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Rostocki A.J., Zduniak M., Siegoczyński R.M., Balcerzak A., Investigation of High-Pressure Phase Transitions in Vegetable Oils by Measuring Phase Velocity of Longitudinal Ultrasonic Waves, IUS 2009, IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, 2009-09-20/09-23, Rzym (IT), DOI: 10.1109/ULTSYM.2009.5441766, pp.1563-1566, 2009
Abstract:

Monitoring and studying the pressure effect on liquid properties are becoming increasingly important in food, chemical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry as well as in laboratory practice. Accurate thermodynamic data in liquids as a function of pressure are required for studies the structure of liquids as well as for various engineering applications. Direct measurement of thermodynamic parameters is very difficult. The velocity of sound is related to many thermodynamic parameters and can be measured relatively simple. In this work the variation of sound velocity and isothermal compressibility with hydrostatic pressure for triolein is evaluated up to 650 MPa. During the measurement we stated the phase transformation of triolein and the presence of the hysteresis of the dependence of sound velocity on pressure. To the authors' knowledge, the measurement of the sound velocity of liquids under high pressure during the phase transition is the novelty. From the performed measurements it results that the dependence of sound velocity on pressure can be used to investigate phase transformations in natural oils.

Keywords:

Vegetable oils, Velocity measurement, Phase measurement, Ultrasonic variables measurement, Thermodynamics, Liquids, Pressure measurement, Chemical industry, Monitoring, Pressure effects

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
Rostocki A.J.-other affiliation
Zduniak M.-other affiliation
Siegoczyński R.M.-other affiliation
Balcerzak A.-IPPT PAN
14.Rostocki A.J., Siegoczyński R.M., Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., High pressure changes of the castor oil viscosity by ultrasonic method, 21st AIRAPT/45th EHPRG International Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology, 2007-09-17/09-21, Pisa (IT), DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/121/4/142009, Vol.121, pp.142009-1-4, 2008
Abstract:

The pressure change of viscosity of castor oil have been measured by ultrasonic method within the range of pressure up to 0.9 GPa. For the measurement, the authors have applied a new ultrasonic method based on Bleustein-Gulyaev (B-G) waves. For the lower pressures (up to 0.3 GPa) the results have been compared with earlier results obtained by falling body method, whereas for the higher pressure range results were compared with those obtained by the flow type viscometer. The measurements have shown: 1. Exponential rise of viscosity with pressure up to 0.4 GPa according to the Barus formula. 2. Extraordinary increment of viscosity at constant pressure during phase transition. 3. The decomposition of the high pressure phase during the decompression process have shown very large hysteresis of viscosity on pressure. 4. After the decompression process the viscosity lasts higher then a initial value for several hours.

Keywords:

Bleustein-Gulyaev (B-G) waves, high pressure, phase transitions, viscosity measurements

Affiliations:
Rostocki A.J.-other affiliation
Siegoczyński R.M.-other affiliation
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
15.Siegoczyński R.M., Rostocki A.J., Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., A viscosity measurement during the hight pressure phase transition in triolein, 21st AIRAPT/45th EHPRG International Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology, 2007-09-17/09-21, Pisa (IT), DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/121/4/142010, Vol.121, pp.142010-1-5, 2008
Abstract:

The high-pressure properties of triolein, a subject of extensive research at the Faculty of Physics of Warsaw University of Technology (WUT) has been enhanced by the results of viscosity measurements within the pressure range up to 0.8 GPa. For the measurement the authors have adopted a new ultrasonic method based on Bleustein-Gulyaev waves, successfully developed earlier for the low pressures in the Section of Acoustelectronics of the Institute of Fundamental Technological Research. The measurements have shown: 1) Exponential rise of viscosity with pressure up to 0.5 GPa. 2) Extraordinary increment of viscosity at constant pressure during phase transition. 3) Further exponential rise of viscosity with pressure of the high-pressure phase of triolein. 4) The pressure exponents of the viscosity of both phases were different (the high-pressure phase had much smaller exponent). 5) The decomposition of the high-pressure phase due to the slow-decompression has shown very large hysteresis of viscosity on pressure dependence.

Keywords:

Bleustein-Gulyaev (B-G) waves, high-pressure phase transitions, viscosity measurements, triolein

Affiliations:
Siegoczyński R.M.-other affiliation
Rostocki A.J.-other affiliation
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
16.Kiełczyński P., Szalewski M., Rostocki A.J., Gładysz J., Investigation of High-Pressure Phase Transitions in Castor Oil Using SH Surface Acoustic Waves, IUS 2008, IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, 2008-11-02/11-05, Beijing (CN), DOI: 10.1109/ULTSYM.2008.0533, pp.2154-2157, 2008
Abstract:

Measurement techniques for in-situ rheological investigations under high pressure allow insight into the phenomena governing the microstructural modifications. The conventional mechanical methods can not be operated to this aim due to their inherent limitations. This is why ultrasonic methods for the measurement of the viscosity of liquids under high pressure were introduced. To this end, the authors have applied new ultrasonic methods, i.e., the Love wave method and the Bleustein-Gulyaev (B-G) wave method. The measurements of the viscosity of liquid (castor oil) were carried out in function of hydrostatic pressure up to 800 MPa. During the measurement we stated the phase transformation of castor oil and the presence of the hysteresis of the dependence of viscosity on pressure. To the authors' knowledge, the measurement of the viscosity of liquids under high pressure during the phase transition and during the decompression process is the novelty.

Keywords:

Petroleum, Surface acoustic waves, Acoustic waves, Pressure measurement, Viscosity, Ultrasonic variables measurement, Liquids, Phase measurement, Measurement techniques, Rheology

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
Rostocki A.J.-other affiliation
Gładysz J.-other affiliation
17.Kiełczyński P., Pajewski W., Szalewski M., Layered Cylindrical Viscosity Sensors, IEEE International Ultrasonic Symposium, 2004-08-23/08-27, Montréal (CA), DOI: 10.1109/ULTSYM.2004.1418120, Vol.1, pp.1573-1576, 2004
Abstract:

The electro-elastic behavior of a viscoelastically loaded layered cylindrical resonator comprising of two coupled hollow cylinders is presented. The inner cylinder is piezoelectric. The outer cylinder is a non-piezoelectric (passive) metallic cylinder. Analytical formulas for the elements of the impedance matrix Z of a cylindrical piezoelectric resonator vibrating in a shear mode are established. Moreover, analytical formulas for the electrical admittance of a compound layered cylindrical resonator loaded with a viscoelastic liquid are established. Admittance diagrams obtained using: (1) a continuum electromechanical model; and (2) the elements of the impedance matrix Z are exactly the same. The analysis presented in this paper can be utilized for the design and construction of cylindrical piezoelectric viscosity sensors, annular accelerometers, filters, transducers and multi-layer resonators.

Keywords:

Viscosity, Elasticity, Chemical sensors, Piezoelectric materials, Admittance, Surface impedance, Mechanical sensors, Equations, Electromechanical sensors, Accelerometers

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Pajewski W.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN
18.Kiełczyński P., Pajewski W., Szalewski M., Impedance Matrix and its Use for Modeling Axially Polarized Piezoceramic Cylindrical Resonators, IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and PDA Exhibition Jointly with the 17th European Frequency and Time Forum, 2003-05-04/05-08, Tampa (US), DOI: 10.1109/FREQ.2003.1275188, Vol.1, pp.757-760, 2003
Abstract:

Analytical formulas for the elements of the impedance matrix Z of a cylindrical piezoelectric resonator vibrating in a shear mode are established. The input impedance was calculated employed the established elements of the impedance matrix Z. The analysis presented in this paper can be utilized for the design and construction of the cylindrical piezoelectric sensors, transducers and multi-layer resonators.

Keywords:

Surface impedance, Piezoelectric materials, Ceramics, Vibrations, Equations, Electromechanical sensors, Piezoelectric transducers, Mechanical sensors, Piezoelectric polarization, Viscosity

Affiliations:
Kiełczyński P.-IPPT PAN
Pajewski W.-IPPT PAN
Szalewski M.-IPPT PAN