Ryszard Tymkiewicz

Department of Ultrasound (ZU)
Division of Acoustic Microscopy (PMAk)
position: senior master
telephone: (+48) 22 826 12 81 ext.: 172
room: 520
e-mail: rtym

Recent publications
1.Litniewski J., Cieślik L., Lewandowski M., Tymkiewicz R., Zienkiewicz B., Nowicki A., Ultrasonic Scanner for In Vivo Measurement of Cancellous Bone Properties From Backscattered Data, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ULTRASONICS FERROELECTRICS AND FREQUENCY CONTROL, ISSN: 0885-3010, DOI: 10.1109/TUFFC.2012.2347, Vol.59, No.7, pp.1470-1477, 2012
Abstract:

A dedicated ultrasonic scanner for acquiring RF echoes backscattered from the trabecular bone was developed. The design of device is based on the goal of minimizing of custom electronics and computations executed solely on the main computer processor and the graphics card. The electronic encoder-digitizer module executing all of the transmission and reception functions is based on a single low-cost field programmable gate array (FPGA). The scanner is equipped with a mechanical sector-scan probe with a concave transducer with 50 mm focal length, center frequency of 1.5 MHz and 60% bandwidth at −6 dB. The example of femoral neck bone examination shows that the scanner can provide ultrasonic data from deeply located bones with the ultrasound penetrating the trabecular bone up to a depth of 20 mm. It is also shown that the RF echo data acquired with the scanner allow for the estimation of attenuation coefficient and frequency dependence of backscattering coefficient of trabecular bone. The values of the calculated parameters are in the range of corresponding in vitro data from the literature but their variation is relatively high.

Keywords:

cancellous bone, broadband ultrasound attenuation, FPGA

Affiliations:
Litniewski J.-IPPT PAN
Cieślik L.-IPPT PAN
Lewandowski M.-IPPT PAN
Tymkiewicz R.-IPPT PAN
Zienkiewicz B.-IPPT PAN
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
2.Nowicki A., Lewandowski M., Wójcik J., Tymkiewicz R., Lou-Moller R., Wolny W., Zawada T., Thick Film Transducers for High Frequency Coded Ultrasonography, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.36, No.4, pp.945-954, 2011
Abstract:

Recently a new technology of piezoelectric transducers based on PZT thick film has been developed as a response to a call for devices working at higher frequencies suitable for production in large numbers at low cost. Eight PZT thick film based focused transducers with resonant frequency close to 40 MHz were fabricated and experimentally investigated. The PZT thick films were deposited on acoustically engineered ceramic substrates by pad printing. Considering high frequency and nonlinear propagation it has been decided to evaluate the axial pressure field emitted (and reflected by thick metal plate) by each of concave transducer differing in radius of curvature – 11 mm, 12 mm, 15 mm, 16 mm.
All transducers were activated using AVTEC AVG-3A-PS transmitter and Ritec diplexer connected directly to Agilent 54641D oscilloscope. As anticipated, in all cases the focal distance was up to 10% closer to the transducer face than the one related to the curvature radius. Axial pressure distributions were also compared to the calculated ones (with the experimentally determined boundary conditions) using the angular spectrum method including nonlinear propagation in water. The computed results are in a very good agreement with the experimental ones. The transducers were excited with Golay coded sequences at 35–40 MHz. Introducing the coded excitation allowed replacing the short-burst transmission at 20 MHz with the same peak amplitude pressure, but with almost double center frequency, resulting in considerably better axial resolution. The thick films exhibited at least 30% bandwidth broadening comparing to the standard PZ 27 transducer, resulting in an increase in matching filtering output by a factor of 1.4–1.5 and finally resulting in a SNR gain of the same order.

Keywords:

transducers, thick film, high frequency ultrasound, pulse compression, Golay codes

Affiliations:
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Lewandowski M.-IPPT PAN
Wójcik J.-IPPT PAN
Tymkiewicz R.-IPPT PAN
Lou-Moller R.-InSensor A/S (DK)
Wolny W.-InSensor A/S (DK)
Zawada T.-Ferroperm Piezoceramics A/S (DK)
3.Secomski W., Nowicki A., Wójcik J., Lewandowski M., Walczak M., Tymkiewicz R., Annular array transducer and matched amplifier for therapeutic ultrasound, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, DOI: 10.2478/v10168-010-0049-6, Vol.35, No.4, pp.653-660, 2010
Abstract:

The use of therapeutic ultrasound continues to grow. A focused ultrasonic wave can increase the tissue temperature locally for the non-invasive cancer treatment or other medical applications. The authors have designed a seven-element annular array transducer operating at 2.4 MHz. Each element was excited by sine burst supplied by a linear amplifier and FPGA control circuits. The acoustic field, generated by a transducer was initially numerically simulated in a computer and next compared to water tank hydrophone measurements performed at 20, 40 and 60 mm focal depth. The results showed good agreement of the measurements with theory and the possibility to focus the ultrasound in the preselected area. The total acoustic power radiated by the annular array was equal to 2.4W.

Keywords:

ultrasonic therapy, annular array transducer, ultrasonic field

Affiliations:
Secomski W.-IPPT PAN
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Wójcik J.-IPPT PAN
Lewandowski M.-IPPT PAN
Walczak M.-IPPT PAN
Tymkiewicz R.-IPPT PAN
4.Nowicki A., Trots I., Lewin P.A., Secomski W., Tymkiewicz R., Influence of the ultrasound transducer bandwidth on selection of the complementary Golay bit code length, Ultrasonics, ISSN: 0041-624X, DOI: 10.1016/j.ultras.2007.07.003, Vol.47, pp.64-73, 2007
Abstract:

In contrast to previously published papers [A. Nowicki, Z. Klimonda, M. Lewandowski, J. Litniewski, P.A. Lewin, I. Trots, Comparison of sound fields generated by different coded excitations – Experimental results, Ultrasonics 44 (1) (2006) 121–129; J. Litniewski, A. Nowicki, Z. Klimonda, M. Lewandowski, Sound fields for coded excitations in water and tissue: experimental approach, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 33 (4) (2007) 601–607], which examined the factors influencing the spatial resolution of coded complementary Golay sequences (CGS), this paper investigates the effect of ultrasound imaging transducer’s fractional bandwidth on the gain of the compressed echo signal for different spectral widths of the CGS. Two different bit lengths were considered, specifically one and two cycles. Three transducers having fractional bandwidth of 25%, 58% and 80% and operating at frequencies 6, 4.4 and 6 MHz, respectively were examined (one of the 6 MHz sources was focused and made of composite material). The experimental results have shown that by increasing the code length, i.e. decreasing the bandwidth, the compressed echo amplitude could be enhanced. The smaller the bandwidth was the larger was the gain; the pulse-echo sensitivity of the echo amplitude increased by 1.88, 1.62 and 1.47, for 25%, 58% and 80% bandwidths, respectively. These results indicate that two cycles bit length excitation is more suitable for use with bandwidth limited commercially available imaging transducers. Further, the time resolution is retained for transducers with two cycles excitation providing the fractional bandwidth is lower than approximately 90%. The results of this work also show that adjusting the code length allows signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) to be enhanced while using limited (less that 80%) bandwidth imaging transducers. Also, for such bandwidth limited transducers two cycles excitation would not decrease the time resolution, obtained with ‘‘conventional’’ spike excitation. Hence, CGS excitation could be successfully implemented with the existing, relatively narrow band imaging transducers without the need to use usually more expensive wideband, composite ones.

Keywords:

ultrasound imaging, transducer bandwidth, complementary Golay sequences

Affiliations:
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Lewin P.A.-Drexel University (US)
Secomski W.-IPPT PAN
Tymkiewicz R.-IPPT PAN
5.Trots I., Nowicki A., Secomski W., Tymkiewicz R., The influence of the transducer bandwidth on the efficient Golay codes compression, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.32, No.4, pp.101-110, 2007
Abstract:

The maximization of penetration depth with concurrent retaining or enhancement of image resolution constitutes one of the time invariant challenges in ultrasound imaging. To solve this problem a pulse compression technique employing long coded sequences is now under intensive investigation and in fact some of the corresponding techniques were already implemented in commercial scanning machines. This paper investigates the influence of the effective bandwidth of the transducer on the behaviour of the encoding/compression technique and its potential influence on the axial resolution. We have investigated two different bits lengths – one and two periods – in the Golay sequences resulting in substantial difference of the bandwidth of the transmitted sequences. Three transducers with different fractional bandwidths were used in the experiments: 6 MHz focused transducer with 25% fractional bandwidth, 4.4 MHz flat transducer with 58% fractional bandwidth and 6 MHz flat, composite transducer with 80% fractional bandwidth. The experimental results are clearly showing that the elongation of the Golay single bit length (two cycles in our case) compensates for the limited transducer bandwidth. For 25% bandwidth peak-to-peak echo increased by 1.89 times; for 58% bandwidth peak-to-peak echo amplitude increased by 1.62 times, and for 80% bandwidth peak-to-peak echo increased by 1.47 times.

Keywords:

ultrasound imaging, transducer bandwidth, Golay complementary sequences

Affiliations:
Trots I.-IPPT PAN
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Secomski W.-IPPT PAN
Tymkiewicz R.-IPPT PAN
6.Wójcik J., Powałowski T., Tymkiewicz R., Lamers A., Trawiński Z., Scattering of ultrasonic wave on a model of the artery, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.31, pp.471-479, 2006
Abstract:

The study was aimed at elaboration of a mathematical model to describe the process of acoustic wave propagation in an inhomogeneous and absorbing medium, whereas the wave is generated by an ultrasonic probe. The modelling proces covered the phenomenon of ultrasonic wave backscattering on an elastic pipe with dimensions similar to the artery section. Later on the numerical codes were determined in order to calculate the fields of ultrasonic waves, as well as backscattered fields for various boundary conditions. Numerical calculations make it possible to definethe waveforms for electric signals that are produced when ultrasonic waves, being reflected and backsvattered by an artery model, are then received by the ultrasonic probe. It is the signalwhich pretty well corresponds with the actual RF signal that is obtained during measurements at the output of anultrasonic apparatus.

Keywords:

ultrasound, backscattering, artery, numerical model

Affiliations:
Wójcik J.-IPPT PAN
Powałowski T.-IPPT PAN
Tymkiewicz R.-IPPT PAN
Lamers A.-other affiliation
Trawiński Z.-IPPT PAN
7.Nowicki A., Litniewski J., Secomski W., Trots I., Lewandowski M., Tymkiewicz R., Coded ultrasonography, Annual Report - Polish Academy of Sciences, ISSN: 1640-3754, pp.56-57, 2005
8.Filipczyński L., Wójcik J., Kujawska T., Łypacewicz G., Tymkiewicz R., Zienkiewicz B., Nonlinear Native Propagation Effect of Diagnostic Ultrasound Computed and Measured in Blood, ULTRASOUND IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY, ISSN: 0301-5629, DOI: 10.1016/S0301-5629(00)00329-X, Vol.27, No.2, pp.251-257, 2001
Abstract:

Nonlinear propagation effects produced by focused pulses in blood were measured over a 20-cm range, being inspired by diagnostic applications in cardiology. The initial and maximum pressures applied during measurements in blood were equal to 0.40 MPapp and 0.76 MPapp, while the pressure estimated at the patient body surface equalled 0.70 MPapp. Measurements of the frequency characteristic and the linearity of the ultrasonic probe used in experiments were performed in water. A numerical procedure developed previously was applied in blood to calculate the pressure distribution of its first and second harmonics along the beam axis. The comparison of numerical and measured distributions in blood at a temperature of 37°C showed rather good agreement. Using numerical methods, a proportional growth of the second harmonic with the increased applied initial pressure was first observed, and finally the maximum limiting effect was found. In this way, much higher level of harmonics could be obtained. However, there arise the questions of the transmitting system construction and of the nonuniform resolution in the case of harmonic imaging when increasing the applied initial pressure.

Keywords:

Ultrasound, Pulses, Nonlinear propagation, Blood, Cardiology

Affiliations:
Filipczyński L.-IPPT PAN
Wójcik J.-IPPT PAN
Kujawska T.-IPPT PAN
Łypacewicz G.-other affiliation
Tymkiewicz R.-IPPT PAN
Zienkiewicz B.-IPPT PAN
9.Filipczyński L., Kujawska T., Tymkiewicz R., Wójcik J., Nonlinear and linear propagation of diagnostic ultrasound pulses, ULTRASOUND IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY, ISSN: 0301-5629, DOI: 10.1016/S0301-5629(98)00174-4, Vol.25, No.2, pp.285-299, 1999
Abstract:

The effect of nonlinear propagation in fluid followed by soft tissue was studied both theoretically and experimentally for a most crucial case in obstetrical ultrasonography. For this purpose, short pressure pulses, with the duration time of 1.3 μs and a carrier frequency of 3 MHz, radiated by a concave transducer into water, with maximum intensities up to the value of 18 W/cm2, were computed and measured. The ultrasonic beam had the physical focus at the distance of 6.5 cm, where the highest focal intensity of ISPPA= 242 W/cm2 was obtained. In front of the transducer, at a distance of 7 cm, artificial tissue samples prepared on the basis of ground porcine kidney, with a thickness of 0.5, 1.5 and 3 cm, were placed in water. Pressure pulses and their spectral components were produced numerically and measured by means of a PVDF hydrophone in water before and after penetrating the tissue samples. The theoretical analysis and measurements were carried out, in every case, for two signal levels: for a high level assuring nonlinear propagation and for a low one where conditions of linear propagation were fulfilled. In this way, it was possible to compare directly the effects of nonlinear and linear propagation, in every case showing a good conformity of theoretical values with measured ones. A method of determination of the effective frequency response of the hydrophone was elaborated to enable quantitative comparisons of numerical and experimental results. The theoretical part of our study was based on a paper of Wójcik (1998), enabling us to compute the characteristic function of nonlinear increase of absorption. An agreement of up to 10% was obtained when comparing theoretical and measured values of these functions in the investigated beam in water and behind tissue samples. The results obtained showed that the recently given theory of nonlinear absorption, based on the spectral analysis and the elaborated numerical procedures, may be useful in various practical ultrasonic medical problems and also in technological applications.

Keywords:

Ultrasound, Pulses, Nonlinear propagation, Diagnostics

Affiliations:
Filipczyński L.-IPPT PAN
Kujawska T.-IPPT PAN
Tymkiewicz R.-IPPT PAN
Wójcik J.-IPPT PAN
10.Filipczyński L., Kujawska T., Tymkiewicz R., Wójcik J., Amplitude, isobar and gray -scale imaging of ultrasonic shadows behind rigid, elastic and gaseous spheres, ULTRASOUND IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY, ISSN: 0301-5629, DOI: 10.1016/0301-5629(95)02031-4, Vol.22, No.2, pp.261-270, 1996
Abstract:

The theory of wave reflection from spherical obstacles was applied for determination of the cause of the shadow created by plane wave pulses incident on rigid, steel, gaseous spheres and on spheres made of kidney stones. The spheres were immersed in water which was assumed to be a tissuelike medium. Acoustic pressure distributions behind the spheres with the radii of 1 mm, 2.5 mm and 3.5 mm were determined at the frequency of 5 MHz. The use of the exact wave theory enabled us to take into account the diffraction effects. The computed pressure distributions were verified experimentally at the frequency of 5 MHz for a steel sphere with a 2.5-mm radius. The experimental and theoretical pulses were composed of about three ultrasonic frequency periods. Acoustic pressure distributions in the shadow zone of all spheres were shown in the amplitude axonometric projection, in the grey scale and also as acoustic isobar patterns. Our analysis confirmed existing simpler descriptions of the shadow from the point of view of reflection and refraction effects; however, our approach is more general, also including diffraction effects and assuming the pulse mode. The analysis has shown that gaseous spherical inclusions caused shadows with very high dynamics of acoustic pressures that were about 15 dB higher in relation to all the other spheres. The shadow length, determined as the length at which one observes a 6-dB drop of the acoustic pressure, followed the relation r−6dB = 3.7a2λ with the accuracy of about 20% independent of the sphere type. λ denotes the wavelength and a the sphere radius. Thus, a theoretical possibility of differentiating between gaseous and other inclusions and of estimation of the inclusion size in the millimeter range from the shadow was shown. The influence of the frequency-dependent attenuation on the shadow will be considered in the next study.

Keywords:

Shadow, Pulses, Spheres, Ultrasonography

Affiliations:
Filipczyński L.-IPPT PAN
Kujawska T.-IPPT PAN
Tymkiewicz R.-IPPT PAN
Wójcik J.-IPPT PAN

List of chapters in recent monographs
1.
494
Klimonda Z., Dobruch-Sobczak K., Piotrzkowska-Wróblewska H., Tymkiewicz R., Litniewski J., Postępy Akustyki 2016, rozdział: Obrazowanie tłumienia ultradźwięków w tkance nowotworowej, Polskie Towarzystwo Akustyczne, Oddział Warszawski, Warszawa, Poland, pp.39-48, 2016
2.
495
Litniewski J., Klimonda Z., Karwat P., Piotrzkowska-Wróblewska H., Dobruch-Sobczak K., Tymkiewicz R., Gambin B., Postępy Akustyki 2016, rozdział: Cancer malignancy sonic markers, Polskie Towarzystwo Akustyczne, Oddział Warszawski, Warszawa, Poland, pp.49-60, 2016

Conference papers
1.Kruglenko E., Mizera A., Gambin B., Tymkiewicz R., Zienkiewicz B., Litniewski J., Nagrzewanie ultradźwiękami tkanek miękkich in vitro i własności akustyczne wytworzonych wzorców tkanek miękkich, 59th Open Seminar on Acoustics, 2012-09-10/09-14, Boszkowo (PL), pp.129-132, 2012
Abstract:

W pracy przedstawiono wstępne wyniki pomiaru pola temperatury wewnątrz tkanki in vitro w czasie procesu nagrzewania wiązką ultradźwiękową o słabej mocy oraz pomiaru właściwości akustycznych wzorców tkanek miękkich. Wzorce te zbudowano w celu dalszych badań nad powiązaniem wzrostu temperatury z właściwościami akustycznymi, gdyż próbki tkankowe in vitro okazały się niepowtarzalne i nietrwałe. Na wykonanych 3 wzorcach tkankowych dokonano pomiaru sygnału przejścia i wyznaczono prędkość propagacji impulsu, współczynnik tłumienia oraz zbadano statystykę rozproszenia. Przedyskutowano wpływ liczby elementów rozpraszających na te wielkości.

Keywords:

wzorce tkanek, sygnał ultradźwiękowy, prędkość dźwięku, tłumienie, statystyka rozproszenia

Affiliations:
Kruglenko E.-IPPT PAN
Mizera A.-IPPT PAN
Gambin B.-IPPT PAN
Tymkiewicz R.-IPPT PAN
Zienkiewicz B.-IPPT PAN
Litniewski J.-IPPT PAN
2.Litniewski J., Cieślik L., Lewandowski M., Tymkiewicz R., Zienkiewicz B., Nowicki A., Bone scanner for examination of deeply located trabecular bones, IUS 2011, IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, 2011-10-18/10-21, Orlando (US), DOI: 10.1109/ULTSYM.2011.0117, pp.486-489, 2011
Abstract:

The paper presents a new yield criterion for the transversal isotropy of metal sheets under plane-stress conditions which is an extension of the isotropic yield function proposed by Burzynski (Burzynski W. l928). Studium nad hipotezami Burzynski's doctoral dissertation "Study on material effort hypotheses”, Engng. Trans., 2009, t. 57, nr 3-4, s. l85-2l5). Two additional coefficients have been introduced in order to allow a better representation of plastic behavior of metal sheets. The proposed yield condition includes the influence of first invariant of the stress tensor and also the strength differential effect. The system of equations describing the sheet metal forming process is solved by algorithm using the return mapping procedure. PIane stress constraint is incorporated into the Newton-Raphson iteration loop. The proposed algorithm is verified by performing a numerical test using shell elements in commercial FEM software ABAQUS/EXPLICIT with a developed VUMAT subroutine. It is shown that the proposed approach provides the satisfactory prediction of material behavior, at least in the cases when anisotropy effects are not advanced. To perform FE simulations of cup deep drawing processes, three independent yield stresses are required. Those yield stresses can be obtained from: directional uniaxial tensile test, directional uniaxial compression test and equibiaxial compression tests. In the paper the formability of two metal sheets are analysed. First the influence of strength differential effect on the cup height profile is shown. Then the comparison between the Huber-Mises-Hencky yield condition and the proposed yield condition is presented.

Keywords:

bone scanner, trabecular bone, osteoporosis

Affiliations:
Litniewski J.-IPPT PAN
Cieślik L.-IPPT PAN
Lewandowski M.-IPPT PAN
Tymkiewicz R.-IPPT PAN
Zienkiewicz B.-IPPT PAN
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
3.Nowicki A., Wójcik J., Lewandowski M., Tymkiewicz R., Lou-Moller R., Wolny W., Zawada T., Thick film transducers for high frequency coded ultrasonography, 9th International Conference on Information Technology and Applications in Biomedicine, 2009-11-04/11-07, Larnaka (CY), DOI: 10.1109/ITAB.2009.5394411, pp.1-4, 2009
Abstract:

Recently a new technology of piezoelectric transducers based on PZT thick film has been developed as a response to a call for devices working at higher frequencies suitable for production in large numbers at low cost. Eight PZT thick film based focused transducers with resonant frequency close to 40 MHz were fabricated and experimentally investigated. The PZT thick films were deposited on acoustically engineered ceramic substrates by pad printing. Considering high frequency and nonlinear propagation it has been decided to evaluate the axial pressure field emitted (and reflected by thick metal plate) by each of concave transducer differing in radius of curvature - 11 mm, 12 mm, 15 mm, 16 mm.
All transducers were activated using AVTEC AVG-3A-PS transmitter and Ritec diplexer connected directly to Agilent 54641D oscilloscope. As anticipated, in all cases the focal distance was up to 10% closer to the transducer face than the one related to the curvature radius. Axial pressure distributions were also compared to the calculated ones (with the experimentally determined boundary conditions) using the angular spectrum method including nonlinear propagation in water. The computed results are in a very good agreement with the experimental ones. The transducers were excited with Golay coded sequences at 35-40 MHz. Introducing the coded excitation allowed replacing the short-burst transmission at 20 MHz with the same peak amplitude pressure, but with almost double center frequency, resulting in considerably better axial resolution. The thick films exhibited at least 30% bandwidth broadening comparing to the standard PZ 27 transducer, resulting in an increase in matching filtering output by a factor of 1.4-1.5 and finally resulting in a SNR gain of the same order. Examples of skin scans obtained with the new thick-film transducers are presented.

Keywords:

transducers, thick film, high frequency ultrasound, pulse compression, Golay code

Affiliations:
Nowicki A.-IPPT PAN
Wójcik J.-IPPT PAN
Lewandowski M.-IPPT PAN
Tymkiewicz R.-IPPT PAN
Lou-Moller R.-InSensor A/S (DK)
Wolny W.-InSensor A/S (DK)
Zawada T.-Ferroperm Piezoceramics A/S (DK)

Conference abstracts
1.Klimonda Z., Dobruch-Sobczak K., Piotrzkowska-Wróblewska H., Tymkiewicz R., Litniewski J., Ultrasound attenuation imaging of tumor tissue, OSA 16, LXIII Otwarte Seminarium z Akustyki, 2016-09-13/09-16, Białowieża (PL), DOI: 10.1515/aoa-2016-0059, pp.619-620, 2016
Keywords:

attenuation estimation, parametric imaging

Affiliations:
Klimonda Z.-IPPT PAN
Dobruch-Sobczak K.-IPPT PAN
Piotrzkowska-Wróblewska H.-IPPT PAN
Tymkiewicz R.-IPPT PAN
Litniewski J.-IPPT PAN
2.Litniewski J., Klimonda Z., Karwat P., Piotrzkowska-Wróblewska H., Dobruch-Sobczak K., Tymkiewicz R., Gambin B., Cancer Malignancy Sonic Markers, OSA 16, LXIII Otwarte Seminarium z Akustyki, 2016-09-13/09-16, Białowieża (PL), DOI: 10.1515/aoa-2016-0059, No.3, pp.622, 2016