Institute of Fundamental Technological Research
Polish Academy of Sciences

Partners

Katarzyna Makowska

Motor Transport Institute (PL)

Doctoral thesis
2015-03-26 Metodyka oceny stanu uszkodzenia materiałów poddawanych laboratoryjnie symulowanym obciążeniom eksploatacyjnym  (ITS)
supervisor -- Prof. Zbigniew Kowalewski, PhD, DSc, IPPT PAN
 

Recent publications
1.  Szymczak T., Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Characteristics and fracture of the S700MC high strength steel under various types of loading, Materials, ISSN: 1996-1944, DOI: 10.3390/ma13225249, Vol.13, No.22, pp.5249-1-17, 2020

Abstract:
This paper focuses on the mechanical properties analysis of the high strength S700MC steel applied in welding joints. The research comprised mechanical tests for checking what the changes of tensile characteristics, mechanical parameters, resistance to impact, and fracture toughness look like in selected regions of the welding joint. Stress-strain curves have shown significant differences in the tensile characteristic shape and the values of Young's modulus, yield stress, ultimate tensile strength, and ductility due to the welding process applied. In the case of Charpy tests, the courses of the accumulated energy, force, deflection, and project velocity are presented, indicating the maximum value of absorbed energy, the same level of force during the first contact of the projectile with the specimens, and the significant variation of the velocity for the impact energy ranging from 50 J up to 300 J. On the basis of the fracture toughness tests, the distributions of the CTOD (Crack Tip Opening Displacement) values are presented for the parent material, HAZ (Heat Affected Zone) and weld. Moreover, the characteristic features of the fatigue pre-crack, transient and crack propagation zones are identified and discussed.

Keywords:
high strength steel, weld, HAZ, tensile curve, impact, fracture toughness, CTOD, fractography, S700MC

Affiliations:
Szymczak T. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Makowska K. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
2.  Rutecka A., Kursa M., Pietrzak K., Kowalczyk-Gajewska K., Makowska K., Wyszkowski M., Damage evolution in AA2124/SiC metal matrix composites under tension with consecutive unloadings, ARCHIVES OF CIVIL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, ISSN: 1644-9665, DOI: 10.1007/s43452-020-00134-x, Vol.20, No.4, pp.135-1-18, 2020

Abstract:
Nonlinear properties of metal matrix composites (MMCs) are studied. The research combines results of loading-unloading tensile tests, microstructural observations and numerical predictions by means of micromechanical mean-field models. AA2124/SiC metal matrix composites with SiC particles, produced by the Aerospace Metal Composites Ltd. (AMC) are investigated. The aluminum matrix is reinforced with 17% and 25% of SiC particles. The best conditions to evaluate the current elastic stiffness modulus have been assessed. Tensile tests were carried out with consecutive unloading loops to obtain actual tensile modulus and study degradation of elastic properties of the composites. The microstructure examination by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed a variety of phenomena occurring during composite deformation and possible sources of elastic stiffness reduction and damage evolution have been indicated. Two micromechanical approaches, the incremental Mori–Tanaka (MT) and self-consistent (SC) schemes, are applied to estimate effective properties of the composites. The standard formulations are extended to take into account elasto-plasticity and damage development in the metal phase. The method of direct linearization performed for the tangent or secant stiffness moduli is formulated. Predictions of both approaches are compared with experimental results of tensile tests in the elastic–plastic regime. The question is addressed how to perform the micromechanical modelling if the actual stress–strain curve of metal matrix is unknown.

Keywords:
metal matrix composites, tension with unloadings, damage, microstructure, non-linear effective properties

Affiliations:
Rutecka A. - other affiliation
Kursa M. - IPPT PAN
Pietrzak K. - other affiliation
Kowalczyk-Gajewska K. - IPPT PAN
Makowska K. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Wyszkowski M. - IPPT PAN
3.  Szymczak T., Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Lasota P., An influence of impact energy on magnesium alloy behaviour, International Journal of Mechanics and Materials in Design, ISSN: 1569-1713, DOI: 10.1007/s10999-019-09461-1, Vol.16, No.1, pp.139-153, 2020

Abstract:
The paper reports experimental results describing behaviour of the AM60 magnesium alloy under impact test. The material was examined at energy in the range from 170 to 690 J, using impact tower with the projectile of conical shape. Results are presented in a form of variations of accumulated energy, force, projectile velocity and its displacement versus time. The characteristic features appearing in courses of force and accumulated energy are illustrated. Fractography and microstructure of damage zones for distinguishing the alloy degradation are shown. The fracture regions of the material examined are represented by cracks and plug-shaped deformation.

Keywords:
magnesium alloy, impact, projectile, perforation, fractography, microstructure

Affiliations:
Szymczak T. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Makowska K. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
Lasota P. - other affiliation
4.  Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Variation of Barkhausen noise, magnetic and crystal structure of ferromagnetic medium-carbon steel after different loading processes, PHYSICS OF METALS AND METALLOGRAPHY, ISSN: 0031-918X, DOI: 10.1134/S0031918X20020118, Vol.121, No.2, pp.115-122, 2020

Abstract:
The article presents variations of rms Barkhausen noise envelopes in the medium-carbon steel used in automotive and power industry. The material was subjected to different loading processes: monotonic loading at room temperature, and constant loading at elevated temperature. The first one enforced a plastic deformation, whereas the second one a creep. The changes of Barkhausen signal were analysed using microstructural observations including X-ray measurements. In the second part of the paper, the magnetic structure and pinning effect were illustrated by means of the Lorentz microscopy.

Keywords:
Barkhausen noise, magnetic structure, plastic deformation, creep, dislocation density

Affiliations:
Makowska K. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
5.  Szymczak T., Brodecki A., Kowalewski Z.L., Makowska K., Tow truck frame made of high strength steel under cyclic loading, Materials Today: Proceedings, ISSN: 2214-7853, DOI: 10.1016/j.matpr.2019.03.115, Vol.12, pp.207-212, 2019

Abstract:
The paper presents experimental results from test on tow truck frame made of the high strength steel S700MC subjected to fatigue loading. The mounting manner of the frame with anti-vibration platform and connection with a coupling ball to apply the loading are presented. Cracks features captured by means of macrophotography and microscopic observations are illustrated. Reasons for the crack occurrence are discussed by the use of fractography, hardness tests, microstructural analysis of the parent material, Heat Affected Zone and weld.

Keywords:
cyclic loading, fatigue, fracture, crack, higth strength steel, hardness, microstructure, welding, HAZ

Affiliations:
Szymczak T. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Brodecki A. - IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
Makowska K. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
6.  Makowska K., Brodecki A., Mackiewicz S., Kowalewski Z.L., Damage development of inconel 718 due to laboratory simulated creep, JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL AND APPLIED MECHANICS, ISSN: 1429-2955, DOI: 10.15632/jtam-pl.56.3.893, Vol.56, No.3, pp.893-896, 2018

Abstract:
The paper presents an attempt of application of the acoustic birefringence coefficient for early stage degradation assessment of Inconel 718 nickel superalloy after short-term creep. It is shown that it can serve as a good damage sensitive parameter and, moreover, it can be well correlated with hardness variation.

Keywords:
creep, nickel superalloy, microstructure, pre-deformation, hardness, acoustic birefringence

Affiliations:
Makowska K. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Brodecki A. - other affiliation
Mackiewicz S. - IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
7.  Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Dudda W., Ziółkowski P., Badur J., Badania mikrostruktury i poziomu szumu Barkhausena eksploatowanych łopatek turbiny, ENERGETYKA, PROBLEMY ENERGETYKI I GOSPODARKI PALIWOWO-ENERGETYCZNEJ, ISSN: 0013-7294, Vol.773, No.11, pp.627-629, 2018
8.  Makowska K., Piotrowski L., Kowalewski Z.L., Prediction of the Mechanical Properties of P91 Steel by Means of Magneto-acoustic Emission and Acoustic Birefringence, JOURNAL OF NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION, ISSN: 0195-9298, DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0421-9, Vol.36, No.2, pp.43-1-10, 2017

Abstract:
The paper describes an application of non-destructive volumetric magnetic and ultrasonic techniques for evaluation of the selected mechanical parameter variations of P91 steel having direct influence on its suitability for further use in critical components used in power plants. Two different types of deformation processes were carried out. First, a series of the P91 steel specimens was subjected to creep and second, one to plastic deformation in order to achieve the material with an increasing strain level up to 10%. Subsequently, non-destructive and destructive tests were performed. Magnetic methods based on measurements of magnetoacoustic emission and magnetic hysteresis loop changes as well as the ultrasonic method based on acoustic birefringence measurements, were applied. Finally, the static tensile tests were carried out in order to evaluate the mechanical parameters. It is shown that some relationships between the selected parameters coming from the non-destructive and destructive tests may be formulated.

Keywords:
Creep, Plastic deformation, Acoustic birefringence, Magnetoacoustic emission, Magnetic hysteresis loop

Affiliations:
Makowska K. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Piotrowski L. - other affiliation
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
9.  Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Ziółkowski P., Badur J., Ocena stopnia uszkodzenia eksploatowanych łopatek turbiny z wykorzystaniem sygnału szumu Barkhausena, ENERGETYKA, PROBLEMY ENERGETYKI I GOSPODARKI PALIWOWO-ENERGETYCZNEJ, ISSN: 0013-7294, Vol.760, No.10, pp.638-641, 2017
10.  Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Ocena stopnia degradacji materiałów ferromagnetycznych technikami magnetycznymi, ENERGETYKA, PROBLEMY ENERGETYKI I GOSPODARKI PALIWOWO-ENERGETYCZNEJ, ISSN: 0013-7294, Vol.749, No.11, pp.681-684, 2016
11.  Rutecka A., Kowalewski Z.L., Makowska K., Pietrzak K., Dietrich L., Fatigue damage of Al/SiC composites – macroscopic and microscopic analysis, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.1515/amm-2015-0016, Vol.60, No.1, pp.101-105, 2015

Abstract:
The results of comparative examinations of mechanical behaviour during fatigue loads and microstructure assessment before and after fatigue tests were presented. Composites of aluminium matrix and SiC reinforcement manufactured using the KoBo method were investigated. The combinations of two kinds of fatigue damage mechanisms were observed. The first one governed by cyclic plasticity and related to inelastic strain amplitude changes and the second one expressed in a form of ratcheting based on changes in mean inelastic strain. The higher SiC content the less influence of the fatigue damage mechanisms on material behaviour was observed. Attempts have been made to evaluate an appropriate fatigue damage parameter. However, it still needs further improvements.

Keywords:
fatigue, damage, metal matrix composites, microstructure

Affiliations:
Rutecka A. - IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
Makowska K. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Pietrzak K. - other affiliation
Dietrich L. - IPPT PAN
12.  Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Możliwości wykorzystania szumu Barkhausena do oceny mikrostruktury i właściwości mechanicznych materiałów, ENERGETYKA, PROBLEMY ENERGETYKI I GOSPODARKI PALIWOWO-ENERGETYCZNEJ, ISSN: 0013-7294, Vol.736, No.10, pp.664-667, 2015
13.  Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Nowe możliwości zastosowania parametrów ultradźwiękowych do oceny właściwości mechanicznych materiałów, TRANSPORT SAMOCHODOWY, ISSN: 1731-2795, Vol.4, pp.97-113, 2015
14.  Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Augustyniak B., Piotrowski L., Determination of mechanical properties of P91 steel by means of magnetic Berkhausen emission, JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL AND APPLIED MECHANICS, ISSN: 1429-2955, Vol.52, No.1, pp.181-188, 2014

Abstract:
In this work, an attempt at determination of mechanical properties by means of a method based on magnetic Barkhausen emission measurements was proposed. The specimens made of P91 steel were subjected to creep or plastic flow which were interrupted after a range of selected time periods in order to achieve specimens with an increasing level of strain. Subsequently, measurements of magnetic Barkhausen emission were carried out, and then static tensile tests were performed in order to check variations of basic mechanical parameters. It is shown that evident relationships between the yield point /ultimate tensile strength and some parameters of the Barkhausen emission exist.

Keywords:
mechanical properties, magnetic Barkhausen effect, plastic strain

Affiliations:
Makowska K. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
Augustyniak B. - Gdańsk University of Technology (PL)
Piotrowski L. - other affiliation
15.  Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Makowska K., Augustyniak B., A role of destructive and non-destructive tests in creep damage identification, KEY ENGINEERING MATERIALS, ISSN: 1662-9795, Vol.488-489, pp.315-318, 2012
16.  Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Makowska K., Augustyniak B., A role of destructive and non-destructive tests in creep damage identification, KEY ENGINEERING MATERIALS, ISSN: 1662-9795, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.488-489.315, Vol.488-489, pp.315-318, 2011

Abstract:
The paper presents relationships between strain level generated by creep process and two parameters determined form non-destructive tests, i.e. acoustic birefringence and amplitude of magnetoacoustic emission for three kinds of steel: 40HNMA, P91 and 13HMF. Moreover, the relationships between prior deformation level and selected mechanical parameters resulting from the standard tensile tests subsequently carried out at room temperature were established. As a consequence, this enabled to formulate mutual relationships between these mechanical parameters and parameters obtained from the ultrasonic/magnetic investigations.

Keywords:
creep, damage, yield point, ultimate tensile stress, Young’s modulus, acoustic birefringence, magnetoacoustic emission.

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
Szymczak T. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Makowska K. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Augustyniak B. - Gdańsk University of Technology (PL)
17.  Kowalewski Z.L., Szelążek J., Augustyniak B., Piotrowski L., Makowska K., Szymczak T., Interdyscyplinarne techniki oceny stanu uszkodzenia stali stosowanych w energetyce, ENERGETYKA, PROBLEMY ENERGETYKI I GOSPODARKI PALIWOWO-ENERGETYCZNEJ, ISSN: 0013-7294, No.11, pp.23-26, 2011
18.  Rutecka A., Kowalewski Z.L., Pietrzak K., Dietrich L., Makowska K., Woźniak J., Kostecki M., Bochniak W., Olszyna A., Damage development of Al/SiC metal matrix composite under fatigue, creep and monotonic loading conditions, Procedia Engineering, ISSN: 1877-7058, DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2011.04.236, Vol.10, pp.1420-1425, 2011

Abstract:
A consolidation of powders using the KOBO method at elevated temperature was elaborated for production of Al/SiC metal matrix composite (MMC). The observations of the mean strain and inelastic strain range during the force controlled high cycle fatigue (HCF) tests identified the ratcheting mechanism combined with mechanism characterized by cyclic plasticity. Damage parameters were calculated on the basis of strain signal acquisition during fatigue tests. Fatigue properties, creep resistance and life time of Al/SiC MMC were gradually improved with the increase of the SiC particles content. The microstructural observations of the material before and after tests were also performed.

Keywords:
MMC, KOBO method, fatigue, creep, monotonic loading, microstructure, damage

Affiliations:
Rutecka A. - IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
Pietrzak K. - other affiliation
Dietrich L. - IPPT PAN
Makowska K. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Woźniak J. - other affiliation
Kostecki M. - other affiliation
Bochniak W. - other affiliation
Olszyna A. - other affiliation
19.  Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Ocena stopnia uszkodzenia stali 40HNMA metodami nieniszczącymi i niszczącymi, TRANSPORT SAMOCHODOWY, ISSN: 1731-2795, Vol.4, pp.1-15, 2010

Abstract:
This work presents an attempt to evaluate a stage of mechanical and structural degradation of 40HNMA steel, used for example in automotive industry, by means of non-destructive and destructive methods. The modern ultrasonic and magnetic investigation were mainly applied

Affiliations:
Makowska K. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN

List of chapters in recent monographs
1. 
Kowalewski Z.L., Ustrzycka A., Szymczak T., Makowska K., Kukla D., Plasticity, Damage and Fracture in Advanced Materials, rozdział: Damage Identification Supported by Nondestructive Testing Techniques, Springer International Publishing, pp.67-117, 2020

Conference papers
1.  Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Wykorzystanie parametrów szumu Barkhausena do oceny właściwości mechanicznych materiałów konstrukcyjnych, XIII NKRM 2019, XIII Konferencja Nowe Kierunki Rozwoju Mechaniki, 2019-03-20/03-23, Będlewo (PL), pp.47-48, 2019

Keywords:
stale wysokowytrzymałe, szum Barkhausena, twardość, wytrzymałość na rozciąganie, mikrostruktura

Affiliations:
Makowska K. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
2.  Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Makowska K., Pietrzak K., Damage Indicators During Fatigue of Metal Matrix Composites, 4th International Conference on Nonlinear Dynamics, 2013-06-19/06-22, Sevastopol (UA), pp.1-6, 2013

Abstract:
Selected damage measures applied for degradation description of engineering materials subjected to fatigue loading conditions are presented. In addition to well - known measures the new concepts of fatigue damage development are discussed using known mechanisms of cyclic plasticity and ratcheting. Their usefulness was studied on the basis of experimental results for modern metal matrix composites commonly applied in many branches of the industry.

Keywords:
Damage, fatigue, composites

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
Szymczak T. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Makowska K. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Pietrzak K. - other affiliation
3.  Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Makowska K., Augustyniak B., Assessment of material degradation of power steels using destructive and non-destructive testing methods, 9th International Congress on Thermal Stresses, 2011-06-05/06-09, Budapest (HU), Vol.1, pp.1-4, 2011
4.  Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Makowska K., Augustyniak B., A role of destructive and non-destructive tests in creep damage, FDM 2011, 10th International Conference on Fracture and Damage Mechanics, 2011-09-19/09-21, Dubrovnik (HR), pp.315-318, 2011

Conference abstracts
1.  Kowalewski Z.L., Ustrzycka A., Szymczak T., Makowska K., Damage identification supported by nondestructive testing techniques, ICPDF, INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON PLASTICITY, 2019-01-03/01-09, Panama (PA), pp.1-1, 2019
2.  Makowska K., Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties of ferromagnetic structural materials using barkhausen noise, ISMMS, 10th International Symposium on Mechanics of Materials and Structures, 2019-06-02/06-06, Augustów (PL), pp.74-75, 2019

Keywords:
Barkhausen noise, microstructure, hardness, ultimate tensile strength, structural steels

Affiliations:
Makowska K. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Szymczak T. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
3.  Szymczak T., Brodecki A., Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Tow truck frame made of high strength steel under cyclic loading, 35 DANUBIA-ADRIA, 35th Danubia-Adria Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 2018-09-25/09-28, Sinaia (RO), pp.145-146, 2018
4.  Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Dudda W., Ziółkowski P., Badur J., Damage assessment of exploited turbine blades using barkhausen noise parameters, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.270-271, 2018
5.  Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Application of Barkhausen Noise for Assessments of Damage in Ferromagnetic Materials with Negative Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy Constant, 27EMS, Experimental Mechanics of Solids - 27th Symposium, 2016-10-19/10-22, Jachranka (PL), pp.40, 2016
6.  Kowalewski Z.L., Makowska K., On the experimental attempts for creep analysis of materials, ICEM17, 17th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics, 2016-07-03/07-07, Rhodes, Greece (GR), pp.1, 2016
7.  Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Barkhausen noise and magnetoacoustic emission as a potential tools for mechanical properties estimation of ferromagnetic materials, SolMech 2016, 40th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2016-08-29/09-02, Warszawa (PL), No.P240, pp.1-2, 2016
8.  Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Microstructural assessment and magnetic structuroscopy of middle-carbon steel after simulated creep, SolMech 2014, 39th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2014-09-01/09-05, Zakopane (PL), pp.131-132, 2014
9.  Kowalewski Z.L., Makowska K., Experimental evaluation of damage in materials under creep and fatigue conditions, 8th German-Greek-Polish Symposium Recent Advances in Mechanics September, 2013-09-09/09-13, Goslar (DE), Vol.1, pp.1-2, 2013

Abstract:
Creep and fatigue damage was investigated in steels commonly applied in power plants (40HNMA, 13HMF and P91) using destructive and non-destructive methods. In order to assess both types of damage the tests for each kind of steel were interrupted for a range of the selected time periods (creep) and number of cycles (fatigue).

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
Makowska K. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
10.  Augustyniak B., Piotrowski L., Chmielewski M., Kowalewski Z.L., Makowska K., Case study on damage detection possibility in P91 and 40HNMA steels using magnetic NDT techniques, DAS 30, 30th Danubia-Adria-Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 2013-09-25/09-28, Primosten (HR), Vol.1, pp.87-88, 2013
11.  Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Szelążek J., Mackiewicz S., Gutkiewicz P., Assessment of material degradation by means of acoustic birefringence and elastoacoustic coefficient, DAS 30, 30th Danubia-Adria-Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 2013-09-25/09-28, Primosten (HR), Vol.1, pp.95-96, 2013
12.  Kowalewski Z.L., Rutecka A., Pietrzak K., Makowska K., Woźniak J., Kostecki M., Bochniak W., Olszyna A., An influence of SiC content at Al (AlMg) matrix composites on creep characteristics, 15th European Conference on Composite Materials, 2012-06-24/06-29, Wenecja (IT), No.1, pp.1-7, 2012

Abstract:
Creep tests under a range of step-increasing tensile stresses were carried out on the AlMg/SiC composites produced by means of the KOBO method. The content of reinforced phase was equal to 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10%. The AlMg/SiC creep characteristics were compared to those of the Al/SiC composites. Structural assessments of materials in the as-received state and after creep were carried out.

Keywords:
metal-ceramic composites, KOBO method, creep, silicon carbide (SiC)

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
Rutecka A. - IPPT PAN
Pietrzak K. - other affiliation
Makowska K. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Woźniak J. - other affiliation
Kostecki M. - other affiliation
Bochniak W. - other affiliation
Olszyna A. - other affiliation
13.  Rutecka A., Kowalewski Z.L., Pietrzak K., Dietrich L., Makowska K., Grzywna P., Woźniak J., Kostecki M., Bochniak W., Olszyna A., Damage analysis of Al(Mg)/SiC composites under fatigue conditions, 15th European Conference on Composite Materials, 2012-06-24/06-29, Wenecja (IT), No.1, pp.1-6, 2012

Abstract:
Fatigue tests and microstructural observations were carried out to perform damage analysis of Al/SiC and AlMg/SiC metal matrix composites ( MMCs ). The materials were manufactured using a KoBo method. Ratcheting was the dominant damage mechanism for Al/SiC and damage parameter on the basis of mean inelastic strain was calculated. For AlMg/SiC, in most cases, cyclic softening followed by hardening during subsequent cycles were noticed. Microstructural observations identified existence of SiC concentrations which influenced the volumetric fraction of defects after fatigue tests

Keywords:
metal matrix composites, fatigue damage, microstructure, KoBo method

Affiliations:
Rutecka A. - IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
Pietrzak K. - other affiliation
Dietrich L. - IPPT PAN
Makowska K. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Grzywna P. - IPPT PAN
Woźniak J. - other affiliation
Kostecki M. - other affiliation
Bochniak W. - other affiliation
Olszyna A. - other affiliation
14.  Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Qualitative evaluation of structural degradation and mechanical properties by means of Barkhausen and magnetoacoustic emission, 29th Danubia-Adria-Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 2012-09-26/09-29, Belgrad (XS), Vol.1, No.1, pp.90-91, 2012
15.  Kowalewski Z.L., Rutecka A., Makowska K., Pietrzak K., Fatigue damage of Al/SiC composites – macroscopic and microscopic analysis, 29th Danubia-Adria-Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 2012-09-26/09-29, Belgrad (XS), Vol.1, No.1, pp.90-91, 2012
16.  Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Structural Degradation and Variation of Mechanical Properties Determined by Means of Magnetic Non-Destructive Techniques, 8th European Solid Mechanics Conference, 2012-07-09/09-13, Graz (AT), No.1, pp.1-2, 2012

Abstract:
In order to elaborate more efficient technological processes enabling a lifetime prolongation of some elements of devices and machines a lot of scientific efforts are focused on searching of the optimal loading combinations. As it has been found by Korbel and Bochniak [1, 2], a significant reduction of tensile or compressive forces in technological processes is possible using twisting moment simultaneously applied. They proposed the so-called KOBO method and successfully applied it to extrusion, forging or rolling processes. Up to now the method was checked for large deformations, what requiredalot of energy. Since the available results of the method validation in the range of small deformations are not sufficiently represented,an experimental programmelimiting maximal strain level below 1% (Fig.1)was elaborated. The strain controlled loading programme enables observation of stress/strain components variation as a function of time (Figs 1 and 2)The loading programme(for the 10H2M steel) contained four subsequent blocks of cyclic shear deformation assisted by tension. As it is illustrated in Fig.2, theaxial stress increases at the beginning of the test (first cyclic strain amplitude). However, for higher cyclic strain amplitudes, its lowering is clearly manifested. Figure 3 shows comparison of tensile characteristics in the case of activated and inactivated torsion cycles. It is seen, that while the torsion cycles were applied a gradual decrease of axial stress can be observed. The maximum drop of it was almost equal to 400 MPa for the highest cyclic strain amplitude used in the programme. The effect of similar order was also achieved for this material tested under monotonic tension and torsion-reverse-torsion cycles ofconstant strain amplitude (0.8%), Fig.4. It means that prior cyclic loading history does not influence a magnitude of the tensile stress drop. A reduction of axial stress due to application of cyclic loading by means of reversible torsion was also observed for other materials, i.e. the P91 steel and M1E copper (Fig.5) [3].

Affiliations:
Makowska K. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
17.  Kowalewski Z.L., Makowska K., Szelążek J., Augustyniak B., Damage Development in Steels Subjected to Exploitation Processes: Attempt to Correlate the Parameters of Different Testing Techniques, ICTAM XXIII, 23rd International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2012-08-19/08-24, Beijing (CN), pp.1-2, 2012

Abstract:
Development of damage due to creep at elevated temperatures and fatigue at room temperature was assessed for power engineering steels using destructive and non-destructive methods. The experimental programme contained also microscopic observations to find feedback between macro- and micro-scopic parameters. Three different power engineering steels were tested, i.e. 40HNMA, 13HMF and P91

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
Makowska K. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Szelążek J. - IPPT PAN
Augustyniak B. - Gdańsk University of Technology (PL)
18.  Kowalewski Z.L., Makowska K., Szelążek J., Mackiewicz S., Augustyniak B., Damage assessment during creep and fatigue of power plant steels using destructive and nondestructive techniques, Plasticity 2012, 18th International Symposium on Plasticity and its Current Applications, 2012-01-03/01-08, Puerto Rico (US), pp.265-267, 2012

Abstract:
Development of damage due to creep at elevated temperatures and fatigue at room temperature was assessed for power engineering steels using destructive and nondestructive methods. The experimental programme contained also microscopic observations to find feedback between macro and microscopic parameters

Affiliations:
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
Makowska K. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Szelążek J. - IPPT PAN
Mackiewicz S. - IPPT PAN
Augustyniak B. - Gdańsk University of Technology (PL)
19.  Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Szelążek J., Structural and mechanical properties estimated by means of ultrasonic technique, SolMech 2012, 38th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2012-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.134-135, 2012
20.  Rutecka A., Kowalewski Z.L., Pietrzak K., Dietrich L., Makowska K., Woźniak J., Kostecki M., Bochniak W., Olszyna A., AlMg/SiC metal matrix composites under fatigue and creep conditions, SolMech 2012, 38th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2012-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.146-147, 2012
21.  Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Augustyniak B., Degradacja struktury oraz zmiany właściwości mechanicznych stali oceniane za pomocą parametrów szumu Barkhausena, XXV Sympozjum Mechaniki Eksperymentalnej Ciała Stałego, 2012-10-17/10-20, Jachranka (PL), pp.62, 2012
22.  Kowalewski Z.L., Szymczak T., Makowska K., Augustyniak B., Correlation of parameters determined using destructive and non-destructive testing methods as a tool of material degradation assessment, Plasticity 2011, 17th International Symposium on Plasticity and its Current Applications, 2011-01-03/01-08, Puerto Vallarta (MX), pp.1-3, 2011

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