Institute of Fundamental Technological Research
Polish Academy of Sciences

Staff

Adam Brodecki, MSc

Department of Experimental Mechanics (ZMD)
Division of Strength of Materials (PWM)
Laboratory for Testing of Materials and Structures
position: senior specialist
telephone: (+48) 22 826 12 81 ext.: 402/286
room: 535
e-mail:
ORCID: 0000-0001-8303-1715

Recent publications
1.  Kopeć M., Garbacz G., Brodecki A., Kowalewski Z.L., Metric entropy and digital image correlation in deformation dynamics analysis of fibre glass reinforced composite under uniaxial tension, MEASUREMENT, ISSN: 0263-2241, DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2022.112196, Vol.205, No.112196, pp.1-6, 2022

Abstract:
This paper proposes a combined method for the mechanical properties assessment of composite materials based on the analysis of the internal dynamics of raw data from uniaxial tensile tests. Determination of the Kolmogorov-Sinai (K-S) metric entropy from the recorded data enables to find the tensile strength of materials. The correctness of the methodology proposed was verified by the full filed DIC measurements. Therefore, the main aim of this research was to apply independent measurement tools in the analysis of the non-linear dynamics supported by their mutual validation. The experimental program carried out on the glass fibre-based thermoplastic Elium acrylic composite and E752 Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy (CFRE) composite confirmed the high suitability of the presented methodology in ultimate tensile stress identification, and thus, its great applicability potential in many aspects of the contemporary engineering.

Keywords:
Digital image correlation (DIC), Kolmogorov-Sinai metric entropy, Mechanical properties, Glass fibre composites

Affiliations:
Kopeć M. - IPPT PAN
Garbacz G. - other affiliation
Brodecki A. - IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
2.  Serjouei A., Libura T., Brodecki A., Radziejewska J., Broniszewska P., Pawłowski P., Szymczak T., Bodaghi M., Kowalewski Z.L., Strength-hardness relationship for AlSi10Mg alloy produced by laser powder bed fusion: An experimental study, MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING A-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING, ISSN: 0921-5093, DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2022.144345, Vol.861, No.144345, pp.1-13, 2022

Abstract:
In this work, significant strength and ductility variations are reported for AlSi10Mg parts fabricated at different orientations using laser powder bed fusion (LPBF). Hardness and surface roughness of the specimens at different orientations were measured. Tensile testing together with digital image correlation technique were conducted on the specimens. XY specimens showed the highest yield stress and ultimate tensile strength while XZ specimens showed the highest ductility. Hardness measurements for different specimens were in accordance with the tensile test results, following the same order as the UTS values, XY specimens being the highest and XY-45° (out-of-plane) specimens being the lowest. Fractography of the broken surfaces of the specimens under tensile testing revealed the microstructural features and various defects in the tensile fracture. The anisotropy in mechanical properties is attributed to the microstructural anisotropy as well as presence of various types of defects induced by the AM process, which affects the deformation and failure mechanism of the parts. Linear relationships between experimental Vickers hardness versus yield stress and UTS measurements were developed. In case of material selection for different applications, these relationships can be used as a simple tool for converting hardness and yield stress (or UTS) values to each other. An equivalent strain-hardness relationship was also proposed which can be used for health monitoring of parts subject to tensile loading.

Keywords:
Laser powder bed fusion, Hardness, Mechanical properties, Defects, Microstructure

Affiliations:
Serjouei A. - University of Derby (GB)
Libura T. - IPPT PAN
Brodecki A. - IPPT PAN
Radziejewska J. - IPPT PAN
Broniszewska P. - IPPT PAN
Pawłowski P. - IPPT PAN
Szymczak T. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Bodaghi M. - other affiliation
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
3.  Szymczak T., Brodecki A., Kowalewski Z.L., Rudnik D., Mechanical investigations supported by DIC of structural components intended for operation, Scientific Reports, ISSN: 2045-2322, DOI: 10.1038/s41598-022-22615-0, Vol.12, No.19148, pp.1-12, 2022

Abstract:
The paper deals with experimental attempts for determination of the mechanical resistance of various components subjected to static loading by analysis of displacement values in a 3D coordinate system using a non-contact testing method. The problem is studied on the basis of results from tests of the wheelchair and SUV’s wheel, supported by means of a PONTOS 5M Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system enabling determination of the patterns deflection at discretised facet measuring zones of an element. The objects tested extend a knowledge on the components’ behaviour under static loading within their loading capacity. Data collected in the experiments are expressed by variations of the resultant vector of deflection in the 3D coordinate system and images under loading and unloading stages as well. The results enabled to indicate the weakest zone in the wheelchair and to express an influence of the foot tire on the rim edge, giving necessary knowledge on the mechanical resistance of tested components. In case of the wheelchair a rear side and axle represent the weakest regions, while for the wheel a rim edge is the most loading sensitive region on the tire guard with respect to safety of the operational process. All data captured by DIC system as a function of time can be directly used for modelling and improving a suitability of the selected components since they can be employed as the limit levels during determination of safety factor. The experimental approach applied to the SUV wheel investigation can be also used as a procedure for wheels of other type vehicles tested either in laboratories of research institutions or technical universities.

Affiliations:
Szymczak T. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Brodecki A. - IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
Rudnik D. - IPPT PAN
4.  Szymczak T., Cholewiński S., Brodecki A., Łączyński J., Mechanical coupling devices to various types of vehicles under cyclic loading, International Journal of Automotive Technology, ISSN: 1229-9138, DOI: 10.1007/s12239-022-0013-2, Vol.23, No.1, pp.159-167, 2022

Abstract:
The paper focuses on experimental approaches for selected mechanical coupling components to type-approval. The obtained results have enabled to present behaviour of the following tested objects: ball (with homologation certificate), transport platform, and rigid drawbars under cyclic loading. They follow details of tests to components made of typical and high strength steels as well as various kinds of aluminium alloy, such as mounting systems, parameters of loading signals, the procedure for assessing the quality of the elements after tests as well as fatigue and fracture zones, and reasons to cracks occurrence due to loading cycles performed. Moreover, they show advantages and disadvantages of the experimental approaches.

Keywords:
stand test, mechanical coupling device, component, fatigue, cyclic loading, crack, fracture, requirements

Affiliations:
Szymczak T. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Cholewiński S. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Brodecki A. - IPPT PAN
Łączyński J. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
5.  Barwińska I., Kopeć M., Łazińska M., Brodecki A., Durejko T., Kowalewski Z.L., Three Point Bending of Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) Repaired Inconel 625, Physical Science Forum, ISSN: 2673-9984, DOI: 10.3390/psf2022004001, Vol.4, No.1, pp.1-7, 2022

Abstract:
In this paper, the LENS technique with optimized parameters was applied to investigate the feasibility of Inconel 625 repair process. The process was performed on the substrate material heated to 300 ◦C at laser power of 550 W. Subsequently, the specimens were subjected to microhardness and three-point bending tests to assess the effectiveness of the repair system. The results showed that the mechanical properties of the Inconel 625 specimens repaired by using the LENS system were similar or even better than those of the substrate material.

Keywords:
LENS technology, Inconel alloys, repair process, additive manufacturing

Affiliations:
Barwińska I. - IPPT PAN
Kopeć M. - IPPT PAN
Łazińska M. - Military University of Technology (PL)
Brodecki A. - IPPT PAN
Durejko T. - Military University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
6.  Barwińska I., Kopeć M., Łazińska M., Brodecki A., Durejko T., Kowalewski Z.L., Suitability of laser engineered net shaping technology for Inconel 625 based parts repair process, Materials, ISSN: 1996-1944, DOI: 10.3390/ma14237302, Vol.14, No.23, pp.7302-1-14, 2021

Abstract:
In this paper, the Inconel 625 laser clads characterized by microstructural homogeneity due to the application of the Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS, Optomec, Albuquerque, NM, USA) technology were studied in detail. The optimized LENS process parameters (laser power of 550 W, powder flow rate of 19.9 g/min, and heating of the substrate to 300 °C) enabled to deposit defect-free laser cladding. Additionally, the laser clad was applied in at least three layers on the repairing place. The deposited laser clads were characterized by slightly higher mechanical properties in comparison to the Inconel 625 substrate material. Microscopic observations and X-ray Tomography (XRT, Nikon Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) confirmed, that the substrate and cladding interface zone exhibited a defect-free structure. Mechanical properties and flexural strength of the laser cladding were examined using microhardness and three-point bending tests. It was concluded, that the LENS technology could be successfully applied for the repair since a similar strain distribution was found after Digital Image Correlation measurements during three-point bending tests.

Keywords:
LENS technology, Inconel alloys, repair process, additive manufacturing

Affiliations:
Barwińska I. - IPPT PAN
Kopeć M. - IPPT PAN
Łazińska M. - Military University of Technology (PL)
Brodecki A. - IPPT PAN
Durejko T. - Military University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
7.  Kopeć M., Brodecki A., Kukla D., Kowalewski Z.L., Suitability of DIC and ESPI optical methods for monitoring fatigue damage development in X10CrMoVNb9-1 power engineering steel, ARCHIVES OF CIVIL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, ISSN: 1644-9665, DOI: 10.1007/s43452-021-00316-1, Vol.21, pp.167-1-13, 2021

Abstract:
The aim of this research was to compare the effectiveness of two different optical measurement techniques (digital image correlation—DIC and electronic speckle pattern interferometry—ESPI) during fatigue damage development monitoring in X10CrMoVNb9-1 (P91) power engineering steel for pipes. The specimens machined from the as-received pipe were subjected to fatigue loadings and monitored simultaneously using DIC and ESPI techniques. It was found that DIC technique, although characterised by lower resolution, was more effective than ESPI. DIC allows to monitor the fatigue behaviour of steel specimens and accurately indicate the area of potential failure even within the initial stage of fatigue damage development.

Keywords:
fatigue development, damage, P91 steel, digital image correlation (DIC), electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI)

Affiliations:
Kopeć M. - IPPT PAN
Brodecki A. - IPPT PAN
Kukla D. - IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
8.  Kopeć M., Brodecki A., Szczęsny G., Kowalewski Z.L., Microstructural analysis of fractured orthopedic implants, Materials, ISSN: 1996-1944, DOI: 10.3390/ma14092209, Vol.14, No.9, pp.2209-1-17, 2021

Abstract:
In this paper, fracture behavior of four types of implants with different geometries (pure titanium locking plate, pure titanium femoral implant, Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy pelvic implant, X2CrNiMo18 14-3 steel femoral implant) was studied in detail. Each implant fractured in the human body. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the potential cause of implants fracture. It was found that the implants fracture mainly occurred in consequence of mechanical overloads resulting from repetitive, prohibited excessive limb loads or singular, un-intendent, secondary injures. Among many possible loading types, the implants were subjected to an excessive fatigue loads with additional interactions caused by screws that were mounted in their threaded holes. The results of this work enable to conclude that the design of orthopedic implants is not fully sufficient to transduce mechanical loads acting over them due to an increasing weight of treated patients and much higher their physical activity.

Keywords:
medical fixation devices, orthopedic prostheses and implants, titanium, titanium alloy, stainless steel, microscopic fracture analysis

Affiliations:
Kopeć M. - IPPT PAN
Brodecki A. - IPPT PAN
Szczęsny G. - Medical University of Warsaw (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
9.  Kopeć M., Kukla D., Brodecki A., Kowalewski Z.L., Effect of high temperature exposure on the fatigue damage development of X10CrMoVNb9-1 steel for power plant pipes, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, ISSN: 0308-0161, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpvp.2020.104282, Vol.189, pp.104282-1-16, 2021

Abstract:
The aim of this research was to compare the effect of 80 000 h exploitation time in high temperature on mechanical properties and microstructure of X10CrMoVNb9-1 (P91) power engineering steel for pipes. The specimens obtained from two pipes: new, as-received and after exploitation were subjected to fatigue loadings to compare their mechanical responses. Additionally, the uniaxial tensile tests on both types of P91 steel were performed. The microstructure evolution before and after deformation was monitored using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The time intensive, high temperature exposure of P91 power engineering steel led to significant phase transformation and subsequent deterioration of mechanical properties and was further described as a function of the fatigue damage measure, φ, and the fatigue damage parameter D. Further proposed methodology of power exponent approximation of the fatigue damage measure, φ, and fatigue damage parameter D, allowed to successfully determine the fatigue life of P91 steel.

Keywords:
fatigue development, damage, P91 steel, microstructure

Affiliations:
Kopeć M. - IPPT PAN
Kukla D. - IPPT PAN
Brodecki A. - IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
10.  Szymczak T., Brodecki A., Sobolewski T., Laboratoryjna ocena stanu technicznego komponentów do pojazdów samochodowych, Przegląd Techniczny, ISSN: 0137-8783, Vol.7, pp.16-18, 2021

Abstract:
W pracy zamieszczono szczegóły prowadzenia badań stanowiskowych wybranych podzespołów do pojazdów samochodowych. Zaprezentowano niezbędne komponenty stanowiska badawczego do prowadzenia wymienionych rodzajów testów, jak: platformę badawczą, siłownik, systemy mocowania, urządzenie DIC PONTOS 5M - przeznaczone do bezkontaktowych pomiarów parametrów kinematycznych obiektów badań. Omówiono rezultaty prób stanowiskowych, pochodzące z testów zaczepów kulowych oraz Tylnego Urządzenia Zabezpieczającego (TUZ), przedstawiając zmiany składowych ugięcia. Zamieszczono wybrane przypadki pęknięć komponentów różnego typu i wykonanych z różnych materiałów konstrukcyjnych, zawierając spoiny oraz strefy do nich przynależne.

Affiliations:
Szymczak T. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Brodecki A. - IPPT PAN
Sobolewski T. - other affiliation
11.  Ranachowski Z., Ranachowski P., Dębowski T., Brodecki A., Kopeć M., Roskosz M., Fryczowski K., Szymków M., Krawczyk E., Schabowicz K., Mechanical and non-destructive testing of plasterboards subjected to a hydration process, Materials, ISSN: 1996-1944, DOI: 10.3390/ma13102405, Vol.13, No.10, pp.2405-1-18, 2020

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of plasterboards' humidity absorption on their performance. Specimens' hydration procedure consisted of consecutive immersing in water and subsequent drying at room temperature. Such a procedure was performed to increase the content of moisture within the material volume. The microstructural observations of five different plasterboard types were performed through optical and scanning electron microscopy. The deterioration of their properties was evaluated by using a three-point bending test and a subsequent ultrasonic (ultrasound testing (UT)) longitudinal wave velocity measurement. Depending on the material porosity, a loss of UT wave velocity from 6% to 35% and a considerable decrease in material strength from 70% to 80% were observed. Four types of approximated formulae were proposed to describe the dependence of UT wave velocity on board moisture content. It was found that the proposed UT method could be successfully used for the on-site monitoring of plasterboards' hydration processes.

Keywords:
plasterboards, moisture content, hydration processes, mechanical properties, ultrasound measurements

Affiliations:
Ranachowski Z. - IPPT PAN
Ranachowski P. - IPPT PAN
Dębowski T. - IPPT PAN
Brodecki A. - IPPT PAN
Kopeć M. - IPPT PAN
Roskosz M. - AGH University of Science and Technology (PL)
Fryczowski K. - Silesian University of Technology (PL)
Szymków M. - other affiliation
Krawczyk E. - other affiliation
Schabowicz K. - Wroclaw University of Science and Technology (PL)
12.  Ranachowski Z., Ranachowski P., Brodecki A., Kopeć M., Kúdela Jr S., Quasi-static and dynamic testing of carbon fiber reinforced magnesium composites, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.24425/amm.2020.132836, Vol.65, No.2, pp.893-899, 2020

Abstract:
Two types of composites, consisting of pure magnesium matrix reinforced with two commercially used carbon fibers, were systematically studied in this paper. The composites fabricated by the pressure infiltration method, were subjected to quasistatic and dynamic compression tests. Morphology of fiber strands was observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The application of carbon fibre reinforcement led to the stiffening of tested materials, resulting in the limitation of the possible compression to approx. 2.5%. The performed tests revealed the remarkable difference in compression strength of investigated compositions. The cause of that effect was that GRANOC fiber reinforced composite exhibited insufficient bond quality between the brittle fibers and the ductile matrix. T300 reinforced composite presented good connection between reinforcement and matrix resulting in increased mechanical properties. Investigated composites demonstrated higher mechanical strength during deformation at high strain rates. Microscopic observations also proved that the latter fibers with regular shape and dense packaging within the filaments are proper reinforcement when designing the lightweight composite material.

Keywords:
Mg matrix composite, compressive properties, carbon fiber, Split-Hopkinson pressure bar

Affiliations:
Ranachowski Z. - IPPT PAN
Ranachowski P. - IPPT PAN
Brodecki A. - IPPT PAN
Kopeć M. - IPPT PAN
Kúdela Jr S. - Institute of Materials and Machine Mechanics, Slovak Academy of Sciences (SK)
13.  Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Brodecki A., Testy stanowiskowe w ocenie trwałości zmęczeniowej podzespołów motoryzacyjnych, Dozór Techniczny, ISSN: 0209-1763, Vol.1, pp.24-34, 2020

Abstract:
W pracy omówiono przyczyny występowania uszkodzeń i ich rodzaje. Zawarto cechy charakterystyczne przełomów zmęczeniowych w odniesieniu do wskazania przyczyn ich występowania. Zaprezentowano wybrane stanowiska badawcze do testowania podzespołów motoryzacyjnych i ich wersje modułowe – wyposażane w specjalistyczne komory oraz rekonfigurowalne – zawierające gabarytową płytę montażową. Przedstawiono szczegóły testów stanowiskowych komponentów pojazdów specjalnych, jak ramy wychylne oraz stałe, w tym wykonane ze stali wysokowytrzymałej S700MC. Zaprezentowano charakterystyki naprężenie-odkształcenie, parametry mechaniczne oraz krzywe Wöhlera wymienionego rodzaju materiału w stanie dostawy i po spawaniu.

Affiliations:
Szymczak T. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
Brodecki A. - IPPT PAN
14.  Szymczak T., Brodecki A., Kowalewski Z.L., Makowska K., Tow truck frame made of high strength steel under cyclic loading, Materials Today: Proceedings, ISSN: 2214-7853, DOI: 10.1016/j.matpr.2019.03.115, Vol.12, pp.207-212, 2019

Abstract:
The paper presents experimental results from test on tow truck frame made of the high strength steel S700MC subjected to fatigue loading. The mounting manner of the frame with anti-vibration platform and connection with a coupling ball to apply the loading are presented. Cracks features captured by means of macrophotography and microscopic observations are illustrated. Reasons for the crack occurrence are discussed by the use of fractography, hardness tests, microstructural analysis of the parent material, Heat Affected Zone and weld.

Keywords:
cyclic loading, fatigue, fracture, crack, higth strength steel, hardness, microstructure, welding, HAZ

Affiliations:
Szymczak T. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Brodecki A. - IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
Makowska K. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
15.  Makowska K., Brodecki A., Mackiewicz S., Kowalewski Z.L., Damage development of inconel 718 due to laboratory simulated creep, JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL AND APPLIED MECHANICS, ISSN: 1429-2955, DOI: 10.15632/jtam-pl.56.3.893, Vol.56, No.3, pp.893-896, 2018

Abstract:
The paper presents an attempt of application of the acoustic birefringence coefficient for early stage degradation assessment of Inconel 718 nickel superalloy after short-term creep. It is shown that it can serve as a good damage sensitive parameter and, moreover, it can be well correlated with hardness variation.

Keywords:
creep, nickel superalloy, microstructure, pre-deformation, hardness, acoustic birefringence

Affiliations:
Makowska K. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Brodecki A. - IPPT PAN
Mackiewicz S. - IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
16.  Brodecki A., Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Digital image correlation technique as a tool for kinematics assessment of structural components, ACTA MECHANICA ET AUTOMATICA, ISSN: 1898-4088, DOI: 10.2478/ama-2018-0016, Vol.12, No.2, pp.101-104, 2018

Abstract:
The paper reports the results of tests carried out for kinematic properties determination of components under cyclic loading. DIC system called 5M PONTOS was employed to follow variations of displacement versus time. It was conducted by the use of markers stuck on selected sections of components tested. The results are presented in 2D and 3D coordinate systems expressing behaviour of such elements as: mechanical coupling device, boat frame and car engine. These data enabled to capture weak and strong sections of the component examined at various loading conditions.

Keywords:
Digital Image Correlation System, Cyclic Loading, PONTOS, Motion, Displacement, 3D Coordinate System

Affiliations:
Brodecki A. - IPPT PAN
Szymczak T. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
17.  Szymczak T., Brodecki A., Kowalewski Z.L., Lasota P., Ocena trwałości zmęczeniowej końcówki drążka kierowniczego, TRANSPORT SAMOCHODOWY, ISSN: 1731-2795, Vol.2, pp.63-72, 2018

Abstract:
W pracy zaprezentowano wyniki badań trwałościowych końcówki drążka kierowniczego pojazdu o dmc powyżej 3.5 tony. W badaniach wykorzystywano wielkogabarytową platformę wibroizolowaną, serwohydrauliczny siłownik mobilny oraz cyfrowy kontroler sygnałów IST Instron. Próby prowadzono w warunkach działania obciążenia zmiennego cyklicznie do uzyskania 2×106 cykli. Ze względu na kompleksową ocenę zachowania końcówki drążka kierowniczego testy przerywano, by wykonywać oględziny obiektu badań. Wyznaczono zmiany kąta wychylenia oraz momentu siły w funkcji liczby cykli oraz przedstawiono ich prognozę. Omówiono procedurę badawczą służącą ocenie trwałości przegubu kulistego.

Keywords:
przegub, zmęczenie, obciążenie zmienne cyklicznie, liczba cykli, trwałość, pęknięcie

Affiliations:
Szymczak T. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Brodecki A. - IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
Lasota P. - other affiliation
18.  Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Brodecki A., Metoda cyfrowej korelacji obrazu w badaniach materiałów i elementów, Dozór Techniczny, ISSN: 0209-1763, Vol.4, pp.22-31, 2016

Abstract:
W pracy omówiono technike cyfrowej korelacji obrazu (DIC) przeznaczona do bezkontaktowego okreslania rozkładów składowych przemieszczenia i na ich podstawie obliczania składowych odkształcenia oraz naprezenia. Umozliwia ona równiez wyznaczanie parametrów kinematycznych obiektów inzynierskich w postaci predkosci i przyspieszenia, które okreslane sa metoda rózniczkowania po czasie zarejestrowanych wartosci składowych przemieszczenia. Zaprezentowano polowe zmiany rozkładów odkształcenia wzdłuznego oraz rozkładów składowych głównych odkształcenia podczas rozciagania stali konstrukcyjnej, które monitorowano az do chwili zniszczenia materiału. Przedstawiono wyniki próby porównawczej, w której jednoczesnie stosowano ekstensometr oraz system DIC. Dodatkowo zaprezentowano rezultaty prób stanowiskowych mechanicznego elementu sprzegajacego przeprowadzonych przy uzyciu systemu pomiarów cyfrowych w warunkach oddziaływania cyklicznie zmiennego obciazenia.

Affiliations:
Szymczak T. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
Brodecki A. - other affiliation
19.  Szymczak T., Brodecki A., Eminger A., Kowalewski Z.L., Rudnik D., Experimental assessment of ball joints operation using servo-hydraulic testing systems, SOLID STATE PHENOMENA, ISSN: 1012-0394, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/SSP.240.232, Vol.240, pp.232-237, 2016

Abstract:
The paper reports experimental results from tests carried out at room temperature on servo-hydraulic system dedicated for examination of the exploitation properties of rocker arms. The ball joint of this element was modified by an application of composite coating such as the tungsten carbide (WC). To apply cyclic loading to rocker arms the griping system was designed and elaborated. Results from tests performed on the composite coated ball joints were compared with data obtained for typical elements. Variations of the following parameters versus time i.e. force, temperature and surface topography of balls were analysed with respect to exploitation properties of the modified ball joints. An increase of the wear coefficient was achieved for sliding joints of the steel ball-steel cups coated by the WC.

Keywords:
Ball Joint, Composite, Cyclic Loading, Surface Topography, Tungsten Carbide, Wear

Affiliations:
Szymczak T. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Brodecki A. - other affiliation
Eminger A. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
Rudnik D. - other affiliation
20.  Moćko W., Brodecki A., Radziejewska J., Effects of pre-fatigue on the strain localization during tensile tests of DP 500 steel at low and high strain rates, JOURNAL OF STRAIN ANALYSIS FOR ENGINEERING DESIGN, ISSN: 0309-3247, DOI: 10.1177/0309324715599132, Vol.50, No.8, pp.571-583, 2015

Abstract:
The analysis involved subjecting DP 500 steel to pre-fatigue loads, and then tension at high strain rates using Hopkinson bar. Digital image correlation method was used to investigate how the pre-fatigue loads change the strains’ distribution on the surface of the sample subjected to tension. The analysis involved both films recorded at low rates of deformation (1.0 × 10−2 s−1) using ARAMIS system and the images captured with a high-speed camera during dynamic deformations with a Hopkinson bar (6.0 × 102 s−1). It was noted, based on the micro-structural analysis, that pre-fatigue loads cause the formation of micro-damages in the examined material. Thus, macroscopically observed stress–strain characteristic as well as Huber–Mises substitute strains’ distribution determined locally by the image correlation method is also subject to changes. The observed effects include the following: reduction of deformation corresponding to the tensile strength, decrease in elongation at break, and increase in yield limit and tensile strength. The observed effects are intensified with an increased stress value and pre-fatigue cycles’ number. Furthermore, these phenomena are more intensive in the conditions of dynamic deformation.

Keywords:
Hopkinson bar, fatigue, viscoplastic response, damage, stress–strain, tensile, high strain rate

Affiliations:
Moćko W. - other affiliation
Brodecki A. - other affiliation
Radziejewska J. - IPPT PAN

Conference papers
1.  Szymczak T., Brodecki A., Kowalewski Z.L., Mechaniczne urządzenia sprzęgające w teście trwałościowym, X Ogólnopolska Konferencja Naukowa - EKSPLOBALIS 2021, 2021-09-27/09-29, Łochów (PL), pp.1-39, 2021
2.  Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Brodecki A., An influence of notch type on material behaviour under monotonic tension, CMM, 3rd Polish Congress of Mechanics and 21st International Conference on Computer Methods in Mechanics, 2015-09-08/09-11, Gdańsk (PL), pp.567-571, 2016
3.  Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Brodecki A., Determination of artificial defects in material under monotonic tension by the use of FEM and DIC methods, Materials Today: Proceedings, ISSN: 2214-7853, DOI: 10.1016/j.matpr.2016.03.011, No.3, pp.1171-1176, 2016

Abstract:
The paper concerns numerical and experimental investigations carried out for determination of an influence of holes on material behaviour under monotonic tension. The 40Cr steel commonly applied in automotive and power plant branches of industry was tested. The analysis was performed by the use of analytical and Finite Element Method calculations. It enabled identification of stress concentration/maximum stress versus hole diameter relationships, and the HMH stress distribution. Full-field contactless Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was used for capturing the effective strain variations from the beginning of test up to specimen fracture. It enabled us to indicate the most important stress concentrator, and moreover, distribution of the HMH effective strain in 2D coordinate system. A comparison of tensile characteristic obtained by means of smooth and perforated specimens showed 70% reduction of yield point and 50% lowering of elongation as an effect of the artificial defects introduced.

Keywords:
Monotonic tension, holes, steel, stress concentration factor, maximum stress, yield point, ductility, FEM, DIC

Affiliations:
Szymczak T. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
Brodecki A. - other affiliation

Conference abstracts
1.  Pokorska I., Poński M., Kubissa W., Libura T., Brodecki A., Kowalewski Z.L., PROBABILISTIC STUDY ON CRACKING EVOLUTION AND FRACTURE ENERGY CHANGE OF STEEL FIBER-REINFORCED CONCRETE, ICEM, 19th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics, 2022-07-17/07-21, Kraków (PL), pp.363-364, 2022
2.  Kowalewski Z.L., Kopeć M., Garbacz G., Brodecki A., Application of metric entropy and DIC for determination of selected parameters of materials subjected to uniaxial tension, 10th Wdzydzeanum Workshop on Fluid – Solid Interaction, 2022-09-04/09-09, Wdzydze Kiszewskie (PL), pp.4-4, 2022
3.  Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Sobolewski T., Brodecki A., Górecki J., STAND TESTS FOR SELECTED COMPONENTS OF SPECIAL VEHICLES UNDER STATIC AND CYCLIC LOADING, XXIX Symposium on Experimental Mechanics in memory of prof. Jacek Stupnicki, 2022-10-19/10-22, Warszawa (PL), pp.49-49, 2022
4.  Kowalewski Z.L., Kopeć M., Brodecki A., LIGHTS AND SHADOWS IN APPLICATIONS OF DIC AND ESPI FOR DAMAGE EVALUATION OF MATERIALS, 38DAS, 38. Danubia-Adria Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 2022-09-20/09-23, Poros Island (GR), pp.1-2, 2022
5.  Barwińska I., Kopeć M., Łazińska M., Brodecki A., Durejko T., Kowalewski Z.L., System LENS w regeneracji materiałów inżynierskich wykorzystywanych w lotnictwie, Tytan i jego stopy 2020, 2022-09-18/09-21, Kielce (PL), pp.1-1, 2022

Keywords:
LENS, wytwarzanie przyrostowe, stopy niklu, stopy tytanu, regeneracja

Affiliations:
Barwińska I. - IPPT PAN
Kopeć M. - IPPT PAN
Łazińska M. - Military University of Technology (PL)
Brodecki A. - IPPT PAN
Durejko T. - Military University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
6.  Brodecki A., Kopeć M., Kowalewski Z.L., Suitability of digital image correlation for fatigue damage development monitoring in X10CRMOVNB9-1 power engineering steel, ICEM, 19th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics, 2022-07-17/07-21, Kraków (PL), No.posters, pp.353-354, 2022

Keywords:
fatigue development, damage, P91 steel, digital image correlation (DIC)

Affiliations:
Brodecki A. - IPPT PAN
Kopeć M. - IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
7.  Barwińska I., Kopeć M., Łazińska M., Brodecki A., Durejko T., Kowalewski Z.L., Suitability of laser engineered net shaping technology for inconel 625 based parts repair process, ICEM, 19th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics, 2022-07-17/07-21, Kraków (PL), No.1, pp.176-177, 2022
8.  Barwińska I., Kopeć M., Łazińska M., Brodecki A., Durejko T., Kowalewski Z.L., Suitability of Laser Engineered Net Shaping Technology for Inconel 625 Based Parts Repair Process, ESMC 2022, 11th European Solid Mechanics Conference, 2022-07-04/07-08, Galway (IE), pp.1, 2022

Keywords:
inconel alloys, repair process, additive manufacturing

Affiliations:
Barwińska I. - IPPT PAN
Kopeć M. - IPPT PAN
Łazińska M. - Military University of Technology (PL)
Brodecki A. - IPPT PAN
Durejko T. - Military University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
9.  Barwińska I., Kopeć M., Łazińska M., Brodecki A., Durejko T., Kowalewski Z.L., Zastosowanie systemu LENS w celu regeneracji elementów wykonanych ze stopu Inconel 625, Inżynieria – Spojrzenie Młodych Naukowców, 2022-04-22/04-24, Katowice - on-line (PL), pp.1-1, 2022
10.  Barwińska I., Kopeć M., Łazińska M., Brodecki A., Durejko T., Kowalewski Z.L., Suitability of laser engineered net shaping technology for inconel 625 based parts repair process, EYEC'2022, 10th European Young Engineers Conference, 2022-04-04/04-06, Warszawa (PL), pp.1, 2022

Keywords:
inconel alloys, repair process, additive manufacturing

Affiliations:
Barwińska I. - IPPT PAN
Kopeć M. - IPPT PAN
Łazińska M. - Military University of Technology (PL)
Brodecki A. - IPPT PAN
Durejko T. - Military University of Technology (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
11.  Kopeć M., Brodecki A., Kowalewski Z.L., Optical measurement techniques for fatigue damage development monitoring, VIRTUAL 20th International Colloquium on Mechanical Fatigue of Metals, 2021-09-15/09-17, Wrocław (PL), pp.1-1, 2021

Abstract:
In this work, an effectiveness of two optical measurement techniques (Digital Image Correlation – DIC and Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry - ESPI) during fatigue damage development monitoring in X10CrMoVNb9-1 (P91) power engineering steel for pipes was compared. The specimens were subjected to fatigue loadings and monitored using DIC and ESPI techniques. DIC allows to monitor the fatigue be-haviour of steel specimens and accurately indicates the area of potential failure, even within an initial stage of the fatigue damage development. The application of ESPI method during fatigue monitoring was not so successful due to a high frequency vibrations generated by the testing machine. As a consequence, a work of the very sensitive ESPI cameras was disturbed significantly.

Keywords:
fatigue, damage, P91 steel, digital image correlation

Affiliations:
Kopeć M. - IPPT PAN
Brodecki A. - IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
12.  Kopeć M., Brodecki A., Kowalewski Z.L., Digital image correlation as an effective tool for fatigue damage monitoring, BSSM, 15th International Conference on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 2021-09-07/09-09, Swansea (GB), pp.1-1, 2021

Abstract:
The paper aims to investigate an effectiveness of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique during fatigue damage development monitoring in X10CrMoVNb9-1 (P91) power engineering steel. It was found, that DIC enables to monitor the fatigue behaviour of steel specimens and accurately indicate the area of potential failure even within initial stage of the fatigue damage development.

Keywords:
fatigue development, damage, P91 steel, digital image correlation

Affiliations:
Kopeć M. - IPPT PAN
Brodecki A. - IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
13.  Kopeć M., Dubey V.P., Brodecki A., Kowalewski Z.L., Failure analysis of orthopedic implants, IMPLANTY'2021, III Ogólnopolska Konferencja Naukowa IMPLANTY2021 Koncepcja a realia we współczesnych rozwiązaniach, 2021-06-18/06-18, Gdańsk (PL), pp.1, 2021

Keywords:
medical fixation devices, orthopedicimplants, SEM, fracture analysis, titanium alloy, stainless steel

Affiliations:
Kopeć M. - IPPT PAN
Dubey V.P. - IPPT PAN
Brodecki A. - IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
14.  Kopeć M., Brodecki A., Kowalewski Z.L., Fraktograficzna analiza pęknięć implantów ortopedycznych, Międzynarodowa Studencka Sesja Naukowa Materiały i Technologie XXI wieku, 2021-05-28/05-28, Gliwice (PL), pp.1, 2021
15.  Kopeć M., Brodecki A., Kowalewski Z.L., Microstructural analysis of fractured orthopedic implants, XXII Polish Conference on Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, 2021-05-19/05-21, Warszawa (PL), pp.1, 2021
16.  Szymczak T., Brodecki A., Kowalewski Z.L., Mini-próbki w badaniach mechanicznych materiałów, XIII NKRM 2019, XIII Konferencja Nowe Kierunki Rozwoju Mechaniki, 2019-03-20/03-23, Będlewo (PL), pp.1-2, 2019

Keywords:
mini-próbka, parametry mechaniczne, rozciąganie, skręcanie, pękanie

Affiliations:
Szymczak T. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Brodecki A. - IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
17.  Libura T., Brodecki A., Kowalewski Z.L., Behaviour of glass woven reinforced thermoplastic laminates under uniaxial cyclic loading, PCM-CMM, 4th Polish Congress of Mechanics, 23rd International Conference on Computer Methods in Mechanics, 2019-09-08/09-12, Kraków (PL), pp.1-1, 2019

Keywords:
cyclic loading, damage evolution, laminate composites

Affiliations:
Libura T. - IPPT PAN
Brodecki A. - IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
18.  Kowalewski Z.L., Szczęsny G., Libura T., Brodecki A., Destabilization of the comminuted clavicle shaft fracture due to breakage of the titanium locking plate - mechanical analysis, DAS 2019, 36th DANUBIA-ADRIA Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 2019-09-24/09-27, Pilzno (CZ), pp.1-2, 2019
19.  Szymczak T., Brodecki A., Kowalewski Z.L., Non-standard specimens for fracture toughness testing of welds, ISMMS, 10th International Symposium on Mechanics of Materials and Structures, 2019-06-02/06-06, Augustów (PL), pp.119-120, 2019

Keywords:
mini-specimen CT, fracture toughness, CTOD, fatigue pre-cracking, notch, fracture, parent material, weld, HAZ

Affiliations:
Szymczak T. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Brodecki A. - IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
20.  Szymczak T., Brodecki A., Rudnik D., Kowalewski Z.L., Digital image correlation technique for analysis of structural components of different stiffness under static loading, ISMMS, 10th International Symposium on Mechanics of Materials and Structures, 2019-06-02/06-06, Augustów (PL), pp.121-122, 2019

Keywords:
structural components, static loading, markers, displacement, deflection, DIC

Affiliations:
Szymczak T. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Brodecki A. - IPPT PAN
Rudnik D. - IPPT PAN
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
21.  Szymczak T., Brodecki A., Kowalewski Z.L., Fatigue of structural components for special vehicles, SME, XXVIII Symposium On Experimental Mechanics of Solids in memory of prof. Jacek Stupnicki, 2018-10-17/10-20, Jachranka (PL), pp.12-12, 2018
22.  Brodecki A., Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Lasota P., Fatigue durability of steering rod tip, SME, XXVIII Symposium On Experimental Mechanics of Solids in memory of prof. Jacek Stupnicki, 2018-10-17/10-20, Jachranka (PL), pp.20-20, 2018
23.  Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Brodecki A., Mini-compact tension specimens for fracture toughness evaluation, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.274-275, 2018
24.  Szymczak T., Brodecki A., Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Tow truck frame made of high strength steel under cyclic loading, 35 DANUBIA-ADRIA, 35th Danubia-Adria Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 2018-09-25/09-28, Sinaia (RO), pp.145-146, 2018
25.  Brodecki A., Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Digital image corellation technique as a tool for kinematics assessments of structural components, ISMMS, 9th International Symposium on Mechanics of Materials and Structures, 2017-06-04/06-08, Augustów (PL), pp.19-20, 2017

Abstract:
The paper reports results of tests focused on determination of kinematic properties of components under cyclic loading. DIC system called 5M PONTOS was employed to follow variations of displacement and velocity versus time. It was conducted by a use of markers stuck on selected sections of components tested. Results are presented in 2D and 3D coordinate systems expressing behaviour of elements such as: car engine, boat frame and mechanical coupling device. These data enable to capture weak and strong sections of the component tested at various loading conditions.

Keywords:
digital image correlation system, cyclic loading, PONTOS, motion, displacement, 3D coordinate system

Affiliations:
Brodecki A. - other affiliation
Szymczak T. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
26.  Brodecki A., Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Digital Image Correlation Technique InSelected Mechanical Tests, XII Konferencja „Nowe Kierunki Rozwoju Mechaniki”, 2017-03-22/03-25, Białystok - Supraśl (PL), pp.1-2, 2017

Abstract:
The paper shows how modern contactless Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method can be implemented for examination of material behaviour under various types of loading. DIC method was used to evaluate material straining under monotonic tension conducted by the use of flat specimens having artificial defects in the form of U and V notches. This technique was also examined during capturing of strain distribution in dynamic tests on Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. On the basis of DIC results the strain maps at various stages of material deformation were elaborated in order to indicate characteristic features of a material behaviour. It enabled an analysis of damage zone evolution up to specimen fracture.

Keywords:
Digital Image Correlation, specimen, monotonic tension, Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar, strain maps

Affiliations:
Brodecki A. - other affiliation
Szymczak T. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
27.  Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Brodecki A., An Influence of Strain Rate and Artificial Defects on Material Behaviour During Tension, 27EMS, Experimental Mechanics of Solids - 27th Symposium, 2016-10-19/10-22, Jachranka (PL), pp.55, 2016
28.  Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Brodecki A., An influence of notch type on material behaviour under monotonic tension, PCM-CMM 2015, 3rd Polish Congress of Mechanics and 21st Computer Methods in Mechanics, 2015-09-08/09-11, Gdańsk (PL), pp.149-150, 2015

Abstract:
The paper presents results of numerical and experimental investigations conducted in order to determine an influence of notch type on material behaviour under monotonic tension. Two kinds of specimens having U and V notches were applied. Digital image correlation system was used to detect variations of strain/stress state components from beginning of the test up to fracture of the material in question. Assessments of the results enabled identification of stress concentrations in tips of notches. A comparison of tensile characteristics of unnotched and notched specimens exhibited a great reduction of the yield point independently of the geometrical discontinuities applied. In the case of V-notched specimen 50% lowering of elongation was observed.

Keywords:
stress concentration, stress distribution, notches, tensile curve, digital image correlation

Affiliations:
Szymczak T. - Motor Transport Institute (PL)
Kowalewski Z.L. - IPPT PAN
Brodecki A. - other affiliation
29.  Szymczak T., Kowalewski Z.L., Brodecki A., Determination of Artificial Defects in Material under Monotonic Tension by the use of FEM and DIC Methods, DAS 2015, 32nd Danubia-Adria-Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics, 2015-09-22/09-25, Smokovec (SK), Vol.1, pp.58-59, 2015
30.  Szymczak T., Brodecki A., Eminger A., Kowalewski Z.L., Experimental assessment of ball joints operation using servo-hydraulic testing systems, SolMech 2014, 39th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2014-09-01/09-05, Zakopane (PL), pp.327-328, 2014
31.  Szymczak T., Brodecki A., Kowalewski Z.L., An effect of technological notches on stress and strain distribution during monotonic tension, SolMech 2014, 39th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2014-09-01/09-05, Zakopane (PL), pp.325-326, 2014

Patents
Filing No./Date
Filing Publication
Autors
Title
Protection Area, Applicant Name
Patent Number
Date of Grant
pdf
437493
2021-04-07
BUP 41/2022
2022-10-10
Kopeć M., Wyszkowski M., Chojnacki A., Brodecki A., Kowalewski Z.L., Kukla D.
Przyrząd do badania próbek rurkowych w złożonym stanie naprężenia
PL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN
-
-
-
437121
2021-02-25
BUP 35/2022
2022-08-29
Kowalewski Z.L., Kukla D., Wyszkowski M., Brodecki A., Kopeć M.
Stanowisko mocowane w uchwytach maszyny wytrzymałościowej do badania wytrzymałości połączenia śrubowego pomiędzy implantem a kością oraz sposób montażu implantu połączonego śrubowo z kością w tym stanowisku
PL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN
-
-
-
437074
2021-02-22
BUP 35/2022
2022-08-29
Kowalewski Z.L., Kukla D., Wyszkowski M., Brodecki A., Kopeć M.
Stanowisko do badania wytrzymałości łopatek turbin w warunkach wysokotemperaturowych obciążeń cyklicznych oraz złożonym stanie naprężenia oraz sposób montowania łopatek turbin w tym stanowisku
PL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN
-
-
-
437073
2021-02-22
BUP 35/2022
2022-08-29
Kowalewski Z.L., Kukla D., Wyszkowski M., Brodecki A., Kopeć M.
Uchwyt maszyny wytrzymałościowej do prób pełzania oraz sposób mocowania próbek z materiałów o wysokiej wytrzymałości w uchwycie maszyny wytrzymałościowej do prób pełzania
PL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN
-
-
-

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