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Polish Academy of Sciences

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Piotr Kurp, PhD

Kielce University of Technology (PL)

Recent publications
1.  Gaponova O.P., Tarelnyk V.B., Antoszewski B., Radek N., Tarelnyk N.V., Kurp P., Myslyvchenko O.M., Hoffman J., Technological Features for Controlling Steel Part Quality Parameters by the Method of Electrospark Alloying Using Carburezer Containing Nitrogen—Carbon Components, Materials, ISSN: 1996-1944, DOI: 10.3390/ma15176085, Vol.15, No.6085, pp.1-14, 2022

Abstract:
A new method of surface modification based on the method of electrospark alloying (ESA) using carburizer containing nitrogen—carbon components for producing coatings is considered. New processes have been proposed that include the step of applying saturating media in the form of paste-like nitrogenous and nitrogenous-carbon components, respectively, onto the surface without waiting for those media to dry, conducting the ESA process with the use of a steel electrode-tool, as well as with a graphite electrode-tool. Before applying the saturating media, an aluminium layer is applied onto the surface with the use of the ESA method at a discharge energy of Wp = 0.13–6.80 J. A saturating medium in the form of a paste was applied to the surfaces of specimens of steel C22 and steel C40. During nitriding, nitrocarburizing and carburization by ESA (CESA) processes, with an increase in the discharge energy (Wp), the thickness, micro hardness and continuity of the “white layer” coatings, as well as the magnitude of the surface roughness, increase due to saturation of the steel surface with nitrogen and/or carbon, high cooling rates, formation of non-equilibrium structures, formation of special phases, etc. In the course of nitriding, nitrocarburizing and CESA processing of steels C22 and C40, preliminary processing with the use of the ESA method by aluminum increases the thickness, microhardness and continuity of the “white layer”, while the roughness changes insignificantly. Analysis of the phase composition indicates that the presence of the aluminum sublayer leads to the formation of the aluminum-containing phases, resulting in a significant increase in the hardness and, in addition, in an increase in the thickness and quality of the surface layers. The proposed methods can be used to strengthen the surface layers of the critical parts and their elements for compressor and pumping equipment

Keywords:
electrospark alloying, coatings, roughness, structure, microhardness, continuity, X-ray diffraction analysis, nitriding, nitrocarburizing, carburization

Affiliations:
Gaponova O.P. - Sumy State University (UA)
Tarelnyk V.B. - Sumy National Agrarian University (UA)
Antoszewski B. - Kielce University of Technology (PL)
Radek N. - other affiliation
Tarelnyk N.V. - Sumy National Agrarian University (UA)
Kurp P. - Kielce University of Technology (PL)
Myslyvchenko O.M. - I. M. Frantsevich Institute for Problems in Materials (UA)
Hoffman J. - IPPT PAN
2.  Widłaszewski J., Nowak Z., Kurp P., Effect of pre-stress on laser-induced thermoplastic deformation of Inconel 718 beams, Materials, ISSN: 1996-1944, DOI: 10.3390/ma14081847, Vol.14, No.8, pp.1847-1-18, 2021

Abstract:
Laser thermal forming is an application of laser heating without any intentional use of external forces. Force-assisted laser bending and laser-assisted bending are hybrid techniques, which combine the use of external forces and local heating to increase the effectiveness of forming. A quantitative description of bending deformation induced by concurrent laser heating and mechanical loading is proposed in this study. Mechanical loading is expressed by the bending moment while the curvature is used to describe the resulting deformation. The contribution of a relatively less known mechanism of laser thermal bending in the hybrid process is identified. The mechanism is able to produce the so-called convex deformation, i.e., bending away from the incident laser beam. Experimental and numerical analysis is performed with thin-walled beams made of Inconel 718 nickel-based superalloy in the factory-annealed state. The Johnson–Cook constitutive material model is used in numerical simulations validated by experimental results.

Keywords:
laser bending, laser-assisted bending, Inconel 718, Johnson–Cook model, curvature

Affiliations:
Widłaszewski J. - IPPT PAN
Nowak Z. - IPPT PAN
Kurp P. - Kielce University of Technology (PL)
3.  Nowak Z., Nowak M., Pęcherski R.B., Wiśniewski K., Widłaszewski J., Kurp P., Computational modeling of thermoplastic behavior of inconel 718 in application to laser-assisted bending of thin-walled tubes, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR MULTISCALE COMPUTATIONAL ENGINEERING, ISSN: 1543-1649, DOI: 10.1615/IntJMultCompEng.2019029858, Vol.17, No.3, pp.317-338, 2019

Abstract:
Laser-assisted tube bending is a promising manufacturing process which enables production of forms and shapes that cannot be obtained by purely mechanical bending. It is particularly suitable for high hardness and brittle materials, such as nickel alloys, ceramics and cast iron. In the current paper, mechanical loading and simultaneous heating by a moving laser beam are used in a controlled manner to obtain the required deformation. Experimental investigation of the Inconel 718 (IN718) alloy provides the basis for identification of parameters of two constitutive models, which encompass softening phenomena and the coupling of temperature and strains. Numerical simulations are conducted to provide more insight into the laser-assisted bending process of the IN718 thin-walled tubes. Temperature, stress and deformation fields are determined in sequentially coupled thermomechanical analyses using the FE code ABAQUS. Laser beam is modeled as a surface heat flux using the dedicated DFLUX procedure. The temperature field is used as a thermal load in the static general step, together with an external mechanical load. The process of tube bending is controlled by the displacement of the piston rod of the actuator, while the thrust force is the resulting value.

Keywords:
laser-assisted bending of tubes, identification of material parameters, numerical simulations

Affiliations:
Nowak Z. - IPPT PAN
Nowak M. - IPPT PAN
Pęcherski R.B. - IPPT PAN
Wiśniewski K. - IPPT PAN
Widłaszewski J. - IPPT PAN
Kurp P. - Kielce University of Technology (PL)
4.  Widłaszewski J., Nowak M., Nowak Z., Kurp P., Laser-assisted thermomechanical bending of tube profiles, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.24425/amm.2019.126268, Vol.64, No.1, pp.421-430, 2019

Abstract:
The subject of the work is the analysis of thermomechanical bending process of a thin-walled tube made of X5CrNi18-10 stainless steel. The deformation is produced at elevated temperature generated with a laser beam in a specially designed experimental setup. The tube bending process consists of local heating of the tube by a moving laser beam and simultaneous kinematic enforcement of deformation with an actuator and a rotating bending arm. During experimental investigations, the resultant force of the actuator and temperature at the laser spot are recorded. In addition to experimental tests, the bending process of the tube was modelled using the finite element method in the ABAQUS program. For this purpose, the tube deformation process was divided into two sequentially coupled numerical simulations. The first one was the heat transfer analysis for a laser beam moving longitudinally over the tube surface. The second simulation described the process of mechanical bending with the time-varying temperature field obtained in the first simulation. The force and temperature recorded during experiments were used to verify the proposed numerical model. The final stress state and the deformation of the tube after the bending process were analyzed using the numerical solution. The results indicate that the proposed bending method can be successfully used in forming of the thin-walled profiles, in particular, when large bending angles and a small spring-back effect are of interest.

Keywords:
laser forming, laser-assisted bending, numerical modelling

Affiliations:
Widłaszewski J. - IPPT PAN
Nowak M. - IPPT PAN
Nowak Z. - IPPT PAN
Kurp P. - Kielce University of Technology (PL)
5.  Kurp P., Widłaszewski J., Mucha Z., Laserowo-mechaniczne formowanie elementów cienkościennych, MECHANIK, ISSN: 0025-6552, DOI: 10.17814/mechanik.2018.2.30, Vol.91, No.2, pp.148-151, 2018

Abstract:
W niniejszym artykule autorzy przedstawiają założenia oraz wstępne wyniki badań doświadczalnych i symulacji numerycznych procesu formowania elementów cienkościennych z wykorzystaniem wiązki laserowej i obciążenia mechanicznego. Na podstawie założeń zaprojektowano i wykonano stanowisko do gięcia cienkościennych rur i dyfuzorów stożkowych stosowanych w budowie silników lotniczych. Metoda i stanowisko kształtowania, przetestowane w warunkach laboratoryjnych, a także wyniki analizy numerycznej procesu pokazują nowe możliwości formowania elementów cienkościennych

Keywords:
kształtowanie laserowe, obróbka laserowa, elementy cienkościenne, stopy niklu, metoda elementów skończonych

Affiliations:
Kurp P. - Kielce University of Technology (PL)
Widłaszewski J. - IPPT PAN
Mucha Z. - other affiliation
6.  Widłaszewski J., Nowak M., Nowak Z., Kurp P., Laser-assisted forming of thin-walled profiles, Metal Forming, ISSN: 0867-2628, Vol.XXVIII, No.3, pp.183-198, 2017

Abstract:
Forming processes assisted by localised laser heating are studied in recent years. Heating is used to make it possible or facilitate forming of materials, which exhibit such adverse properties as: brittleness, effects of high work-hardening or a high elastic springback. The hereby presented investigations concern the hybrid thermo-mechanical forming of thin-walled parts using local heating of the material by the laser beam. The research is aimed at forming of parts from materials used in the aviation industry, such as the nickel-base super-alloys Inconel 625, Inconel 718, and also martensitic superalloys AISI 410 and AISI 325. Preliminary investigations are conducted using X5CrNil8-10 (1.4301) stainless steel. Experimental study and numerical simulations cover the behaviour of thin beams 1 mm thick, subjected to mechanical load in the cantilever arrangement and heated by the CO2 laser beam moving from the free end of the sample towards its fixture. The possibility of obtaining large bending deformations relatively easily due to the application of laser beam is demonstrated experimentally. Experimentally verified finite element numerical simulations show the intense plastic flow of the material layer heated by the laser beam. It is accompanied by a shift of the cross-section neutral axis of the beam. Bending of thin-walled tubes in a specially designed device is studied in the next step. It allows introducing mechanical loading in a controlled manner, heating the material by a moving laser beam and forcing the required deformation according to the kinematic scheme of the device.

Keywords:
laser-assisted forming, finite element method, thin-walled structure

Affiliations:
Widłaszewski J. - IPPT PAN
Nowak M. - IPPT PAN
Nowak Z. - IPPT PAN
Kurp P. - Kielce University of Technology (PL)

List of chapters in recent monographs
1. 
Kurp. P., Widłaszewski J., Mucha Z., Monografie, Studia, Rozprawy, Wybrane zagadnienia w inżynierii mechanicznej, rozdział: Laserowo-mechaniczne formowanie elementów cienkościennych, Politechnika Świętokrzyska, Kielce, pp.134-142, 2018

Conference papers
1.  Widłaszewski J., Nowak M., Nowak Z., Kurp P., Curvature Change in Laser-Assisted Bending of Inconel 718, Physical Science Forum, ISSN: 2673-9984, DOI: 10.3390/psf2022004026, Vol.4, No.1, pp.26-1-8, 2022

Abstract:
Laser heating is industrially applied to facilitate plastic shaping, especially for materials difficult to form due to their high hardness or brittleness. The effects of thermal softening and thermal forming in the total plastic deformation of pre-stressed beams are investigated in the study. Laser-assisted bending experiments were performed using the moving CO2 laser beam and cantilever thin beams made of the factory-annealed Inconel 718 nickel-based superalloy. The deformation process is simulated numerically using the Finite Element Method and the Johnson–Cook constitutive material model. Curvature changes in thermo-mechanical bending are calculated numerically. Phenomenological moment–curvature relations for the laser-assisted bending process are formulated. The curvature in hybrid bending can be estimated as a sum of components resulting from the elastic deformation and inelastic deformations due to the pure thermal bending and thermally enhanced mechanical bending. For the effective hybrid bending, the external mechanical load should be applied consistently with the deformation effect of the heat source alone.

Keywords:
thermomechanics, curvature, laser-assisted bending, Johnson–Cook model, Inconel 718

Affiliations:
Widłaszewski J. - IPPT PAN
Nowak M. - IPPT PAN
Nowak Z. - IPPT PAN
Kurp P. - Kielce University of Technology (PL)
2.  Nowak Z., Nowak M., Widłaszewski J., Kurp P., Experimental and Numerical Investigation on Laser-Assisted Bending of Pre-Loaded Metal Plate, CMM 2017, 22nd International Conference on Computer Methods in Mechanics, 2017-09-13/09-16, Lublin (PL), DOI: 10.1063/1.5019148, Vol.1922, pp.140006-1-7, 2018

Abstract:
The laser forming technique has an important disadvantage, which is the limitation of plastic deformation generated by a single laser beam pass. To increase the plastic deformation it is possible to apply external forces in the laser forming process. In this paper, we investigate the influence of external pre-loads on the laser bending of steel plate. The pre-loads investigated generate bending towards the laser beam. The thermal, elastic-plastic analysis is performed using the commercial nonlinear finite element analysis package ABAQUS. The focus of the paper is to identify how this pattern of the pre-load influence the final bend angle of the plate

Keywords:
Laser forming, Force-assisted laser forming, Laser-assisted bending, Thermo-mechanical simulations, Finite element analysis

Affiliations:
Nowak Z. - IPPT PAN
Nowak M. - IPPT PAN
Widłaszewski J. - IPPT PAN
Kurp P. - Kielce University of Technology (PL)
3.  Mucha Z., Widłaszewski J., Kurp P., Mulczyk K., Mechanically assisted laser forming of thin beams, Proceedings of SPIE, ISSN: 0277-786X, DOI: 10.1117/12.2262114, Vol.10159, pp.10159 0U-1-10, 2016

Abstract:
Laser-assisted forming techniques have been developed in recent years to aid plastic working of materials, which are difficult in processing at normal temperatures due to a high brittleness, effects of high work-hardening or a high spring-back phenomenon. This paper reports initial experimental investigations and numerical simulations of a mechanically-assisted laser forming process. The research is aimed at facilitating plastic shaping of thin-walled parts made of high temperature resistant alloys. Stainless steel plate, 1 mm thick, 20 mm wide, was mounted in the cantilever arrangement and a gravitational load was applied to its free end. A CO2 laser beam with rectangular cross-section traversed along the plate, towards the fixed edge. Laser spot covered the whole width of the plate. Experiments and simulations using the finite element method were performed for different values of mechanical load and with constant laser processing parameters. Experimentally validated numerical model allowed analysis of plastic deformation mechanism under the hybrid thermo-mechanical processing. The revealed mechanism of deformation consists in intense material plastic flow near the laser heated surface. This behavior results mainly from the tension state close to the heated surface and the decrease of material yield stress at elevated temperature. Stress state near the side edges of the processed plate favored more intense plastic deformation and the involved residual stress in this region. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

Keywords:
laser forming, laser-assisted forming, FEA, thin-walled structure

Affiliations:
Mucha Z. - other affiliation
Widłaszewski J. - IPPT PAN
Kurp P. - Kielce University of Technology (PL)
Mulczyk K. - other affiliation

Conference abstracts
1.  Widłaszewski J., Nowak M., Nowak Z., Kurp P., Curvature Change in Laser-Assisted Bending of Inconel 718, ICEM, 19th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics, 2022-07-17/07-21, Kraków (PL), pp.68-69, 2022
2.  Nowak Z., Nowak M., Widłaszewski J., Kurp P., Symulacje numeryczne laserowo wspomaganego gięcia materiałów wykorzystywanych w przemyśle lotniczym, PLASTMET, 11 KONFERENCJA ZINTEGROWANE STUDIA PODSTAW DEFORMACJI PLASTYCZNEJ METALI, 2018-11-27/11-30, Łańcut (PL), pp.97-98, 2018
3.  Widłaszewski J., Nowak M., Nowak Z., Kurp P., Termomechaniczne kształtowanie profili rurowych wspomagane laserowo, PLASTMET, 11 KONFERENCJA ZINTEGROWANE STUDIA PODSTAW DEFORMACJI PLASTYCZNEJ METALI, 2018-11-27/11-30, Łańcut (PL), pp.162-163, 2018
4.  Nowak Z., Nowak M., Pęcherski R.B., Wiśniewski K., Widłaszewski J., Kurp P., Computational Modelling of Thermoplastic Behaviour of Inconel 718 in Application to Laser-Assisted Bending of Thin-Walled Alloy Tubes, WCCM2018, 13th World Congress on Computational Mechanics, 2018-07-22/07-27, Nowy Jork (US), pp.1, 2018
5.  Nowak Z., Nowak M., Widłaszewski J., Kurp P., Experimental and numerical investigation on laser-assisted bending of pre-loaded inconel 718 beams, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.282-283, 2018
6.  Nowak Z., Nowak M., Widłaszewski J., Kurp P., Experimental and numerical investigation on laser-assisted bending of pre-loaded metal plate, CMM 2017, 22nd International Conference on Computer Methods in Mechanics, 2017-09-13/09-16, Lublin (PL), pp.MS13-37-38, 2017

Abstract:
The laser forming technique has an important disadvantage, which is the limitation of plastic deformation generated by a single laser beam pass. In order to increase the plastic deformation one has to repeat the process several times or use the alternative method. To increase the plastic deformation it is possible to add external forces during the laser forming process. In this paper, we investigate the influence of external pre-loads on the laser bending of steel plate. The pre-loads investigated generate bending towards the laser beam. The thermal, elastic-plastic analysis is performed using the commercial nonlinear finite element analysis package ABAQUS. The focus of the paper is to identify how this pattern of the pre-load influence the final bend angle of the plate.

Keywords:
laser forming, force-assisted laser bending, thermo-mechanical simulations, FEA

Affiliations:
Nowak Z. - IPPT PAN
Nowak M. - IPPT PAN
Widłaszewski J. - IPPT PAN
Kurp P. - Kielce University of Technology (PL)
7.  Mucha Z., Widłaszewski J., Kurp P., Mulczyk K., Laserowe kształtowanie cienkościennych płaskowników wspomagane mechanicznie, STL 2016, XI Sympozjum Techniki Laserowej, 2016-09-27/09-30, Jastarnia (PL), pp.41, 2016

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