Institute of Fundamental Technological Research
Polish Academy of Sciences


R. Rubach

Recent publications
1.  Garbiec D., Wiśniewska M., Psiuk R., Denis P., Levintant-Zayonts N., Leshchynsky V., Rubach R., Mościcki T., Zirconium alloyed tungsten borides synthesized by spark plasma sintering, ARCHIVES OF CIVIL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, ISSN: 1644-9665, DOI: 10.1007/s43452-021-00188-5, Vol.21, pp.37-1-15, 2021

Tungsten borides (WBx; x = 2.5 or 4.5) with an increasing substitution of tungsten by zirconium from 0 to 24 at.% were synthesized by spark plasma sintering (SPS) for the first time. The influence of the holding time (2.5–30 min) on the densification behavior, microstructure evolution and development of the properties of W–Zr–B compounds were studied. The samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for microstructure analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) for phase identification, Vickers micro-indentation for microhardness measurements, tribological tests to determine the coefficient of friction and specific wear rate, as well as measurements of electrical conductivity. The XRD results confirm the presence of the WB4 phase in the microstructure, despite the high sintering temperature (1800 °C) and small overstoichiometric excess of boron (4.5) addition in the sintered samples. This is caused by the high heating rate (400 °C/min), short holding time (2.5 min) and addition of zirconium. The Vickers hardness (HV) values measured at 1 N are 24.8 ± 2.0 and 26.6 ± 1.8 GPa for 24 at.% zirconium in WB2.5 and for 0 at.% zirconium in WB4.5, respectively. In addition, the hardest sample (W0.76Zr0.24B2.5) showed electrical conductivity up to 3.961·10^6 S/m, which is similar to WC–Co cemented carbides. The friction and wear test results reveal the formation of a boron-based film which seems to play the role of a solid lubricant.

Garbiec D. - Metal Forming Institute, Poznań (PL)
Wiśniewska M. - Łukasiewicz Research Network – Metal Forming Institute (PL)
Psiuk R. - IPPT PAN
Denis P. - IPPT PAN
Levintant-Zayonts N. - IPPT PAN
Leshchynsky V. - other affiliation
Rubach R. - other affiliation
Mościcki T. - IPPT PAN

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