Rafał Wiszowaty, Ph.D., Eng.

Department of Intelligent Technologies (ZTI)
Division of Safety Engineering (PIB)
position: specialist
telephone: (+48) 22 826 12 81 ext.: 168
room: 411
e-mail: rwisz

Doctoral thesis
2016-06-30Projektowanie i badanie adaptacyjnych pneumatycznych absorberów energii uderzenia 
supervisor -- Prof. Jan Holnicki-Szulc, Ph.D., Dr. Habil., Eng., IPPT PAN
supervisor -- Grzegorz Mikułowski, Ph.D., Eng., IPPT PAN
1284
 
Recent publications
1.Mikułowski G., Wiszowaty R., Pneumatic Adaptive Absorber: Mathematical Modelling with Experimental Verification, MATHEMATICAL PROBLEMS IN ENGINEERING, ISSN: 1024-123X, DOI: 10.1155/2016/7074206, Vol.2016, pp.7074206-1-14, 2016
Abstract:

Many of mechanical energy absorbers utilized in engineering structures are hydraulic dampers, since they are simple and highly efficient and have favourable volume to load capacity ratio. However, there exist fields of applications where a threat of toxic contamination with the hydraulic fluid contents must be avoided, for example, food or pharmacy industries. A solution here can be a Pneumatic Adaptive Absorber (PAA), which is characterized by a high dissipation efficiency and an inactive medium. In order to properly analyse the characteristics of a PAA, an adequate mathematical model is required. This paper proposes a concept for mathematical modelling of a PAA with experimental verification. The PAA is considered as a piston-cylinder device with a controllable valve incorporated inside the piston. The objective of this paper is to describe a thermodynamic model of a double chamber cylinder with gas migration between the inner volumes of the device. The specific situation considered here is that the process cannot be defined as polytropic, characterized by constant in time thermodynamic coefficients. Instead, the coefficients of the proposed model are updated during the analysis. The results of the experimental research reveal that the proposed mathematical model is able to accurately reflect the physical behaviour of the fabricated demonstrator of the shock absorber.

Affiliations:
Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Wiszowaty R.-IPPT PAN
2.Holnicki-Szulc J., Graczykowski C., Mikułowski G., Mróz A., Pawłowski P., Wiszowaty R., Adaptive Impact Absorption - the Concept and Potential Applications, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES, ISSN: 2041-4196, DOI: 10.1260/2041-4196.6.2.357, Vol.6, No.2, pp.357-377, 2015
Abstract:

Adaptive Impact Absorption focuses on adaptation of energy absorbing structures to actual dynamic loading by using system of sensors detecting and identifying impact in advance and embedded semi-active dissipaters with controllable mechanical properties. Application of such devices allows to modify dynamic characteristics of the structure during the period of impact and to precisely control the process of energy dissipation. The paper presents an overview of research conducted at the Department of Intelligent Technologies of the Institute of Fundamental Technological Research dedicated to design and applications of various systems of Adaptive Impact Absorption. Wide range of presented examples covers adaptive hydraulic and pneumatic landing gears, skeletal systems equipped with controllable elements and detachable joints as well as adaptive inflatable structures.

Keywords:

adaptive impact absorption, safety engineering, smart structures, optimal control

Affiliations:
Holnicki-Szulc J.-IPPT PAN
Graczykowski C.-IPPT PAN
Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Mróz A.-IPPT PAN
Pawłowski P.-IPPT PAN
Wiszowaty R.-IPPT PAN
3.Mikułowski G., Wiszowaty R., Holnicki-Szulc J., Characterization of a piezoelectric valve for an adaptive pneumatic shock absorber, SMART MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, ISSN: 0964-1726, DOI: 10.1088/0964-1726/22/12/125011, Vol.22, No.12, pp.125011-1-12, 2013
Abstract:

This paper describes a pneumatic valve based on a multilayer piezoelectric actuator and Hörbiger plates. The device was designed to operate in an adaptive pneumatic shock absorber. The adaptive pneumatic shock absorber was considered as a piston–cylinder device and the valve was intended to be installed inside the piston. The main objective for the valve application was regulating the gas flow between the cylinder's chambers in order to maintain the desired value of the reaction force generated by the shock absorber. The paper describes the design constraints and requirements, together with results of analytical modelling of fluid flow verified versus experimentally obtained data. The presented results indicate that the desired performance characteristics of the valve were obtained. The geometrical constraints of the flow ducts were studied and the actuator's functional features analysed.

Affiliations:
Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Wiszowaty R.-IPPT PAN
Holnicki-Szulc J.-IPPT PAN

List of recent monographs
1.
506
Wiszowaty R., Projektowanie i badanie adaptacyjnych pneumatycznych absorbenów energii uderzenia, IPPT PAN, 3/2016, pp.1-188, 2016
List of chapters in recent monographs
1.
364
Graczykowski C., Knor G., Kołakowski P., Mikułowski G., Orłowska A., Pawłowski P., Skłodowski M., Świercz A., Wiszowaty R., Zieliński T.G., Monitorowanie obciążeń i stanu technicznego konstrukcji mostowych, rozdział: Wybrane zagadnienia monitorowania, IPPT Reports on Fundamental Technological Research, pp.189-236, 2014
2.
365
Wiszowaty R., Biczyk J., Graczykowski C., Mikułowski G., New Trends in Smart Technologies, rozdział: Method of impact energy dissipation by the use of the pneumatic impact absorber with a piezo-valve, Fraunhofer Verlag, pp.223-230, 2013

Conference papers
1.Mikułowski G., Wiszowaty R., Holnicki-Szulc J., Analysis and thermodynamic modeling of a pneumatic adaptive absorber, 6WCSCM, 6th World Conference on Structural Control and Monitoring, 2014-07-15/07-17, Barcelona (ES), pp.3057-3066, 2014
Abstract:

The objective of this work was to develop a mathematical model of coupled thermodynamic and mechanical processes proceeding in pneumatic, adaptive absorbers under cyclic loadings. The results of the modelling were to be verified versus experimentally obtained data. The analysis was divided into sections devoted to: forces acting on the piston, thermodynamics of the gas in the absorber’s chambers, gas flow through the piezoelectric valve. Three control volumes were distinguished within the absorber’s structure in order to analyze the thermodynamic processes. For each control volume analysis of energy balance, thermodynamic state parameters and heat transfer were performed. A set of equations was formulated for each control volume in order to determine: (1) motion of the piston in relation to the acting forces, (2) the gas state evolution, (3) energy balance within each control volume and (4) heat transfer to the surroundings. The obtained results revealed that the proposed approach to modeling was in good agreement with the data obtained experimentally. The controllability of the absorber was successfully reflected by means of the numerical model outcome.

Affiliations:
Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Wiszowaty R.-IPPT PAN
Holnicki-Szulc J.-IPPT PAN
2.Holnicki-Szulc J., Graczykowski C., Grzędziński J., Mikułowski G., Mróz A., Pawłowski P., Wiszowaty R., Adaptive Impact Absorption - the concept, simulations and potential applications, 4th International Conference on Protection of Structures Against Hazards, 2012-11-15/11-16, , pp.1-16, 2012
Abstract:

Adaptive Impact Absorption focuses on adaptation of energy absorbing structures to actual dynamic loading by using system of sensors detecting and identifying impact in advance and semi -active dissipaters with controllable mechanical properties which enable change of system dynamic characteristics in real time. The article present s a review of research conducted at the Department of Intelligent Technologies of the Institute of Fundamental Technological Research dedicated to applications of systems for Adaptive Impact Absorption. Wide range of presented examples covers pneumatic landing gears, bumpers for offshore towers, wind turbine blade-hub connections and d protective barriers for automotive applications.

Keywords:

adaptive impact absorption, safety engineering, smart structures, optimal control

Affiliations:
Holnicki-Szulc J.-IPPT PAN
Graczykowski C.-IPPT PAN
Grzędziński J.-IPPT PAN
Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Mróz A.-IPPT PAN
Pawłowski P.-IPPT PAN
Wiszowaty R.-IPPT PAN
3.Mikułowski G., Wiszowaty R., An Adaptive Pneumatic Shock-Absorber with a Piezo-valve under Harmonic Loading, EACS 2012, 5th European Conference on Structural Control, 2012-06-18/06-20, Genoa (IT), pp.1-8, 2012
Abstract:

An adaptive pneumatic shock absorber with a piezo-valve was designed for real-time impact energy dissipation. The device was a piston-cylinder type with a fast actuated (less than 2 ms) piezo-valve positioned inside the piston. The principle of operation of the device was to keep the reaction force on a predefined level by means of managing of the gas flow between the internal chambers of the shock absorber. The internal chambers were defined by spaces in the cylinder on both sides of the piston. The proper control of the valve, which connected the two chambers, allowed to adjust the instantaneous pressure drop between them. The pressure drop was a decisive factor that influenced the total reaction force of the shock absorber.
The presented investigation was conducted using the MTS Test System experimental setup in order to perform measurements of stiffness and viscous effects in the domain of frequency of excitation. The shock absorber under investigation was fixed between a stiff base and a piston rod of the hydraulic actuator that was used for the mechanical excitation.
The conducted set of experimental tests included measuring of the following set of quantities: frequency of harmonic excitation, reaction force of the absorber, displacement of the piston, velocity of the piston, gas pressure in both chambers.
The presented research was focused on characterization of the response of the device to harmonic excitation. The study was aimed at identification of limits of the device in terms of its controllability and adaptability.

Keywords:

adaptive devices, Adaptive Impact Absorption, AIA, pneumatic shock-absorbers, piezo stack, piezo-valve

Affiliations:
Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Wiszowaty R.-IPPT PAN
4.Holnicki-Szulc J., Graczykowski C., Mikułowski G., Mróz A., Ostrowski M., Wiszowaty R., Adaptive impact absorption for safety engineering, 9th International Conference on Shock & Impact Loads on Structures, 2011-11-16/11-18, Fukuoka (JP), pp.373-385, 2011
Abstract:

Adaptive Impact Absorption focuses on active adaptation of energy absorbing structures to actual dynamic loading by using system of sensors detecting and identifying impact in advance and controllable semi-active dissipaters with high ability of adaptation. The article presents a review of research carried out in the Department of Intelligent Technologies of Institute of Fundamental Technological Research dedicated to applications of systems for adaptive impact absorption. Wide range of presented examples covers pneumatic landing gears, adaptive crashworthy structures, wind turbine blade-hub connections and flow control based airbags for maritime and aeronautical applications.

Keywords:

smart structures, adaptive structures, Adaptive Impact Absorption, crashworthiness, safety engineering

Affiliations:
Holnicki-Szulc J.-IPPT PAN
Graczykowski C.-IPPT PAN
Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Mróz A.-IPPT PAN
Ostrowski M.-IPPT PAN
Wiszowaty R.-IPPT PAN
5.Wiszowaty R., Biczyk J., Graczykowski C., Mikułowski G., Method of impact energy dissipation by the use of the pneumatic impact absorber with a piezo-valve, SMART2011, 5th ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Smart Structures and Materials, 2011-07-06/07-08, Saarbrücken (DE), pp.640-647, 2011
Keywords:

Adaptive structures, Shock absorption, Impact energy absorption, Piezoelectric valve

Affiliations:
Wiszowaty R.-IPPT PAN
Biczyk J.-Adaptronica Sp. z o. o. (PL)
Graczykowski C.-IPPT PAN
Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
6.Mikułowski G., Pawłowski P., Graczykowski C., Wiszowaty R., Holnicki-Szulc J., On a pneumatic adaptive landing gear system for a small aerial vehicle, SMART 2009, 4th ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Smart Structures and Materials, 2009-07-13/07-15, Porto (PT), pp.1-9, 2009
Abstract:

The class of ultra-light aircraft becomes more and more popular among the enthusiasts of aviation due to low formal requirements of getting the pilot license and low costs of the equipment. Therefore, the training of the pilots starts to be a large-scale task. One of the most difficult operation for the inexperienced pilots is touch-down and it often happens to strike the ground with a high sink speed. In consequence the training machines are endangered of fast structural damage. A potential solution would be to mount a system of adaptive landing gear for light aircraft with a capability of recognition of the actual landing impact and tuning the landing struts in order to conduct the smoothest landing operation possible. In the case of the ultra-light aircraft class the weight of the components is the crucial task and therefore the low-weight pneumatic system is proposed for these application.
The paper presents a concept of an adaptive landing system and adequate control strategy for a small aerial vehicle. The objective of the work was to develop a fully functional model of the landing system and experimental verification of it. The system is based on the new pneumatic impact absorbers actuated via piezo-stacks. The concept assumes designing of the system with the capability of adaptation to actual energy of impact scenario identified by a dedicated sensing system for impact energy recognition.
The designed control system was dedicated to process the data from the system of impact energy recognition in order to perform the optimal landing scenario. The objective of the control strategy was minimization of the structure’s deceleration peaks during the touchdown.
The presented results consist of numerical analysis of the adopted strategy of control and experimental verification of the concept on the dedicated experimental device. The results proved that the proposed method allowed minimization of the maximal deceleration level acting on the demonstrator.

Affiliations:
Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Pawłowski P.-IPPT PAN
Graczykowski C.-IPPT PAN
Wiszowaty R.-IPPT PAN
Holnicki-Szulc J.-IPPT PAN

Conference abstracts
1.Holnicki-Szulc J., Faraj R., Graczykowski C., Jankowski Ł., Mikułowski G., Mróz A., Ostrowski M., Pawłowski P., Wiszowaty R., Adaptive impact absorption - potential applications for safety engineering, SMART 2015, 7th ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Smart Structures and Materials, 2015-06-03/06-05, Ponta Delgada (PT), pp.1-2, 2015
Keywords:

Smart And Adaptive Structures, Adaptive Impact Absorption, Safety Engineering

Affiliations:
Holnicki-Szulc J.-IPPT PAN
Faraj R.-IPPT PAN
Graczykowski C.-IPPT PAN
Jankowski Ł.-IPPT PAN
Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Mróz A.-IPPT PAN
Ostrowski M.-IPPT PAN
Pawłowski P.-IPPT PAN
Wiszowaty R.-IPPT PAN
2.Wiszowaty R., Mikułowski G., Sekuła K., Biczyk J., Application of Piezoelectric Actuators for the Gas Valve Opening Control, SolMech 2014, 39th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2014-09-01/09-05, Zakopane (PL), pp.111-112, 2014

Patents
Numer/data zgłoszenia patentowego
Ogłoszenie o zgłoszeniu patentowym
Twórca / twórcy
Tytuł
Kraj i Nazwa uprawnionego z patentu
Numer patentu
Ogłoszenie o udzieleniu patentu
pdf
397312
2011-12-09
BUP 12/13
2013-06-10
Świercz A., Mikułowski G., Wiszowaty R., Holnicki-Szulc J., Kołakowski P., Graczykowski C.
Sposób generowania wstępnie zaprojektowanego udarowego obciażania konstrukcji oraz urzadzenie do generowania wstępnie zaprojektowanego obciążania konstrukcji
PL, Adaptronica Sp z o.o., Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN
221709
WUP 05/16
2016-05-31
392368
2010-09-13
BUP 07/12
2012-03-26
Mikułowski G., Rogoźnicki W., Wiszowaty R.
Zawór płytowy
PL, Adaptronica Sp z o.o.
214668
WUP 08/13
2013-08-30
390194
2010-01-28
BUP 16/11
2011-08-01
Wiszowaty R., Graczykowski C., Sekuła K., Holnicki-Szulc J.
Sposób identyfikacji prędkości zderzenia, masy oraz energii kinetycznej obiektu uderzającego w przeszkodę i urządzenie do identyfikacji prędkości zderzenia, masy oraz energii kinetycznej obiektu uderzającego w przeszkodę
PL, Adaptronica Sp z o.o.
219996
WUP 08/15
2015-08-31