Institute of Fundamental Technological Research
Polish Academy of Sciences


Maryla Moczulska-Heljak, MSc

Laboratory of Polymers and Biomaterials (SPPiB)
position: PhD Student
PhD student
telephone: (+48) 22 826 12 81 ext.: 337
room: 335
ORCID: 0000-0003-2261-5236

Recent publications
1.  Urbanek-Świderska O., Moczulska-Heljak M., Wróbel M., Mioduszewski A., Kołbuk-Konieczny D., Advanced Graft Development Approaches for ACL Reconstruction or Regeneration, Biomedicines, ISSN: 2227-9059, DOI: 10.3390/biomedicines11020507, Vol.11, No.2, pp.507-1-26, 2023

The Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is one of the major knee ligaments, one which is greatly exposed to injuries. According to the British National Health Society, ACL tears represent around 40% of all knee injuries. The number of ACL injuries has increased rapidly over the past ten years, especially in people from 26–30 years of age. We present a brief background in currently used ACL treatment strategies with a description of surgical reconstruction techniques. According to the well-established method, the PubMed database was then analyzed to scaffold preparation methods and materials. The number of publications and clinical trials over the last almost 30 years were analyzed to determine trends in ACL graft development. Finally, we described selected ACL scaffold development publications of engineering, medical, and business interest. The systematic PubMed database analysis indicated a high interest in collagen for the purpose of ACL graft development, an increased interest in hybrid grafts, a numerical balance in the development of biodegradable and nonbiodegradable grafts, and a low number of clinical trials. The investigation of selected publications indicated that only a few suggest a real possibility of creating healthy tissue. At the same time, many of them focus on specific details and fundamental science. Grafts exhibit a wide range of mechanical properties, mostly because of polymer types and graft morphology. Moreover, most of the research ends at the in vitro stage, using non-certificated polymers, thus requiring a long time before the medical device can be placed on the market. In addition to scientific concerns, official regulations limit the immediate introduction of artificial grafts onto the market.

ligament,biomaterial,tissue engineering,regeneration,implant,scaffold,synthetic polymer,natural polymer

Urbanek-Świderska O. - IPPT PAN
Moczulska-Heljak M. - IPPT PAN
Wróbel M. - Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology IZI (DE)
Mioduszewski A. - other affiliation
Kołbuk-Konieczny D. - IPPT PAN
2.  Zaszczyńska A., Moczulska-Heljak M., Gradys A., Sajkiewicz P., Advances in 3D printing for tissue engineering, Materials, ISSN: 1996-1944, DOI: 10.3390/ma14123149, Vol.14, No.12, pp.3149-1-28, 2021

Tissue engineering (TE) scaffolds have enormous significance for the possibility of regeneration of complex tissue structures or even whole organs. Three-dimensional (3D) printing techniques allow fabricating TE scaffolds, having an extremely complex structure, in a repeatable and precise manner. Moreover, they enable the easy application of computer-assisted methods to TE scaffold design. The latest additive manufacturing techniques open up opportunities not otherwise available. This study aimed to summarize the state-of-art field of 3D printing techniques in applications for tissue engineering with a focus on the latest advancements. The following topics are discussed: systematics of the available 3D printing techniques applied for TE scaffold fabrication; overview of 3D printable biomaterials and advancements in 3D-printing-assisted tissue engineering.

tissue engineering, 3D printing, biomaterials

Zaszczyńska A. - IPPT PAN
Moczulska-Heljak M. - IPPT PAN
Gradys A. - IPPT PAN
Sajkiewicz P. - IPPT PAN
3.  Heljak M.K., Moczulska-Heljak M., Choińska E., Chlanda A., Kosik-Kozioł A., Jaroszewicz T., Jaroszewicz J., Święszkowski W., Micro and nanoscale characterization of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) films subjected to the L929 cells and the cyclic mechanical load, Micron, ISSN: 0968-4328, DOI: 10.1016/j.micron.2018.09.004, Vol.115, pp.64-72, 2018

In this paper, the effect of the presence of L929 fibroblast cells and a cyclic load application on the kinetics of the degradation of amorphous PLGA films was examined. Complex micro and nano morphological, mechanical and physico-chemical studies were performed to assess the degradation of the tested material. For this purpose, molecular weight, glass transition temperature, specimen morphology (SEM, μCT) and topography (AFM) as well as the stiffness of the material were measured. The study showed that the presence of living cells along with a mechanical load accelerates the PLGA degradation in comparison to the degradation occurring in acellular media: PBS and DMEM. The drop in molecular weight observed was accompanied by a distinct increase in the tensile modulus and surface roughness, especially in the case of the film degradation in the presence of cells. The suspected cause of the rise in stiffness during the degradation of PLGA films is a reduction in the molecular mobility of the distinctive superficial layer resulting from severe structural changes caused by the surface degradation. In conclusion, all the micro and nanoscale properties of amorphous PLGA considered in the study are sensitive to the presence of L929 cells, as well as to a cyclic load applied during the degradation process.

L929, aliphatic polyester, stiffness rise

Heljak M.K. - Warsaw University of Technology (PL)
Moczulska-Heljak M. - other affiliation
Choińska E. - Warsaw University of Technology (PL)
Chlanda A. - Warsaw University of Technology (PL)
Kosik-Kozioł A. - other affiliation
Jaroszewicz T. - Warsaw University of Technology (PL)
Jaroszewicz J. - other affiliation
Święszkowski W. - other affiliation
4.  Moczulska M., Bitar M., Święszkowski W., Bruinink A., Biological characterization of woven fabric using two- and three-dimensional cell cultures, Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, ISSN: 1549-3296, DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.34023, Vol.100A, pp.882-893, 2012

The integration and long-term functional retention of tissue implants are both strongly linked to the implant material characteristics. As a first approach, the cytocompatibility and bioactivity of such materials are evaluated using in vitro-based cell culture models. Typically, in vitro bioactivity is assessed by seeding single cells onto the test material to evaluate certain parameters such as cell adhesion, survival, proliferation, and functional differentiation. Probably, due to the reduction from three dimensional (3D) toward the two dimensional (2D) situation the data obtained from 2D culture models falls short of predicting the in vivo behavior of the biomaterial in question. In this study, a three dimensional (3D) in vitro cell culture model was applied to evaluate the bioactivity of well characterized fiber-based scaffolds using scaffold colonization as a bioactivity indicator. Cell behavior in this culture model was evaluated against a classical comparable, 2D cell culture system using polyethylene terephthalat and polyamide 6.6 fabrics. By using the 3D culture model, however, differences in cell population performance as a function of fiber diameter and mesh angle were evident. The use of 3D cell culture model clearly outperformed typical cell culture setup as means to evaluate cell population–scaffold interaction.

scaffold, textile, polyamide 6.6, polyethylene terephthalat, osteoblast, fibroblast, reaggregate, 3D

Moczulska M. - other affiliation
Bitar M. - other affiliation
Święszkowski W. - IPPT PAN
Bruinink A. - other affiliation

Conference abstracts
1.  Bruinink A., Wein F., Moczulska M., Zell V., Obarzanek-Fojt M., Rottmar M., Maeder-Althaus X., Evaluation of biomaterials using an in vitro test battery, European Cells and Materials, ISSN: 1473-2262, Vol.22, No.Suppl. 1, pp.24, 2011
2.  Moczulska M., Bitar M., Święszkowski W., Bruinink A., Comparison of two cell culture set-up for identification of optimal textile scaffold regarding cell response, European Cells and Materials, ISSN: 1473-2262, Vol.20, No.Suppl. 1, pp.34, 2010

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