Institute of Fundamental Technological Research
Polish Academy of Sciences


M. Wrzecionek

Warsaw University of Technology (PL)

Recent publications
1.  Wrzecionek M., Bandzerewicz A., Dutkowska E., Dulnik J., Denis P., Gadomska-Gajadhur A., Poly(glycerol citrate)-polylactide nonwovens toward tissue engineering applications, Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN: 1042-7147, DOI: 10.1002/pat.5407, pp.1-12, 2021

In 2002, Robert Langer proposed that new polyester for tissue engineering should have good mechanical properties followed by: covalent bonding (as crosslinking) and hydrogen-bonding interactions; and should be elastic like rubber materials due to three-dimensional network structure. Considering these hypotheses, a polyester made of glycerol and citric acid was designed in this work. Poly(glycerol citrate) should be attractive for tissue engineering because both glycerol and citric acid, taking part in natural human metabolic pathways; and due to the reactant's functionality, 3D networks should be produced easily. Moreover, the reagents are cheap, available, and often used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, poly(glycerol citrate) was synthesized and then used with PLA for creating porous nonwovens by electrospinning. Produced materials were tested for possible application in the field of tissue engineering. The obtained materials have properties similar to collagen fibers, but still, require refinement for medical applications.

electrospinning, poly(glycerol citrate), polylactide, tissue engineering

Wrzecionek M. - Warsaw University of Technology (PL)
Bandzerewicz A. - Warsaw University of Technology (PL)
Dutkowska E. - Warsaw University of Technology (PL)
Dulnik J. - IPPT PAN
Denis P. - IPPT PAN
Gadomska-Gajadhur A. - Nałęcz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
2.  Kołbuk D., Jeznach O., Wrzecionek M., Gadomska-Gajadhur A., Poly(glycerol succinate) as an eco-friendly component of PLLA and PLCL fibres towards medical applications, Polymers, ISSN: 2073-4360, DOI: 10.3390/polym12081731, Vol.12, No.8, pp.1731-1-17, 2020

This study was conducted as a first step in obtaining eco-friendly fibres for medical applications using a synthesised oligomer poly(glycerol succinate) (PGSu) as an additive for synthetic poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly (L-lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLCL). The effects of the oligomer on the structure formation, morphology, crystallisation behaviour, and mechanical properties of electrospun bicomponent fibres were investigated. Nonwovens were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and mechanical testing. The molecular structure of PLLA fibres is influenced by the presence of PGSu mainly acting as an enhancer of molecular orientation. In the case of semicrystalline PLCL, chain mobility was enhanced by the presence of PGSu molecules, and the crystallinity of bicomponent fibres increased in relation to that of pure PLCL. The mechanical properties of bicomponent fibres were influenced by the level of PGSu present and the extent of crystal formation of the main component. An in vitro study conducted using L929 cells confirmed the biocompatible character of all bicomponent fibres.

poly(glycerol succinate), plasticiser, eco-friendly polymer, electrospinning, hyperbranched polyester

Kołbuk D. - IPPT PAN
Jeznach O. - IPPT PAN
Wrzecionek M. - Warsaw University of Technology (PL)
Gadomska-Gajadhur A. - Nałęcz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
3.  Denis P., Wrzecionek M., Gadomska‐Gajadhur A., Sajkiewicz P., Poly(glycerol sebacate)–poly(l-lactide) nonwovens. Towards attractive electrospun material for tissue engineering, Polymers, ISSN: 2073-4360, DOI: 10.3390/polym11122113, Vol.11, No.12, pp.2113-1-26, 2019

Two types of poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) prepolymers were synthesized and electrospun with poly(l-lactic acid) (PLA), resulting in bicomponent nonwovens. The obtained materials were pre-heated in a vacuum, at different times, to crosslink PGS and investigate morphological and structural dependencies in that polymeric, electrospun system. As both PGS and PLA are sensitive to pre-heating (crosslinking) conditions, research concerns both components. More interest is focused on the properties of PGS, considering further research for mechanical properties and subsequent experiments with PGS synthesis. Electrospinning of PGS blended with PLA does not bring difficulties, but obtaining elastomeric properties of nonwovens is problematic. Even though PGS has many potential advantages over other polyesters when soft tissue engineering is considered, its full utilization via the electrospinning process is much harder in practice. Further investigations are ongoing, especially with the promising PGS prepolymer with a higher esterification degree and its variations.

electrospinning, degradable polymers, synthesis, structure, crosslinking

Denis P. - IPPT PAN
Wrzecionek M. - Warsaw University of Technology (PL)
Gadomska‐Gajadhur A. - Nałęcz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Sajkiewicz P. - IPPT PAN

Conference abstracts
1.  Denis P., Sajkiewicz P., Wrzecionek M., Gadomska-Gajadhur A., Poly(glycerol sebacate) – Poly(L-Lactide) nonwovens. Towards attractive electrospun material for tissue engineering, TERMIS EU 2019, TERMIS European Chapter Meeting 2019, Tissue Engineering Therapies: From Concept to Clinical Translation & Commercialisation, 2019-05-27/05-31, Rodos (GR), pp.1621-1621, 2019
2.  Jeznach O., Wrzecionek M., Ruskowski P., Gadomska-Gajadhur A., Kołbuk D., Effect of poly(glycerol succinate) addition on properties of PLA electrospun fibres, ESB2018, 29th European Conference on Biomaterials, 2018-09-09/09-13, Maastricht (NL), pp.1084-1085, 2018

Filing No./Date
Filing Publication
Protection Area, Applicant Name
Patent Number
Date of Grant
BUP 06/2020
Gadomska-Gajadhur A., Ruśkowski P., Synoradzki L., Wrzecionek M., Kołbuk-Konieczny D., Jeznach O., Budnicka M., Szymaniak M.
Sposób otrzymywania poli(bursztynianiu glicerolu)
PL, Politechnika Warszawska

Category A Plus


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