Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki
Polskiej Akademii Nauk

Pracownicy

prof. dr hab. inż. Michał Basista

Zakład Mechaniki Materiałów (ZMM)
Pracownia Zaawansowanych Materiałów Kompozytowych (PZMK)
stanowisko: profesor instytutu
telefon bezpośredni: (+48) 22 828 53 74
telefon: (+48) 22 826 12 81 wewn.: 212
pokój: 143
e-mail:
ORCID: 0000-0002-6308-3267

Doktorat
1985 Równania konstytutywne i ocena nośności granicznej ośrodków ze wstępną anizotropią struktury 
promotor -- prof. dr hab. inż. Wojciech Nowacki, IPPT PAN
 
Habilitacja
2002 Micromechanical and lattice modeling of brittle damage 
Profesura
2019-11-28 Nadanie tytułu naukowego profesora
Promotor prac doktorskich
1.  2021-09-30 Maj Justyna   Wpływ mikrostruktury na właściwości mechaniczne, termiczne i tribologiczne infiltrowanych kompozytów gradientowych Al2O3/AlSi12 
2.  2021-03-25 Bochenek Kamil Wpływ dodatku renu i tlenku glinu na właściwości mechaniczne i odporność na utlenianie związków międzymetalicznych na bazie NiAl wytwarzanych metodą metalurgii proszków 
3.  2018-01-25 Poniżnik Zuzanna   Modelling of effective properties and fracture of metal-ceramic interpenetrating phase composites 
4.  2017-06-16 Pandi Pitachi  
(Politecnico di Milano)
Computational micromechanical analysis of metal ceramic composites 
5.  2009-01-22 Węglewski Witold   Modelowanie zniszczenia betonu wywołanego korozją siarczanową 

Ostatnie publikacje
1.  Darban H., Luciano R., Basista M., Free transverse vibrations of nanobeams with multiple cracks, International Journal of Engineering Science, ISSN: 0020-7225, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijengsci.2022.103703, Vol.177, pp.103703-1-20, 2022

Streszczenie:
A nonlocal model is formulated to study the size-dependent free transverse vibrations of nanobeams with arbitrary numbers of cracks. The effect of the crack is modeled by introducing discontinuities in the slope and transverse displacement at the cracked cross-section, proportional to the bending moment and the shear force transmitted through it. The local compliance of each crack is related to its stress intensity factors assuming that the crack tip stress field is undisturbed (non-interacting cracks).The kinematic field is defined based on the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory, and the small-scale size effect is taken into account by employing the constitutive equation of the stress-driven nonlocal theory of elasticity. In this manner, the curvature at each cross-section is defined as an integral convolution in terms of the bending moments at all the cross-sections and a kernel function which depends on a material characteristic length parameter. The integral form of the nonlocal constitutive equation is elaborated and converted into a differential equation subjected to a set of mathematically consistent boundary and continuity conditions at the nanobeam’s ends and the cracked cross-sections. The equation of motion in each segment of the nanobeam between cracks is solved separately and the variationally consistent and constitutive boundary and continuity conditions are imposed to determine the natural frequencies. The model is applied to nanobeams with different boundary conditions and the natural frequencies and the mode shapes are presented at the presence of one to four cracks. The results of the model converge to the experimental results available in the literature for the local cracked beams and to the solutions of the intact nanobeams when the crack length goes to zero. The effects of the crack location, crack length, and nonlocality on the natural frequencies are investigated, also for the higher modes of vibrations. Novel findings including the amplification and shielding effects of the cracks on the natural frequencies are presented and discussed.

Słowa kluczowe:
cracked nanobeam, transverse vibration, nonlocal elasticity, size effect

Afiliacje autorów:
Darban H. - IPPT PAN
Luciano R. - Università degli Studi di Napoli "Parthenope" (IT)
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
200p.
2.  Darban H., Bochenek K., Węglewski W., Basista M., Experimental Determination of the Length-Scale Parameter for the Phase-Field Modeling of Macroscale Fracture in Cr–Al2O3 Composites Fabricated by Powder Metallurgy, METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, ISSN: 1073-5623, DOI: 10.1007/s11661-022-06677-3, pp.1-23, 2022

Streszczenie:
A novel approach is proposed to determine a physically meaningful length-scale parameter for the phase-field modeling of macroscale fracture in metal–ceramic composites on an example of chromium–alumina composite fabricated by powder metallurgy. The approach is based on the fractography analysis by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with the aim to measure the process zone size and use that value as the length-scale parameter in the phase-field modeling. Mode I and mixed-mode I/II fracture tests are conducted on Cr–Al2O3 composites at different reinforcement volume fractions and particle sizes using single-edge notched beams under four-point bending. The fracture surfaces are analyzed in detail by SEM to determine the size of the process zone where the microscale nonlinear fracture events occur. The model adequately approximates the experimentally measured fracture toughness and the fracture loads. It is shown that the model prediction of the crack initiation direction under the mixed-mode loading is in agreement with the experiments and the generalized maximum tangential stress criterion. These outcomes justify using the process zone size as the scale parameter in the phase-field modeling of macroscale fracture in chromium–alumina and similar metal–ceramic composites.

Afiliacje autorów:
Darban H. - IPPT PAN
Bochenek K. - IPPT PAN
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
200p.
3.  Węglewski W., Pitchai P., Chmielewski M., Guruprasad P.J., Basista M., Thermal conductivity of Cu-matrix composites reinforced with coated SiC particles: Numerical modeling and experimental verification, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER, ISSN: 0017-9310, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2022.122633, Vol.188, pp.122633-1-18, 2022

Streszczenie:
Copper-matrix composites reinforced with silicon carbide (SiC) particles are heat sink materials with potential application in the electronic industry. A major challenge in the manufacturing of these materials, involving sintering process, is to prevent the decomposition of SiC and the subsequent dissolution of silicon in the copper matrix. This is overcome by coating SiC particles with metallic layers. In this study, a combined experimental and computational micromechanics approach was used to investigate thermal conductivity of Cu-matrix composites reinforced with silicon carbide particles coated with chromium, titanium, or tungsten layers. Plasma Vapor Deposition (PVD) was used to produce the metallic layers on SiC particles, while Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) to consolidate the powder mixtures of copper and coated silicon carbide. Thermal conductivities of the fabricated three-phase composites Cu/SiC/Cr, Cu/SiC/Ti and Cu/SiC/W were evaluated using the Laser Flash technique. Finite Element Method (FEM) and Variational Asymptotic Method (VAM) based homogenization techniques were used for computational modeling of thermal conductivity. In the numerical models complex material microstructures were accounted for using micro-CT images of the sintered compacts. Comparison of the experimental results with simulations highlighted the importance of including the effect of imperfect interfaces to accurately model thermal conductivity of the investigated composites.

Słowa kluczowe:
metal-matrix composites, powder metallurgy, plasma vapor deposition, imperfect interface, thermal conductivity, numerical modeling

Afiliacje autorów:
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
Pitchai P. - Indian Institute of Science (IN)
Chmielewski M. - Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
Guruprasad P.J. - Indian Institute of Technology (IN)
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
200p.
4.  Darban H., Luciano R., Caporale A., Basista M., Modeling of buckling of nanobeams embedded in elastic medium by local-nonlocal stress-driven gradient elasticity theory, COMPOSITE STRUCTURES, ISSN: 0263-8223, DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2022.115907, Vol.297, pp.115907-1-11, 2022

Streszczenie:
A novel buckling model is formulated for the Bernoulli-Euler nanobeam resting on the Pasternak elastic foundation. The formulation is based on the local-nonlocal stress-driven gradient elasticity theory. In order to incorporate the size-dependency, the strain at each point is defined as the integral convolutions in terms of the stresses and their first-order gradients in all the points, accounting also for the local contribution. The differential form of the nonlocal constitutive equation, together with a set of constitutive boundary conditions, are used to define the buckling equation in terms of transverse displacement, which is solved in closed form. Both variationally consistent and the constitutive boundary conditions are imposed to calculate the buckling loads and the corresponding mode shapes. The predictions of the present model are in agreement with the results available in the literature for the carbon nanotubes based on the molecular dynamics simulations. Insightful results are presented for the first three buckling modes of local-nonlocal nanobeams considering the gradient effects. The distinctive feature of the present model is its capability to capture both stiffening and softening behaviors at the small-scales, which result in, respectively, higher and lower buckling loads of the nanobeams with respect to those of the large-scale beams.

Słowa kluczowe:
nanobeams, nonlocal elasticity, stress gradient, buckling, Pasternak foundation

Afiliacje autorów:
Darban H. - IPPT PAN
Luciano R. - Università degli Studi di Napoli "Parthenope" (IT)
Caporale A. - University of Cassino and Southern Lazio (IT)
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
140p.
5.  Bochenek K., Węglewski W., Strojny-Nędza A., Pietrzak K., Chmielewski T., Chmielewski M., Basista M., Microstructure, Mechanical, and Wear Properties of NiCr-Re-Al2O3 Coatings Deposited by HVOF, Atmospheric Plasma Spraying, and Laser Cladding, Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, ISSN: 1059-9630, DOI: 10.1007/s11666-022-01400-5, pp.1-25, 2022

Streszczenie:
Metallic coatings are often applied on steel tubes in power generation boilers to improve their performance and extend the lifetime. Besides the high-temperature corrosion and erosion protection, the coatings should manifest good adhesion and cohesion strength, and relatively low residual stresses. In this study, three processing techniques: high velocity oxygen fuel spraying (HVOF), atmospheric plasma spraying (APS), and direct laser cladding were employed to obtain novel NiCr-Re and NiCr-Re-Al2O3 coatings intended for application in combustion boilers. The main objective was to assess the suitability of these three techniques to deposit NiCr-Re and NiCr-Re-Al2O3 composite coatings on a 16Mo3 steel substrate. For this purpose, a comparative analysis of the coatings behavior in selected tests was conducted. Of the three processing techniques, thermal spraying by HVOF turned out to be the optimum choice for the studied coatings. From among several variants of the HVOF-sprayed coatings, namely NiCr+1%Re, NiCr+2%Re, NiCr+1%Re+5%Al2O3, and NiCr+1%Re+10%Al2O3 (all vol.%), the NiCr+1%Re material exhibited the lowest extent of cracking in the disk bend test, the highest tensile strength (405 MPa) in the in-plane tension test, the highest Vickers hardness (379 HV2), the lowest specific wear rate (2.23·10-4 mm3/N m), and the lowest level of average residual tensile stress (120 MPa).

Słowa kluczowe:
alumina, HVOF, mechanical behavior, nickel-chromium coatings, rhenium, residual stress, wear resistance

Afiliacje autorów:
Bochenek K. - IPPT PAN
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
Strojny-Nędza A. - Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
Pietrzak K. - IPPT PAN
Chmielewski T. - Warsaw University of Technology (PL)
Chmielewski M. - Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
140p.
6.  Darban H., Luciano R., Basista M., Calibration of the length scale parameter for the stress-driven nonlocal elasticity model from quasi-static and dynamic experiments, MECHANICS OF ADVANCED MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, ISSN: 1537-6494, DOI: 10.1080/15376494.2022.2077488, pp.1-7, 2022

Streszczenie:
The available experimental results in the literature on the quasi-static bending and free flexural vibration of microcantilevers and nanocantilevers are used to calibrate the length scale parameter of the stress-driven nonlocal elasticity model. The Bernoulli–Euler theory is used to define the kinematic field. The closed form solution derived for the bending problem is used to calibrate the length scale parameter by fitting the load–displacement curves to the experimental results. For the vibration problem, the calibration is done using the least-squares curve fitting method for the natural frequencies. The stress-driven nonlocal theory can adequately capture the size-dependent experimental results.

Słowa kluczowe:
nonlocal elasticity, stress-driven, experiment, length scale, calibration, MEMS, NEMS

Afiliacje autorów:
Darban H. - IPPT PAN
Luciano R. - Università degli Studi di Napoli "Parthenope" (IT)
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
70p.
7.  Maj J., Węglewski W., Bochenek K., Rogal Ł., Woźniacka S., Basista M., A comparative study of mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, residual stresses, and wear resistance of aluminum-alumina composites obtained by squeeze casting and powder metallurgy, METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, ISSN: 1073-5623, DOI: 10.1007/s11661-021-06401-7, pp.1-10, 2021

Streszczenie:
Squeeze casting and powder metallurgy techniques were employed to fabricate AlSi12/Al2O3 composites, which are lightweight structural materials with potential applications in the automotive industry. The impact of the processing route on the material properties was studied. Comparative analyses were conducted for the Vickers hardness, flexural strength, fracture toughness, thermal conductivity, thermal residual stresses, and frictional wear. Our results show that the squeeze cast composite exhibits superior properties to those obtained using powder metallurgy.

Afiliacje autorów:
Maj J. - IPPT PAN
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
Bochenek K. - IPPT PAN
Rogal Ł. - Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Woźniacka S. - IPPT PAN
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
200p.
8.  Witecka A., Valet S., Basista M., Boccaccini A.R., Electrophoretically deposited high molecular weight chitosan/bioactive glass composite coatings on WE43 magnesium alloy, SURFACE AND COATINGS TECHNOLOGY, ISSN: 0257-8972, DOI: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2021.127232, Vol.418, pp.127232-1-14, 2021

Streszczenie:
Mg-based materials are good candidates for biodegradable bone regeneration implants due to their favorable mechanical properties and an excellent compatibility with human bone. However, too high corrosion/degradation rate in body fluids still limits their applicability. Coatings based on chitosan (CS) and bioactive glass (BG) particles fabricated by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) on Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) pre- treated magnesium alloys have promising potential to suppress the substrate corrosion and additionally to incorporate bioactivity. However, the impact of processing parameters or type of coating components on the long-term substrate corrosion behavior and cell response have not been investigated previously. In this study, two types of composite coatings based on a high molecular weight CS (Mw 340–360 kDa, DDA ≥95%) and embedded particles: solid BG (2 μm) and a mixture of BG and mesoporous bioactive glass nanoparticles (MBGN, 100–300 nm with mesopores 2.3–5.6 nm) were fabricated by EPD on DMEM pre-treated WE43 magnesium alloy. It was found that partial replacement of BG particles with MBGN (ratio 3:1) in the composite coating increases the water contact angle, surface roughness and induces a positive cell response. Although the acidic CS-based solutions and applied EPD conditions may decrease the stability of the temporary barrier formed during the DMEM pre-treatment on WE43 substrate therewith slightly increasing its corrosion sensitivity, the composite coating with a mixture of different sizes of particles (BG, MBGN) is a promising candidate for bone regeneration applications.

Słowa kluczowe:
WE43, magnesium alloy, chitosan, bioactive glass, mesoporous nano bioactive glass, electrophoretic deposition

Afiliacje autorów:
Witecka A. - IPPT PAN
Valet S. - University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (DE)
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
Boccaccini A.R. - Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (DE)
100p.
9.  Węglewski W., Pitchai P., Bochenek K., Bolzon G., Konetschnik R., Sartory B., Ebner R., Kiener D., Basista M., Experimental and numerical investigation of the deformation and fracture mode of microcantilever beams made of Cr(Re)/Al2O3 metal–matrix composite, METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, ISSN: 1073-5623, DOI: 10.1007/s11661-020-05687-3, Vol.51, No.5, pp.2377-2390, 2020

Streszczenie:
This work presents a combined experimental and computational study of the deformation and fracture of microcantilever specimens made of chromium(rhenium)-alumina metal–matrix composite (MMC), with a particular focus on the failure properties of the metal–ceramic interfaces. The obtained experimental results show that the bending strength of microcantilevers containing alumina particles in critical cross-sections near specimen's fixed end is considerably higher than that of unreinforced chromium(rhenium) samples. Brittle cracking along chromium–alumina interfaces is the dominant fracture mode of the composite microcantilevers. The interface characteristics are determined in an indirect way by numerical simulations of the experiment with account of the actual specimen microstructure from the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. A parametric study demonstrates that the overall material response may be reproduced by different sets of model parameters, whereas the actual failure mode permits to discriminate among the possible alternatives. Using this approach, the in situ values of the chromium–alumina interface cohesive strength and the fracture energy are estimated.

Afiliacje autorów:
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
Pitchai P. - Indian Institute of Science (IN)
Bochenek K. - IPPT PAN
Bolzon G. - inna afiliacja
Konetschnik R. - inna afiliacja
Sartory B. - inna afiliacja
Ebner R. - inna afiliacja
Kiener D. - inna afiliacja
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
200p.
10.  Bochenek K., Węglewski W., Morgiel J., Maj M., Basista M., Enhancement of fracture toughness of hot-pressed NiAl-Re material by aluminum oxide addition, MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING A-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING, ISSN: 0921-5093, DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2020.139670, Vol.790, pp.139670-1-6, 2020

Streszczenie:
In the search for a remedy to increase the fracture toughness of NiAl, the effect of rhenium and aluminum oxide addition is explored. Using a powder metallurgy processing route an optimum composition of NiAl-Re-Al2O3 material is found which manifests KIC over two times higher than as-received NiAl sintered under the same conditions.

Słowa kluczowe:
fracture behavior, stress/strain measurements, intermetallics, composites, powder metallurgy, grains and interfaces

Afiliacje autorów:
Bochenek K. - IPPT PAN
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
Morgiel J. - Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Maj M. - IPPT PAN
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
140p.
11.  Węglewski W., Krajewski M., Bochenek K., Denis P., Wysmołek A., Basista M., Anomalous size effect in thermal residual stresses in pressure sintered alumina-chromium composites, MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING A-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING, ISSN: 0921-5093, DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2019.138111, Vol.762, pp.138111-1-10, 2019

Streszczenie:
This paper explores an anomalous size effect in thermal residual stresses occurring in the alumina matrix of Al2O3/Cr sintered composite upon varying the particle size of the chromium reinforcement. When a coarse chromium powder (45 µm mean particle size) is used the average residual stress in the alumina phase after cooling is compressive in accordance with the classical Eshelby solution. However, in the case of a fine chromium (5 µm mean particle size) it switches to tension. This effect, detected by photoluminescence piezospectroscopy, is also confirmed by X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments. As the classical micromechanics models are incapable to capture it, a finite element model is developed with the actual composite microstructure being reconstructed from the microtomography images. It is shown by numerical simulations that the anomalous size effect is associated with the complex microstructure of the composite fabricated with the fine chromium powder. It is also pointed out that the temperature dependence of the coefficients of thermal expansion of the matrix and the reinforcement affects the residual stress levels.

Słowa kluczowe:
thermal residual stress, metal-ceramic composites, size effect, microcomputed tomography, finite element analysis

Afiliacje autorów:
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
Krajewski M. - IPPT PAN
Bochenek K. - IPPT PAN
Denis P. - IPPT PAN
Wysmołek A. - Uniwersytet Warszawski (PL)
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
140p.
12.  Krajewski M., Węglewski W., Bochenek K., Wysmołek A., Basista M., Optical measurements of thermal residual stresses in alumina reinforced with chromium, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, ISSN: 0021-8979, DOI: 10.1063/1.5083115, Vol.125, No.13, pp.135104-1-10, 2019

Streszczenie:
This work describes optical measurements of processing-induced thermal residual stresses in an alumina matrix reinforced with chromium particles. This ceramic-metal composite is manufactured by the powder metallurgy method comprising powder mixing in a planetary ball mill and consolidation by hot pressing. Two different chromium powders (5 μm and 45 μm mean particle size) are used, while the average alumina particle size is kept constant (1 μm). The residual stresses in aluminum oxide are determined by applying two optical methods: photoluminescence piezo-spectroscopy (PLPS) and Raman spectroscopy (RS). Both experimental techniques reveal a chromium size effect in the residual stress measurements. When the fine chromium powder (5 μm) is used, the average residual stress in the ceramic phase is tensile (unusual effect), whereas for the coarser chromium powder (45 μm) it becomes compressive. The PLPS measurements of the hydrostatic residual stress component in the ceramic phase yield the values of 0.290 and −0.130 GPa for samples with 5 μm and 45 μm chromium powders, respectively. In the RS experiments, the corresponding stress component in the alumina equals 0.351 GPa for the composite with 5 μm chromium and −0.158 GPa for that with 45 μm chromium powder. These values indicate that the residual stress in the alumina reinforced with 5 μm chromium is approximately twice higher than that in the alumina reinforced with 45 μm chromium. Finally, the validity of the results obtained with the optical techniques is confirmed by the neutron diffraction measurements.

Afiliacje autorów:
Krajewski M. - IPPT PAN
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
Bochenek K. - IPPT PAN
Wysmołek A. - Uniwersytet Warszawski (PL)
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
70p.
13.  Bochenek K., Węglewski W., Morgiel J., Basista M., Influence of rhenium addition on microstructure, mechanical properties and oxidation resistance of NiAl obtained by powder metallurgy, MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING A-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING, ISSN: 0921-5093, DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2018.08.032, Vol.735, pp.121-130, 2018

Streszczenie:
The search for new materials capable of replacing nickel-based superalloys in aerospace applications has increased rapidly in the recent years. One of the candidates for this purpose is nickel aluminide NiAl provided that its main drawback, namely the inferior fracture toughness at room temperature is overcome. We propose rhenium as an addition to NiAl to improve its mechanical properties without compromising on the oxidation resistance. Two powder metallurgy techniques (HP and SPS) were used to obtain NiAl/Re sinters. Small amounts of rhenium (0.6 at.%; 1.25at.%; 1.5 at.%) almost doubled the flexural strength of NiAl and improved its fracture toughness by 60%. Microscopic investigations revealed rhenium particles at the boundaries of NiAl grains resulting in an enhanced fracture toughness. Mass changes during oxidation at 900 oC, 1100 oC and 1300 oC were relatively low. Plausible mechanisms of the fracture toughness enhancement and the oxidation behavior are discussed.

Słowa kluczowe:
nickel aluminide, rhenium, fracture toughness, oxidation resistance, powder metallurgy, grain boundary strengthening

Afiliacje autorów:
Bochenek K. - IPPT PAN
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
Morgiel J. - Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
35p.
14.  Maj J., Basista M., Węglewski W., Bochenek K., Strojny-Nędza A., Naplocha K., Panzner T., Tatarkova M., Fiori F., Effect of microstructure on mechanical properties and residual stresses in interpenetrating aluminum-alumina composites fabricated by squeeze casting, MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING A-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS PROPERTIES MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROCESSING, ISSN: 0921-5093, DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2017.12.091, Vol.715, pp.154-162, 2018

Streszczenie:
Aluminum-alumina composites with interpenetrating network structure are interesting structural materials due to their high resistance to elevated temperature and frictional wear, good heat conductivity, enhanced mechanical strength and fracture toughness. In this paper aluminum-alumina bulk composites and FGMs are manufactured by pressure infiltration of porous alumina preforms with molten aluminium alloy (EN AC-44200). Influence of the interpenetrating microstructure on the macroscopic bending strength, fracture toughness, hardness and heat conduction is examined. Special focus is on processing-induced thermal residual stresses in aluminium-alumina composites due to their potentially detrimental effects on material performance in structural elements under in-service conditions. The residual stresses are measured experimentally in the ceramic phase by neutron diffraction and simulated numerically using a micro-CT based Finite Element model, which takes into account the actual interpenetrating microstructure of the composite. The model predictions for two different volume fractions of alumina agree fairly well with the neutron diffraction measurements

Słowa kluczowe:
A. stress measurements, X-ray analysis, finite element analysis, B. composites, C. casting methods

Afiliacje autorów:
Maj J. - IPPT PAN
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
Bochenek K. - IPPT PAN
Strojny-Nędza A. - Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
Naplocha K. - Wroclaw University of Science and Technology (PL)
Panzner T. - Paul Scherrer Institut (CH)
Tatarkova M. - Institute of Materials Research, Slovak Academy of Sciences (SK)
Fiori F. - Universita Politecnica delle Marche (IT)
35p.
15.  Poniżnik Z., Nowak Z., Basista M., Numerical modeling of deformation and fracture of reinforcing fibers in ceramic-metal composites, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DAMAGE MECHANICS, ISSN: 1056-7895, DOI: 10.1177/1056789515611945, Vol.26, No.5, pp.711-734, 2017

Streszczenie:
This paper is concerned with numerical modeling of deformation and fracture of a metal ligament bridging the crack faces in ceramic-metal composites, as a prerequisite for the determination of the J integral for composites with interpenetrating microstructure. A finite element model is proposed of an elasto-plastic crack-reinforcing fiber undergoing large plastic deformations and progressive debonding from the elastic matrix through a cohesive matrix-fiber interface. The σ-u relationships are derived first in the case of pullout of an elasto-plastic fiber embedded in an elastic matrix and then in uniaxial tension of the elasto-plastic fiber bridging the crack faces in elastic matrix. The obtained numerical results are discussed and compared with the theoretical predictions reported by other authors.

Słowa kluczowe:
ceramic–metal composites, fracture modeling, crack bridging, fiber pullout, cohesive interface, fiber debonding, finite element simulations

Afiliacje autorów:
Poniżnik Z. - IPPT PAN
Nowak Z. - IPPT PAN
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
35p.
16.  Basista M., Jakubowska J., Węglewski W., Processing Induced Flaws in Aluminum–Alumina Interpenetrating Phase Composites, Advanced Engineering Materials, ISSN: 1438-1656, DOI: 10.1002/adem.201700484, Vol.19, No.12, pp.1700484-1-14, 2017

Streszczenie:
This review paper deals with flaws in aluminum–alumina composites and FGMs induced by their manufacturing processes. Aluminum–alumina composites have been studied for many years as potentially interesting materials for applications, for example, in the automotive sector due to their enhanced mechanical strength, wear resistance, good heat conductivity and low specific weight. The focus here is on the interpenetrating phase composites (IPCs) manufactured by infiltration of porous alumina preforms with molten aluminum alloys. The primary objective is to provide an updated overview of research findings on a variety of flaws occurring at different stages of the manufacturing processes. Some precautions on how to avoid processing induced flaws in aluminum–alumina bulk composites and FGMs are mentioned.

Afiliacje autorów:
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
Jakubowska J. - IPPT PAN
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
30p.
17.  Strojny-Nędza A., Pietrzak K., Teodorczyk M., Basista M., Węglewski W., Chmielewski M., Influence of Material Ccating on the heat Transfer in a layered Cu-SiC-Cu Systems, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.1515/amm-2017-0199, Vol.62, No.2B, pp.1311-1314, 2017

Streszczenie:
This paper describes the process of obtaining Cu-SiC-Cu systems by way of spark plasma sintering. A monocrystalline form of silicon carbide (6H-SiC type) was applied in the experiment. Additionally, silicon carbide samples were covered with a layer of tungsten and molybdenum using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. Microstructural examinations and thermal properties measurements were performed. A special attention was put to the metal-ceramic interface. During annealing at a high temperature, copper reacts with silicon carbide. To prevent the decomposition of silicon carbide two types of coating (tungsten and molybdenum) were applied. The effect of covering SiC with the aforementioned elements on the composite's thermal conductivity was analyzed. Results were compared with the numerical modelling of heat transfer in Cu-SiC-Cu systems. Certain possible reasons behind differences in measurements and modelling results were discussed.

Słowa kluczowe:
copper matrix composites, silicon carbide, interface, thermal conductivity, modelling

Afiliacje autorów:
Strojny-Nędza A. - Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
Pietrzak K. - inna afiliacja
Teodorczyk M. - Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
Chmielewski M. - Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
30p.
18.  Basista M., Węglewski W., Bochenek K., Poniżnik Z., Nowak Z., Micro-CT Finite Element Analysis of Thermal Residual Stresses and Fracture in Metal-Ceramic Composites, Advanced Engineering Materials, ISSN: 1438-1656, DOI: 10.1002/adem.201600725, Vol.19, No.8, pp.1600725-1-9, 2017

Streszczenie:
This paper presents a simple way of using X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) in numerical modeling of material properties of metal-ceramic composites. It shows step by step the proposed methodology with details of the finite element mesh creation, so that it can easily be reproduced by interested researchers. Two case studies are considered to show the proposed approach at work: i) determination of processing-induced residual stresses in hot pressed Cr/Al2O3 and NiAl/Al2O3 particulate composites and ii) determination of J-integral for an interpenetrating phase composite made of porous alumina preform infiltrated with molten copper. The method is straightforward and effective but has its limitations that are pointed out.

Afiliacje autorów:
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
Bochenek K. - IPPT PAN
Poniżnik Z. - IPPT PAN
Nowak Z. - IPPT PAN
30p.
19.  Kuśnierczyk K., Basista M., Recent advances in research on magnesium alloys and magnesium - calcium phosphate composites as biodegradable implant materials, JOURNAL OF BIOMATERIALS APPLICATIONS, ISSN: 0885-3282, DOI: 10.1177/0885328216657271, Vol.31, No.6, pp.878-900, 2017

Streszczenie:
Magnesium alloys are modern biocompatible materials suitable for orthopaedic implants due to their biodegradability in biological environment. Many studies indicate that there is a high demand to design magnesium alloys with controllable in vivo corrosion rates and required mechanical properties. A solution to this challenge can be sought in the development of metal matrix composites based on magnesium alloys with addition of relevant alloying elements and bioceramic particles. In this study, the corrosion mechanisms along with corrosion protection methods in magnesium alloys are discussed. The recently developed magnesium alloys for biomedical applications are reviewed. Special attention is given to the newest research results in metal matrix composites composed of magnesium alloy matrix and calcium phosphates, especially hydroxyapatite or tricalcium phosphate, as the second phase with emphasis on the biodegradation behavior, microstructure and mechanical properties in view of potential application of these materials in bone implants.

Słowa kluczowe:
biomaterials, biodegradable, metal matrix composites, magnesium alloys, corrosion, hydroxyapatite, bone repair

Afiliacje autorów:
Kuśnierczyk K. - IPPT PAN
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
30p.
20.  Chmielewski M., Pietrzak K., Basista M., Węglewski W., Rhenium doped chromium–alumina composites for high-temperature applications, International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, ISSN: 0263-4368, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2015.07.012, Vol.54, pp.196-202, 2016

Streszczenie:
Dense chromium–alumina composites doped with rhenium have been developed by the hot pressing method (bulk composite) and plasma spraying (composite coating). The obtained materials show superior mechanical properties, insensitivity to chemically aggressive environment, good resistance to frictional wear and oxidation at elevated temperature. These enhanced properties make the Cr/Re/Al2O3 composites interesting structural materials for energy and transport applications operating in demanding service conditions, e.g. fluidal boilers in power plants or valve seats in combustion engines.

Słowa kluczowe:
Metal–ceramic composites, Powder technology, Mechanical properties, Coatings

Afiliacje autorów:
Chmielewski M. - Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
Pietrzak K. - inna afiliacja
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
35p.
21.  Bochenek K., Basista M., Advances in processing of NiAl intermetallic alloys and composites for high temperature aerospace applications, PROGRESS IN AEROSPACE SCIENCES, ISSN: 0376-0421, DOI: 10.1016/j.paerosci.2015.09.003, Vol.79, pp.136-146, 2015

Streszczenie:
Over the last few decades intermetallic compounds such as NiAl have been considered as potential high temperature structural materials for aerospace industry. A large number of investigations have been reported describing complex fabrication routes, introducing various reinforcing/alloying elements along with theoretical analyses. These research works were mainly focused on the overcoming of main disadvantage of nickel aluminides that still restricts their application range, i.e. brittleness at room temperature. In this paper we present an overview of research on NiAl processing and indicate methods that are promising in solving the low fracture toughness issue at room temperature. Other material properties relevant for high temperature applications are also addressed. The analysis is primarily done from the perspective of NiAl application in aero engines in temperature regimes from room up to the operating temperature (over 1150 °C) of turbine blades.

Słowa kluczowe:
Nickel aluminide, Intermetallics, Turbine blades, Fracture toughness, Manufacturing techniques

Afiliacje autorów:
Bochenek K. - IPPT PAN
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
50p.
22.  Basista M., KMM-VIN AISBL Europejski Instytut Wirtualny Materiałów Wielofunkcyjnych, Materiały Kompozytowe, ISSN: 2084-1949, Vol.4, pp.48-51, 2015

Streszczenie:
Współczesne modele prowadzenia badań naukowych i prac rozwojowych w dziedzinie zaawansowanych materiałów konstrukcyjnych i funkcjonalnych wymagają współpracy i integracji zespołów badawczych o uzupełniających się kompetencjach w zakresie metod wytwarzania materiałów, charakteryzacji mikrostruktury, badań właściwości i modelowania. Aby można było myśleć o praktycznym wykorzystaniu wyników badań i innowacjach przemysłowych z nich wynikających konieczny jest aktywny udział przemysłu już na wczesnym etapie powstawania koncepcji projektu, następnie podczas jego realizacji, a zwłaszcza na etapie weryfikacji uzyskanych wyników na demonstratorach i liniach pilotażowych.

Słowa kluczowe:
Europejski Instytut Wirtualny KMM-VIN AISBL, zaawansowane materiały, współpraca europejska

Afiliacje autorów:
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
23.  Węglewski W., Basista M., Manescu A., Chmielewski M., Pietrzak K., Schubert Th., Effect of grain size on thermal residual stresses and damage in sintered chromium–alumina composites: Measurement and modeling, COMPOSITES PART B-ENGINEERING, ISSN: 1359-8368, DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2014.06.027, Vol.67, pp.119-124, 2014

Streszczenie:
In this paper we present the results of experimental measurements and numerical modeling of the effect of particle size on the residual thermal stresses arising in sintered metal–matrix composites after cooling down from the fabrication temperature. On example of novel Cr(Re)/Al2O3 composites processed by (i) spark plasma sintering and (ii) hot pressing the residual thermal stresses are measured by neutron diffraction technique and determined by a FEM model based on micro-CT scans of the material microstructure. Then numerical model of microcracking induced by residual stresses is applied to predict the effective Young modulus of the damaged composite. Comparison of the numerical results with the measured data of the residual stresses and Young’s modulus is presented and fairly good agreement is noted.

Słowa kluczowe:
Metal–matrix composites (MMC), Residual/internal stress, Finite element analysis (FEA), Sintering

Afiliacje autorów:
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
Manescu A. - Universita degli Studi di Ancona (IT)
Chmielewski M. - Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
Pietrzak K. - inna afiliacja
Schubert Th. - Fraunhofer Institut für Fertigungstechnik und Angewandte Materialforschung (DE)
40p.
24.  Węglewski W., Bochenek K., Basista M., Schubert Th., Jehring U., Litniewski J., Mackiewicz S., Comparative assessment of Young’s modulus measurements of metal-ceramic composites using mechanical and non-destructive tests and micro-CT based computational modeling, COMPUTATIONAL MATERIALS SCIENCE, ISSN: 0927-0256, DOI: 10.1016/j.commatsci.2013.04.007, Vol.77, pp.19-30, 2013

Streszczenie:
It is commonly known that the available non-destructive and mechanical methods of the Young modulus measurement yield different results. This paper presents comparison of the results of experimental determination and numerical modeling of the Young modulus of Cr–Al2O3–Re composites (MMC) processed by a powder metallurgical method (SPS). In the computational model a finite element analysis is combined with images of the real material microstructure obtained from micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Experimental measurements were carried out by four testing methods: three-point bending, resonance frequency damping analysis (RFDA), ultrasonic pulse-echo technique, and scanning acoustic microscopy. The paper also addresses the issue which of the four experimental methods at hand gives results closest to the theoretical predictions of the micro-CT based FEM model.

Słowa kluczowe:
Finite element analysis (FEA), Micro-CT based FE model, Metal matrix composites, Elastic modulus, Mechanical and nondestructive techniques

Afiliacje autorów:
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
Bochenek K. - IPPT PAN
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
Schubert Th. - Fraunhofer Institut für Fertigungstechnik und Angewandte Materialforschung (DE)
Jehring U. - Fraunhofer Institut für Fertigungstechnik und Angewandte Materialforschung (DE)
Litniewski J. - IPPT PAN
Mackiewicz S. - IPPT PAN
30p.
25.  Basista M., Pietrzak K., Węglewski W., Chmielewski M., Kompozyty spiekane Cr-Al2O3 z dodatkiem renu. Wytwarzanie, właściwości, modelowanie, zastosowania, RUDY I METALE NIEŻELAZNE, ISSN: 0035-9696, Vol.R58, No.10, pp.556-563, 2013

Streszczenie:
Celem pracy było zbadanie wpływu dodatku renu na właściwości termomechaniczne i użytkowe kompozytów Cr-Al2O3 wytwarzanych metodą spiekania pod ciśnieniem w prasie HP oraz metodą Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). Uzyskano kompozyty o gęstości przekraczającej 98% gęstości teoretycznej. Właściwości mechaniczne (m.in. moduł Younga, wytrzymałość na zginanie, twardość, odporność na pękanie, granica plastycznośći) oraz odporność na utlenianie wytworzonych materiałów są obiecujące. Zbudowano model numeryczny do obliczeń wielkości naprężeń resztkowych obecnych w materiałach faz kompozytu po procesie spiekania oraz modułów sprężystości. Wykorzystano w tym celu obrazy rzeczywistej mikrostruktury kompozytu otrzymane z tomografii komputerowej. Uzyskano dobrą zgodność wyników modelu z wynikami pomiarów naprężeń metodą XRD. Przedstawiono ponadto porównanie wyników obliczeń numerycznych i pomiarów modułu Younga przy zastosowaniu różnych metod

Słowa kluczowe:
kompozyty MMC, metalurgia proszków, modelowanie MES, mikrotomografia komputerowa, naprężenia resztkowe

Afiliacje autorów:
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
Pietrzak K. - inna afiliacja
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
Chmielewski M. - Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
7p.
26.  Węglewski W., Basista M., Chmielewski M., Pietrzak K., Modeling of thermally induced damage in the processing of Cr–Al2O3 composites, COMPOSITES PART B-ENGINEERING, ISSN: 1359-8368, DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2011.07.016, Vol.43B, No.2, pp.255-264, 2012

Streszczenie:
Thermal stresses induced during the cooling of Cr–Al2O3 (MMC) processed by sintering are modeled numerically using the FEA. The composite microstructure is modeled as (i) random distribution of ceramic particles (voxels) in the metal matrix, and (ii) using micro-CT scans of the real microstructure transformed into a FE mesh. Numerical simulations of the thermal residual stresses are compared with the test data measured by X-ray diffraction. A simple numerical model is then proposed to predict the overall elastic properties of the composite with account of the porosity and damage induced by the thermal stresses. Comparison of the model predictions with the measured data for Young’s modulus is presented.

Słowa kluczowe:
Metal-matrix composites (MMCs), Residual/internal stress, Finite element analysis (FEA), Sintering

Afiliacje autorów:
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
Chmielewski M. - Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
Pietrzak K. - IPPT PAN
45p.
27.  Basista M., Poniżnik Z., Modelling of effective elastic properties and crack bridging in metal-ceramic interpenetrating phase composites, World Journal of Engineering, ISSN: 1708-5284, Vol.7, pp.95-96, 2010

Streszczenie:
The metal-ceramic interpenetrating phase composites (IPC) are usually processed by pressure assisted or pressureless infiltration of molten metals into porous ceramic performs. They have characteristic microstructure different than typical MMC or CMC with particulate or fiber reinforcement. The main difference is that both metal and ceramic phases are spatially continuous forming complementary 3D skeletons of non-zero stiffness. The uniform microstructure, enhanced mechanical and thermal properties are the main advantages of IPC. A state-of-the art in fracture and damage modelling of IPC can be found in [1], while models of effective properties in [2] and [3]. The objective of this paper is twofold: (i) to model the effective elastic properties of IPC, and (ii) to model the fracture in IPC with the crack bridging being the major toughening mechanism. The developed models are verified on the example of Al2O3-Cu infiltrated composites.

[1] Basista M. and Weglewski W. (2006). Modelling of damage and fracture in ceramic-matrix composites – an overview, J. Theor. Appl. Mech., 44, 455-484.
[2] Feng X., Tian Z., Liu Y. and Yu S. (2004). Effective elastic and plastic properties of interpenetrating multiphase composites, Appl. Comp. Mater., 11, 33-55.
[3] Poniznik Z., Salit V., Basista M. and Gross D. (2008). Effective elastic properties of interpenetrating phase composites, Comp. Mat. Sci., 44, 813-820.

Słowa kluczowe:
Interpenetrating phase composites, effective elastic properties, crack bridging

Afiliacje autorów:
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
Poniżnik Z. - IPPT PAN
28.  Węglewski W., Chmielewski M., Kaliński D., Pietrzak K., Basista M., Thermal residual stresses generated during processing of Cr/Al2O3 composites and their influence on macroscopic elastic properties, Advances in Science and Technology, ISSN: 1662-0356, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AST.65.27, Vol.65, pp.27-32, 2010

Streszczenie:
This work is focused on the modeling of thermal stresses induced during the fabrication of the metal/ceramic composites. On example of Cr-Al2O3 composite processed by powder metallurgy, thermal stresses after fabrication are determined by FEM model for different contents of metal and ceramic phases. Numerical model of microcracking induced by thermal stresses is then proposed and applied to compute the overall elastic properties of the damaged composite. Comparison of the model predictions with the measur ed data for Young's modulus is presented.

Słowa kluczowe:
Cr-Al2O3 composite, mechanical properties, thermal stress modeling, microcracking, Young’s modulus modeling

Afiliacje autorów:
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
Chmielewski M. - Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
Kaliński D. - Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
Pietrzak K. - IPPT PAN
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
29.  Basista M., Węglewski W., Chemically assisted damage of concrete: a model of expansion under external sulfate attack, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DAMAGE MECHANICS, ISSN: 1056-7895, Vol.18, pp.155-175, 2009

Streszczenie:
A micromechanical model is proposed to simulate the deformation of cementitious composites exposed to external sulfate attack. The model involves coupled physico-chemical processes of nonsteady diffusion with reaction, topo-chemical reaction of ettringite formation, expansion of ettringite inclusions, microcracking of hardened cement paste and percolation of sulfates through heavily deteriorated mortar. The Fick’s second law with reaction term is assumed to govern the transport of the sulfate ions. The Eshelby solution and the equivalent inclusion method are used to determine the eigenstrain of expanding ettringite crystals in microcracked hardened cement paste. The degradation of transport properties is studied in the effective medium and the percolation regime. An initial boundary value problem (2D) of expansion of a mortar specimen immersed in a sodium sulfate solution is solved and compared with available test data.

Słowa kluczowe:
chemo-damage, micromechanics, concrete, microcracking, sulfate attack

Afiliacje autorów:
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
32p.
30.  Poniżnik Z., Salit V., Basista M., Gross D., Effective elastic properties of interpenetrating phase composites, COMPUTATIONAL MATERIALS SCIENCE, ISSN: 0927-0256, DOI: 10.1016/j.commatsci.2008.06.010, Vol.44, pp.813-820, 2008

Streszczenie:
Objective of this paper is to estimate the effective elastic properties of metal-ceramic interpenetrating phase composites (IPC). To this end, approximate analytical models such as Feng’s and Tuchinskii’s model were employed and checked against Voigt, Reuss, and Hashin–Shtrikman bounds. On the other hand, the overall elastic properties of IPC were determined by means of some numerical models suitable for the interpenetrating networks with model microstructures. A real Al2O3–Cu microstructure acquired from the computer tomography images was also used for numerical simulations.

Słowa kluczowe:
Interpenetrating phase composites, Metal-ceramic composites, Effective elastic moduli, Finite element method, Micromechanics, Microstructure

Afiliacje autorów:
Poniżnik Z. - IPPT PAN
Salit V. - inna afiliacja
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
Gross D. - inna afiliacja
31.  Basista M., Węglewski W., Micromechanical modelling of sulphate corrosion in concrete: Influence of ettringite forming reaction, Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, ISSN: 1450-5584, DOI: 10.2298/TAM0803029B, Vol.35, No.1-3, pp.29-52, 2008

Streszczenie:
Two micromechanical models are developed to simulate the expansion of cementitious composites exposed to external sulphate attack. The di®erence between the two models lies in the form of chemical reaction of the ettringite formation (through-solution vs. topochemical). In both models the Fick's second law with reaction term is assumed to govern the transport of the sulphate ions. The Eshelby solution and the equivalent inclusion method are used to determine the eigenstrain of the expanding ettringite crystals in microcracked hardened cement paste. The degradation of transport properties is studied in the efective medium and the percolation regime. An initial-boundary value problem (2D) of expansion of a mortar specimen immersed in a sodium sulphate solution is solved and compared with available test data. The obtained results indicate that the topochemical mechanism is the one capable of producing the experimentally observed amount of expansion.

Słowa kluczowe:
chemo-damage, sulphate attack, topochemical reaction, through-solution reaction, ettringite, micromechanics, microcracking, percolation

Afiliacje autorów:
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
32.  Basista M., Węglewski W., Modelling of damage and fracture in ceramic-matrix composites, JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL AND APPLIED MECHANICS, ISSN: 1429-2955, Vol.44, No.3, pp.455-484, 2006

Streszczenie:
This is a review paper on the existing approaches to modelling of discrete cracks (fracture) and diffuse microcracking (damage) in ceramic matrix composites under mechanical or thermal loading. The focus is on Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) with metal particle inclusions and on interpenetrating metal ceramic networks. The second phase in form of ceramic inclusions is not considered. The models of toughening mechanisms are discussed in considerable detail. Sections 2-5 deal with discrete cracks while Sections 6-9 with diffuse microcracking. The paper is concluded with identification of unresolved problems and topics for future research in the area of fracture and damage of CMC.

Słowa kluczowe:
ceramic matrix composites, particles, interpenetrating networks, fracture, damage, toughening mechanisms, bridging, cracks, microcracks, cavitation, debonding

Afiliacje autorów:
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
33.  Basista M., Micromechanical and Lattice Modeling of Brittle Damage (Praca habilitacyjna), Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.3, pp.1-237, 2001
34.  Basista M., Równania konstytutywne i ocena nośności granicznej ośrodków ze wstępną anizotropią struktury (Praca doktorska), Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.41, pp.1-96, 1985
35.  Basista M., O kontynualnych modelach uszkodzenia materiałów, Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.40, pp.1-53, 1984
36.  Basista M., Dolna ocena nośności granicznej ośrodków plastycznie anizotropowych w płaskim stanie odkształcenia, Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.2, pp.1-29, 1981

Abstrakty konferencyjne
1.  Darban H., Bochenek K., Węglewski W., Basista M., Phase-field modeling of fracture in Cr-Al2O3 metal–ceramic composites with experimental verification, ICEAF VI, 6th International Virtual Conference of Engineering Against Failure, 2021-06-23/06-25, Spetses Island (GR), No.207, pp.1-2, 2021
2.  Basista M., Experimental and numerical study of the particle size and volume fraction effects on thermal residual stresses and fracture of metal-ceramic composites, Thermec 2021, INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PROCESSING & MANUFACTURING OF ADVANCED MATERIALS, 2021-06-01/06-05, Wiedeń (AT), pp.1-1, 2021
3.  Bochenek K., Węglewski W., Basista M., Chmielewski T., Strojny-Nędza A., Jarosiński J., Nickel-chromium coatings with rhenium and aluminium oxide additions deposited by HVOF technique for steam boilers application, Thermec 2021, INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PROCESSING & MANUFACTURING OF ADVANCED MATERIALS, 2021-06-01/06-05, Wiedeń (AT), pp.86-87, 2021

Streszczenie:
The corrosion and erosion processes are detrimental to the lifetime and maintenance costs of steel combustion boilers in the energy sector. One of the remedies for this problem can be novel NiCr based coatings applied on structural elements, which are exposed to aggressive agents. NiCr alloys are known for their resistance to chemical and physical degradation in high temperature. Introducing a small admixture of rhenium and alumina ceramic to NiCr results in further increase of mechanical and wear properties of the coating. Three different deposition techniques were employed (HVOF, laser cladding and plasma spraying) to manufacture the coatings. The primary target of this research was to identify by experiments and numerical simulations the most promising deposition technique for the industrial application of the investigated coatings. Thermal residual stress measurements by XRD have shown that the lowest stresses occurred in the HVOF-deposited coating. The micro-CT based numerical simulations have confirmed this finding. The highest hardness was also manifested by the coating deposited by HVOF. The admixture of 10% vol. of Al2O3has improved the coating wear resistance. Remelting of powders during the laser cladding and low wettability of alumina were the main reasons of the unwished migration of ceramic particles towards the coating surface. A non-standard adhesion test was used to examine the coatings integrity and adhesion to the substrate. The obtained results point to the HVOF technique as the most promising of the three techniques considered. Moreover, HVOF can be easily implemented for complex shapes of the components.

Afiliacje autorów:
Bochenek K. - IPPT PAN
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
Chmielewski T. - IPPT PAN
Strojny-Nędza A. - Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
Jarosiński J. - inna afiliacja
4.  Basista M., Modeling of fracture of chromium-alumina microcantilever beams in bending, THERMEC 2018, International Conference on PROCESSING & MANUFACTURING OF ADVANCED MATERIALS Processing, Fabrication, Properties, Applications, 2018-07-09/07-13, Paryż (FR), pp.1, 2018
5.  Węglewski W., Basista M., Krajewski M., Bochenek K., An unusual grain size effect in measurements of thermal residual stress in alumina-chromium composites – explanation by modelling, 8th KMM-VIN Industrial Workshop: Modelling of composite materials and composite coatings, 2018-10-09/10-10, Freiburg (DE), pp.22, 2018
6.  Węglewski W., Basista M., Krajewski M., Bochenek K., Determination of thermal residual stresses in alumina reinforced with chromium – the grain size effect, SolMech 2018, 41st SOLID MECHANICS CONFERENCE, 2018-08-27/08-31, Warszawa (PL), pp.111-112, 2018
7.  Bochenek K., Basista M., Morgiel J., Węglewski W., Towards the improvement of fracture toughness of NiAl intermetallics for aerospace applications, ICCE‐25, 25th Annual International Conference on Composites or Nano Engineering, 2017-07-16/07-22, Rome (IT), pp.1-2, 2017
8.  Basista M., Micro-CT based modeling of residual stresses and crack propagation in metalceramic composites, 21. Symposium Verbundwerkstoffe und Werkstoffverbunde, 2017-07-05/07-07, Bremen (DE), pp.1-1, 2017
9.  Węglewski W., Basista M., Bochenek K., The influence of microstructure on thermal residual stress and fracture toughness of nickel aluminide-alumina composites – experiment and numerical model, ECerS2017, 15th Conference & Exhibition of the European Ceramic Society, 2017-07-09/07-13, Budapest (HU), pp.357-1-1, 2017
10.  Witecka A., Yamamoto A., Święszkowski W., Basista M., Influence of polymer film concentration on cytocompatibility and corrosion suppression of ZM21 magnesium alloy, 7th KMM-VIN Industrial Workshop: Biomaterials: Key Technologies for Better Healthcare, 2017-09-27/09-28, Erlangen (DE), pp.19-19, 2017
11.  Basista M., Micro-CT based numerical modeling of residual stresses and fracture in metal-ceramic composites, 13TH NATIONAL CONGRESS ON THEORETICAL AND APPLIED MECHANICS, 2017-09-06/09-10, Sofia (BG), pp.1-1, 2017
12.  Węglewski W., Basista M., Bochenek K., Numerical modelling of the effect of thermal residual stress on mechanical properties of metal-ceramic composites, ECCOMAS 2016, European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering, 2016-06-05/06-10, Hersonissos (GR), pp.1, 2016

Streszczenie:
In this paper a numerical model will be presented to investigate the influence of processing-induced thermal residual stresses (TRS) on the fracture (fracture toughness) and mechanical properties (E modulus, bending strength) in particulate bulk metal-ceramic composites. The materials under consideration are hot pressed chromium-alumina bulk composites with different content of alumina (30, 60 and 90 vol. %) and with two different starting sizes of chromium particles to show how the microstructure can influence on the level of TRS.
The reported research includes the processing of composites by powder metallurgy techniques (HP), microscopic analysis of material microstructure with special focus on micro-CT scanning, measurements of TRS by neutron diffraction (ND) method and numerical modelling of TRS by FEM based on micro-CT images of real material microstructure [1-3].
Spatial distributions of TRS measured by ND are considered when interpreting the results of KIC measurements in a four point bending test. Numerical micro-CT based models are proposed to predict the TRS, Young’s modulus and bending strength with account of the TRS-induced damage of the ceramic phase. Our micro-CT based FEM models reproduce the TRS measurements with a good accuracy which may be an asset in applications having in mind the high cost of beam time for ND experiments at neutron sources. Finally, the experimental data and modelling results are compared to assess the TRS/microstructure effect on the fracture toughness of the composites investigated.

[1] W. Weglewski, M. Basista, M. Chmielewski, K. Pietrzak Modeling of thermally induced damage in the processing of Cr–Al2O3 composites. Compos. Part B (2012) 255–264.
[2] W. Weglewski, K. Bochenek, M. Basista, T. Schubert, U. Jehring, J. Litniewski, S. Mackiewicz, Comparative assessment of Young's modulus measurements of metal–ceramic composites using mechanical and non-destructive tests andmicro-CT based computational modeling, Comput. Mater. Sci. 77 (2013) 19–30.
[3] W.Węglewski, M. Basista, A. Manescu, M. Chmielewski, K. Pietrzak, T. Schubert, Effect of grain size on thermal residual stresses and damage in sintered chromium–alumina composites: measurement and modelling, Compos. Part B 67 (2014) 119–124.

Słowa kluczowe:
processing of metal-matrix composites, ceramics, thermal residual stresses, neutron diffraction, microCT FEM

Afiliacje autorów:
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
Bochenek K. - IPPT PAN
13.  Jakubowska J., Węglewski W., Bochenek K., Kasiarova M., Dusza J., Basista M., Effect of microstructure and thermal residual stresses on fracture behaviour of metal-ceramic composites, AMT 2016, XXI Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science Conference - Advanced Materials and Technologies, 2016-06-05/06-08, Rawa Mazowiecka (PL), No.E07, pp.1, 2016

Streszczenie:
In this paper the influence of material microstructure and thermal residual stresses on the macroscopic fracture toughness, Young’s modulus and bending strength of metal-ceramic composites is studied.
The investigated materials were: (1) Cr/Al2O3 composites (MMC and cermets) with various proportions of the starting powders prepared by hot pressing, and (2) Al2O3/Al infiltrated composites with different volume fractions of the aluminium phase. The two groups of composites (particulate vs. infiltrated) were chosen to examine the effect in question because of their significantly different microstructure.
In the case of hot pressed Cr/Al2O3 composites local thermal residual stresses are generated during cooling from the sintering temperature to RT due to number of factors such as (i) differences in the coefficients of thermal expansion of the ceramic and metal phase, (ii) differences in cooling speeds in different parts of the material, and (iii) irregular shapes of pores causing stress concentrations.
The same problem of formation of thermal residual stresses occurs in the infiltrated Al2O3/Al composite with metal and ceramic phases forming spatially continuous networks throughout the structure (also called Interpenetrating Phase Composites, IPCs).
The fracture toughness and bending strength measurements were performed in a four-point bend test on SEVNB specimens. The microstructural characterization and crack growth analysis were done using scanning electron microscopy.
Our results show that the fracture toughness and other mechanical properties investigated in this study strongly depend on such microstructural features like the amount and distribution of metal and ceramic phase and the type of microstructure (particulate vs. infiltrated). On the other hand the stiffness of reinforcement and matrix, the volume fraction and the grain size of the reinforcement, difference in grain sizes between matrix and reinforcement have an effect on thermal residual stresses distribution, which in turn have an effect on the macroscopic fracture parameters and the crack growth path.

Słowa kluczowe:
thermal residual stresses, mechanical properties, powder metallurgy, interpenetrating phase composites

Afiliacje autorów:
Jakubowska J. - IPPT PAN
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
Bochenek K. - IPPT PAN
Kasiarova M. - Institute of Materials Research, Slovak Academy of Sciences (SK)
Dusza J. - Institute of Materials Research, Slovak Academy of Sciences (SK)
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
14.  Bochenek K., Węglewski W., Basista M., The microstructure, mechanical properties and oxidation resistance of nickel aluminide based composites with various dopant elements for high temperature aerospace applications, 6th KMM-VIN Industrial Workshop: Innovative Material Solutions for Transport Applications, 2016-04-07/04-08, Hatfield (GB), pp.1, 2016

Streszczenie:
Intermetallic compounds such as NiAl manifest an attractive combination of mechanical and physical properties– low dens ity (5.9g/cm 3 ), high melting point (1676 o C), high thermal stability along with good oxidation and corrosion resistance. This has resulted in their numerous non-structural applications such as thermal barrier coatings, but no successful structural application of NiAl has been reported yet. This is caused by its low ductility and poor fracture toughness (<5MPa√m ) at room temperature along with an insufficient impact resistance. There has been a lot of work done already in order to improve NiAl properties and implement this material in aeroengines. The results are very promising, but till now there has been no reported successful application of NiAl - based bulk materials in real in - service conditions [1 - 2 ].

Słowa kluczowe:
NiAl intermetallics, microstructure, flexural strength, fracture toughness, oxidation resistance, aeroengines

Afiliacje autorów:
Bochenek K. - IPPT PAN
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
15.  Węglewski W., Basista M., Bochenek K., Numerical modeling of thermal residual stress in NiAl/Al2O3 composites: Effect on mechanical properties, 5th KMM-VIN Industrial Workshop: Multi-scale and multi-physics materials modeling for advanced industries, 2016-01-26/01-27, Madryt (ES), pp.1, 2016

Streszczenie:
In this paper a numerical model will be presented to investigate the influence of processing-induced thermal residual stresses (TRS) on the mechanical properties (E modulus, bending strength) in particulate bulk intermetallic-ceramic composites. The materials under consideration are hot pressed NiAl/20%Al2O3bulk composites sintered in different temperatures (1300 C deg. and 1400 C deg.). The reported research includes the processing of composites by powder metallurgy techniques (HP), microscopic analysis of material microstructure with special focus on micro-CT scanning, measurements of TRS by neutron diffraction (ND) method and numerical modeling of TRS by FEM based on micro-CT images of real material microstructure. Numerical micro-CT based models are proposed to predict the TRS and Young’s modulus with account of the TRS-induced damage of the ceramic phase. Our micro-CT based FEM models reproduce the TRS measurements with a good accuracy which may be an asset in applications having in mind the high cost of beam time for ND experiments at neutron sources. Finally, the experimental data and modeling results are compared to assess the TRS/microstructure effect on the Young’s modulus of the composites investigated.

Słowa kluczowe:
sintering, metal-matrix composites, thermal residual stresses, neutron diffraction, microCT based FEM model

Afiliacje autorów:
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
Bochenek K. - IPPT PAN
16.  Poniżnik Z., Nowak Z., Basista M., Numerical modeling of fracture toughness of metal-ceramic interpenetrating phase composites with account of material microstructure, SolMech 2016, 40th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2016-08-29/09-02, Warszawa (PL), No.P198, pp.1-2, 2016

Streszczenie:
The motivation for research on interpenetrating phase composites and possible applications of these novel materials were given in [1]. A rationale behind designing an IPC is to achieve a highly durable material that would combine the most desirable properties of the constituent phases: the high hardness and wear resistance of ceramic and improved fracture toughness and thermal conductivity due to the metal content. The interpenetrating metal-ceramic composites may have remarkable applicability in different sectors of industry, e.g. automotive and aerospace. They should, thus, be carefully investigated in terms of processing routes, material properties and modeling of material response to service conditions.
A 3D FEM model in ABAQUS of the fracture parameters and crack growth in bi-continuous metal-ceramic composites with interpenetrating microstructure (IPC) is proposed. The crack is modeled using the extended finite element method (XFEM) [4]. The J-integral and fracture toughness KIc are determined for a real IPC microstructure obtained from micro-CT images. The fracture parameters (i.e. fracture toughness KIc, J integral, crack opening displacement) are key mechanical characteristics of IPC composites because of the brittleness of the ceramic phase. The main effects occurring in metal-ceramic IPC during fracture are described (cf. [2], [3]).

Słowa kluczowe:
Ceramic-metal composites, interpenetrating microstructure, fracture toughness, crack growth, numerical modeling, XFEM

Afiliacje autorów:
Poniżnik Z. - IPPT PAN
Nowak Z. - IPPT PAN
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
17.  Bochenek K., Basista M., Węglewski W., Hot pressed nickel aluminide materials with various dopant elements for high temperature regimes, Junior EUROMAT 2016, 13th FEMS Junior Euromat 2016 - The Major Event for Young Material Scientists, 2016-07-10/07-14, Lausanne (CH), pp.1, 2016

Streszczenie:
The nickel aluminide base composites are considered to be potentially interesting high temperature structural materials for aerospace industry due to their low density (5.9 g/cm3), high thermal conductivity (76 W/mK) and good corrosion and oxidation resistance. However, it is well-known that the main reason limiting this material's application in aerospace industry is related to its low fracture toughness and low ductility at room temperature. Research works on this subject have been carried out by various scientists throughout the world for more than four decades now. After initially high expectations, followed by rather disappointing results reported some 15 years ago, the recent progress in processing technologies in the context of fracture toughness levels is, indeed, remarkable. However, application of this structural material in real working conditions is still to be confirmed, [1].The composite materials investigated in this study were manufactured by powder metallurgy technique. The primary target was to obtain low density nickel aluminide bulk materials with enhanced fracture toughness, flexural strength and high oxidation resistance. The powders of NiAl were mixed in a planetary ball mill with various volume fractions of aluminum oxide, chromium and rhenium. Sintering was conducted in a hot press under the pressure of 30 MPa at 1400oC. Mechanical properties, microstructure and cyclic oxidation at 900oC, 1100oC, 1300oC were investigated. A promising improvement of flexural strength and fracture toughness were observed for each chemical composition. The highest enhancements were measured for the composite with 0.6 at.% addition of rhenium, where the flexural strength increasedfrom the reference level of 428 MPa (pure NiAl) to 808MPa. The oxidation tests showed predominantly high oxidation resistance due to formation of a thin oxide layer preventing significant mass losses. The oxidation experiment was limited to 150 cycles of 1 h duration, hence further tests are necessary to make the final assessment of the oxidation behavior.The second major problem investigated in this paper were thermal residual stresses (TRS) induced in the sintered composites during cooling from high sintering temperature to room temperature, due to CTE mismatch of the constituent materials. The effects of TRS on fracture parameters and other mechanical properties (E modulus, bending strength) were examined experimentally and modelled numerically using micro-CT based FE meshes mimicking the material microstructure. Our micro-CT based FEM models reproduce the TRS measurements by neutron diffraction with good accuracy, which may be an asset for engineering applications considering the high cost of beam time at the neutron sources.

Słowa kluczowe:
Intermetallics, nickel-aluminides, turbine blades

Afiliacje autorów:
Bochenek K. - IPPT PAN
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
18.  Basista M., Węglewski W., Bochenek K., Influence of material microstructure and thermal residual stresses on macroscopic fracture parameters and elastic properties of metal-ceramic composites, THERMEC’2016, International Conference on Processing & Manufacturing of Advanced Materials, 2016-05-29/06-03, Graz (AT), pp.93-94, 2016

Streszczenie:
Th is paper investigates the interplay between material microstructure and processing - induced thermal residual stresses (TRS) in particulate bulk MMC’ s with the main objective to explore their combined effect on the macroscopic fracture toughness and material properties (E modulus, bending strength) of the composite. The materials under consideration are hot pressed chromium - alumina bulk composites doped with rhenium, the use of which is motivated by their potential applications in transport and energy sectors. The reported research includes the processing of MMC by powder metallurgy techniques (HP and SPS), microscopic analysis of material microstructure with special focus on micro - CT scanning, measurements of TRS by neutron diffraction (ND) method and numerical modelling of TRS by FEM based on micro - CT images of real material microstructure. Several compositions of Cr(Re)/Al 2 O 3 system and different particle sizes were used in the sintering process to assess the effect of microstructure on the TRS. Spatial distributions of TRS measured by ND are taken as supporting information when interpreting the results of K IC measurements in a four point bending test. Numerical micro - CT based models were developed to predict the TRS, Young’s modulus and bending strength with account of TRS - induced damage of the ceramic phase of MMCs. A good predictive capability of these TRS models was achieved which may become important considering the cost of beam time for ND experiments at neutron sources. Finally, the large pool of experimental data and modelling results is discussed and the conclusions are drawn as to the TRS/microstructure effect on the fracture toughness of the MMCs in question.

Słowa kluczowe:
thermal residual stress, metal-ceramic composites, fracture toughness, microCT FEM

Afiliacje autorów:
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
Bochenek K. - IPPT PAN
19.  Basista M., Węglewski W., Bochenek K., Poniżnik Z., Modelling of thermal residual stresses and fracture in metal-ceramic composites, 4th Dresden Nanoanalysis Symposium, 2016-06-15/06-15, Dresden (DE), pp.6, 2016

Streszczenie:
In processing of metal-ceramic composites thermal residual stresses may result from different CTEs of the constituent materials, variable cooling rates inside the bulk material, or irregular pore shapes causing thermal stress concentrations.This paper investigates the interplay between material microstructure and processing-induced thermal residual stresses (TRS) in particulate bulk metal-matrix composites (MMC) and infiltrated phase composites (IPC) with the main objective to explore thecombined effect of TRS and microstructure on the macroscopic mechanical properties (E modulus, bending strength, fracture toughness) of the composite. The main focus is on numerical modelling of TRS, fracture toughness and effective elastic properties, while taking into account the real material microstructure from micro–computed tomography (micro-CT) experiments. The modelling methodology will be developed on examples ofa hot pressed chromium-alumina bulk MMCdoped with rheniumand on an IPC obtained by squeeze casting infiltrationof an alumina porous preform with molten Al alloyor Cu. Our interest in these particular compositesis motivated by their potential applications in transport and energy sectors. The paperwill includehighlights on the processingtechnologies used(HP, SPS, ceramic tape casting/squeeze casting infiltration), microscopic analysis of material microstructure with special focus on micro-CT scanning, measurements of TRS by neutron diffraction (ND) method, and numerical modelling of TRS by FEM using micro-CT images of real material microstructure. A numerical micro-CT based model developed to predict the TRS, Young’s modulus with account of TRS-induced damage of the ceramic phase will be shown (cf. Fig. 1). The grain size effect on TRS and Young’s modulus will be addressed. A good predictive capability of these TRS models was achieved which may become important considering the cost of beam time for ND experiments at neutron sources. Another model to be presented is concerned with micro-CT FEM modeling of fracture in infiltrated metal-ceramic composites. The model accounts for crack bridging toughening mechanism, large plastic deformations of metal ligaments, and matrix-ligament decohesion. Here the results on J integralin the case of compact-tensiontest specimen made of real interpentrating phase composite will be discussed. Finally, the large pool of obtained experimental data and modelling results will be wrapped up and conclusions will be drawn.

Słowa kluczowe:
metal-ceramic composites, processing, thermal residual stresses, Youngs' modulus, microCT imaging, numerical modelling

Afiliacje autorów:
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
Bochenek K. - IPPT PAN
Poniżnik Z. - IPPT PAN
20.  Poniżnik Z., Nowak Z., Basista M., Numerical modeling of crack growth in interpenetrating metal-ceramic composites, ICDM2, 2nd International Conference on Damage Mechanics, 2015-07-08/07-11, Troyes (FR), pp.41, 2015

Streszczenie:
A 3D FEM model for crack growth in bi‐continuous metal‐ceramic composites with interpenetrating microstructure (IPC) is proposed. The results for the load‐displacements relationship in a plastically deformable reinforcing fibre computed by means of different material models will be shown. The J‐integral and fracture toughness will be determined for a simplified IPC microstructure with reinforcing ligaments modeled as axisymmetric fibres, and for real IPC microstructure obtained from micro‐CT images

Słowa kluczowe:
interpenetrating phase composites, bi‐continuous composites, metal‐ceramic composites, crack bridging, crack growth, fracture toughness, finite element method

Afiliacje autorów:
Poniżnik Z. - IPPT PAN
Nowak Z. - IPPT PAN
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
21.  Basista M., Węglewski W., Bochenek K., Chmielewski M., Pietrzak K., Chromium-rhenium-alumina composites for powertrain application: Processing route, microstructure, properties and numerical modelling, EUROMAT 2015, European Congress and Exhibition on Advanced Materials and Processes, 2015-09-20/09-24, Warszawa (PL), pp.1, 2015

Streszczenie:
Chromium based composites reinforced with alumina particles combineenhanced thermal, oxidation and wear resistance with mechanical strength and hardness. Because of these valuable properties Cr/Al2O3 composites can be used e.g. in the automotive sector for elements of powertrain. Rhenium due to its good mechanical and thermal properties is primarily used as an admixture of nickel superalloys in the aerospace and chemical industries. In the present paper a powder metallurgy route was used to manufacture dense Cr/Re/Al2O3 bulk composites with rhenium admixture of 2vol% and 5vol%. Composites were processed by hot pressing (HP) and by spark plasma sintering (SPS) techniques. The density of the sintered composites exceeded 98% of the theoretical value. Microstructural characterisation revealed that a solid solution of rhenium in chromium was partially formed. Mechanical properties such as Young’s modulus, bending strength, hardness, plastic limit are promising so are oxidation and corrosion resistance. A numerical FE model was developed for the prediction of thermal residual stresses (TRS) and damage generated in the metal and ceramic phase during cooling from high sintering temperature down to room temperature. The model uses micro-CTimages of the real material microstructure as the input data. A good agreement of the simulation results for TRS and the measurements of by neutron diffraction was achieved. The obtained Cr/Re/Al2O3composites were already tested as demonstrators of valve seats in combustion engines and good preliminary results were reported.

Słowa kluczowe:
Chromium-alumina MMC, rhenium admixture, powder metallurgy, thermal residual stresses, microCT FEM

Afiliacje autorów:
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
Bochenek K. - IPPT PAN
Chmielewski M. - Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
Pietrzak K. - inna afiliacja
22.  Poniżnik Z., Basista M., Nowak Z., Modeling of effective elastic constants and fracture toughness in metal-ceramic composites with interpenetrating microstructure, ICF13, 13th International Conference on Fracture, 2013-06-16/06-21, Beijing (CN), No.S12-009, pp.81, 2013

Streszczenie:
The paper is focused on modeling of the overall elastic properties and crack toughening mechanism by bridging in metal-ceramic interpenetrating phase composites (IPC). The Tuchinskii-Feng analytical model (Feng 2004) especially devised for IPC microstructures is further developed. Numerical FEM models of the effective elastic constants are implemented for the simplified 3-D cross microstructure and real microstructures based on micro-CT scans. The energy release rate increase due to crack bridging (Mataga 1989) is modeled numerically. The stress-displacement relationships in the reinforcing fibers undergoing large strains and delamination from the matrix materials are obtained and then applied as material models for the bridging reinforcements in compact-tension test specimen of the fracture toughness determination. The J integral for this specimen is calculated by FEM (Abaqus) with reinforcing ligaments modeled as truss and cohesive elements. The growth of a bridged crack is also modeled numerically.

Słowa kluczowe:
Effective elastic constants, Fracture toughness, Crack toughening, Crack bridging, Metal-ceramic composites, FEM

Afiliacje autorów:
Poniżnik Z. - IPPT PAN
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
Nowak Z. - IPPT PAN
23.  Węglewski W., Basista M., Modelling of thermal stresses and damage in Cu/Al2O3 interpenetrating phase composites, ECCOMAX 2012, 6th European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering, 2012-09-10/09-14, Wiedeń (AT), pp.1-2, 2012

Streszczenie:
There is an urgent technological need for elements performing in demanding service regimes (especially in automotive and aerospace applications) to be made of new materials having superior properties such as higher strength and Young's modulus, enhanced temperature resistance and thermal shock resistance, improved corrosion and wear resistance, as well as reduced specific weight and better recycling potential. The Interpenetrating Phase Composites (IPC) could be a good answer to these industrial and commercial needs. But still a lot of problems appear during the processing of this type of metal-ceramic composites. One severe problem is the large thermal stresses generated during the cooling after the infiltration which can lead to initiation and propagation of microcracks and, thus to harmful decrease of the elastic properties of material.

In this paper, a FEM model is developed for the calculation of thermal residual stresses inside the IPC composites. The FE mesh is generated by the commercial software (ScanFE and ScanIP) based on the real material microstructure obtained from computer microtomography. The stress cracking condition is applied and the influence of the thermal stress induced microcracks on the elastic material parameters is shown. The comparison of the Young modulus furnished by the FEM model with the experimental data is presented.

Słowa kluczowe:
interpenetrating phase composites, thermal stress, FEM, microcracking

Afiliacje autorów:
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
24.  Poniżnik Z., Basista M., Modelling of overall material properties and crack reinforcement by bridging fibres in metal-ceramic composites with interpenetrating phase microstructure, 1st International Conference on Damage Mechanics, 2012-06-25/06-27, Belgrade (XS), pp.273-276, 2012

Streszczenie:
The objective of this paper is the analytical and numerical modelling of the overall elastic properties and the crack bridging toughening mechanism in metal-ceramic composites with interpenetrating phase microstructure (IPC). The specific microstructure of the IPC makes the effective media/field models based on Eshelby's solution inapplicable to the estimation of the effective elastic properties of the IPC. The effective material constants were calculated analytically extending the Tuchinskii-Feng models devised for the IPC microstructure. Numerical FEM models were developed for two types of IPC microstructure: simplified 3-D cross structure and real microstructure obtained with computer micro-tomography scans. The micro-CT scans were transformed into FEM meshes using the Simpleware ScanIP/FE commercial software. The crack bridging mechanism was investigated assuming the metal ligament undergoing large plastic deformations (necking) and delamination from the surrounding elastic material (ceramic matrix). As a first step towards the numerical determination of J integral from the simulation of the CT (compact tension) test. the s-u relationship in the metal fiber was determined numerically and applied to compute the stress and displacement fields in the CT specimen. The numerical solution agrees well with the analytical one obtained by Mataga et al. [4].

Słowa kluczowe:
Interpenetrating phase composites, metal-ceramic composites, overall material properties, crack bridging, finite element method, micromechanics, microstructure

Afiliacje autorów:
Poniżnik Z. - IPPT PAN
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
25.  Węglewski W., Basista M., Pietrzak K., Thermal stress and microcracking in the processing of the interpenetrating phase composites, SolMech 2010, 37th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2010-09-06/09-10, Warszawa (PL), pp.118-119, 2010

Streszczenie:
The interpenetrating phase composites (IPC) are strongly different in their morphology, properties and processing than typical metal matrix or ceramic matrix composites. The basic morphological difference in comparison with particulate reinforcement composites is that the two components of IPC form continuous, interpenetrating 3D network. The IPC are more homogeneous, have better mechanical and thermal properties (abrasibility and fracture toughness, thermal conductivity and mechanical stability) than the matrix composites. The processing of IPC is typically done by a pressure or pressureless infiltration of ceramic porous matrix with a molten metal. The infiltration is a high temperature process (e.g. for Cu/Al2O3 IPC the infiltration temperature is above 1200OC and for Al/Al2O3 about 700 OC) which is usually associated with the generation of thermal stresses because of largely different coefficients of thermal expansion of the IPC components. The aim of this work was twofold: (i) to build a numerical model of thermal stress generated during the processing of the interpenetrating phase composites, and (ii) to build a numerical model of the initiation and growth of microcracks induced by the thermal stresses during the processing of the IPC. The results yielded by the models were compared with the experimental data. The models can be used to improve the processing of IPC by providing feedback as to how to reduce thermal residual stresses and how to minimize a risk of the microcracking during the production of the IPC.

Słowa kluczowe:
interpenetrating phase composites, residual stress, microcracking, damage modelling

Afiliacje autorów:
Węglewski W. - IPPT PAN
Basista M. - IPPT PAN
Pietrzak K. - IPPT PAN

Kategoria A Plus

IPPT PAN

logo ippt            ul. Pawińskiego 5B, 02-106 Warszawa
  +48 22 826 12 81 (centrala)
  +48 22 826 98 15
 

Znajdź nas

mapka
© Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki Polskiej Akademii Nauk 2022