 Open Access
 Authors : U. Thirupalu, Dr. E. Kesavulu Reddy
 Paper ID : IJERTCONV8IS02021
 Volume & Issue : NCISIOT – 2020 (Volume 8 – Issue 02)
 Published (First Online): 21022020
 ISSN (Online) : 22780181
 Publisher Name : IJERT
 License: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Performance Analysis of Cryptographic Algorithms in the Information Security

Thirupalu1
Research Scholar Dept. of Computer Science S V U CM&CSTirupati
India517502
Dr. E. Kesavulu Reddy2 Ph. D, FCSRC (USA) Assistant Professor
Dept. of Computer Science S V U CM&CSTirupatiA.P
India517502
Abstract: Information security is the process of protecting information. It protects its availability, privacy and integrity. The two main characteristics that identify and differentiate one encryption algorithm from another are its ability to secure the protected data against attacks, speed and efficiency. security is the most challenging issue in the world and the various security threats in the cyber security has to be avoided and to give more confidentiality to the users and to enable high integrity and availability of the data. The encryption of the data by using the various data encryption algorithms will provide the additional security to the data being transmitted. This paper mainly focuses on comparative analysis of (AES, DES, 3DES, BLOWFISH, RC4),
Asymmetric (RSA, DSA, DiffieHellman, EIGamal, Pailier), Hashing (MD5, MD6, SHA, SHA256) algorithms.
Keywords: Encryption. Decryption, Data Security, Key size, information security, Symmetric algorithms, Asymmetric Algorithms.
DES is first block symmetric encryption algorithm published by NIST designed by IBM on 1974. The same key is used for both encryption and decryption; DES uses 64bit key in terms of 8bits for error correction and 56bits as a key but in every byte 1 bit in has been selected as a 'parity' bit, and is not used for encryption mechanism. The 56 bit is permuted into 16 sub keys each of 48 bit length. It also contains 8 S boxes and same algorithm is used in reversed for decryption [1]. The implementations of the DES (data encryption standard) algorithm based on hardware are low cost, flexible and efficient encryption solutions.
Algorithm:
DES_ Encrypt (X, Y) where E = (L, R) X IP (M)

INTRODUCTION
The cryptosystems are processing with different types of cryptographic algorithms. These cryptographic algorithms are used for encryption of data and decryption of data using of shared keys or single key.These are fall into two categories i.e. 1. Public key cryptosystem or Asymmetric key cryptosystem.2. Secret key cryptosystem or Symmetric key cryptosystem.
\For round 1 to 16 do Yi SY (Y, round)
L L xor F(R, Ki)
swap (L, R)

LITERATURE SURVEY
Encryption algorithm plays a vital role, to provide secure communication over the network. Encryption is the fundamental tool for protecting the data. Encryption algorithm converts the data into scrambled form by using the key and only user have the key to decrypt the data The techniques in Security algorithms are Symmetric Algorithms and asymmetric Algorithms.

Symmetric Algorithms

D E S

3 D E S

BLOWFISH

RC5

RC6

A E S

IDEA

Homomorphic Encryption

DES

End
swap (L, R)
XIP1(X)
return X.
End

TripleDES
TDES is an enhanced version of DES is based on Feistel structure. The CPU power consumed by TDES is three times more than DES. The 3DES uses a 64 bit plain text with 48 rounds and a Key Length of 168bits permuted into 16 sub keys each of 48 bit length. It also contains 8 S boxes and same algorithm is used in reversed for decryption [2]. Triple DES the algorithm is considered to be practically secure, in spite of having theoretical attacks.
Algorithm
For j = 1 to 3
{
Cj,0 = IVj
For i = 1 to nj
{
Cj,i = EK3 (DK2 (EK1 (Pj,i Cj,i1)))
Output Cj,i
}
}

Blowfish
Blowfish algorithm was first introduced in 1993.The Blowfish is highly rated secure variable length key encryption algorithm with different structure and functionality than all other algorithms. Blowfish is a block cipher that uses a 64 bit plain text with 16 rounds, allowing a variable key length, up to 448 bits, permuted into 18 sub keys each of 32 bit length and can be implemented on 32 or 64bit processors. It also contains 4 S boxes and same algorithm is used in reversed for decryption [3].
Algorithm
Divide x into two 32bit lengths : xL, xM For i = 1to 16:
XL= XL XOR Pi
xM = F (XL) XOR xM
Swap XL and xM Next i
Swap XL and xM (Undo the last swap.) xM = xM XOR P17
xL = xL XOR P18 then
Combine XL and xM.

RC5
RC5 was developed in 1994. The key length if RC5 is MAX2040 bit with a block size of 32, 64 or 128. The use of this algorithm shows that it is Secure. The speed of this algorithm is slow. [3]
Algorithm
A = A + S[0];
B = B + S[1];
for i = 1 to r do
A = ((A Xor B) <<< B) + S[ 2 * i ]
B = ((B Xor A) <<< A) + S[ 2 * i + 1]
Next

AES
AES is a block cipher that uses a 128 bit plain text with variable 10, 12, or 14 rounds and a variable Key Length of 128, 192, 256 bit permuted into 10 sub keys each of 128, 192, 256 bit length respectively[5].. It only contains a single S box and same algorithm is used in reversed for decryption. Rijndael's default number of Rounds is dependent on key size i.e. Rounds = key length/32 + 6. Rijndael AES provides great flexibility for implementing based on parallel structure with effective resistance against attacks [3] [4].
Algorithm
Cipher (byte [] input, byte [] output)
{
byte[4,4] State;
copy input[] into State[] Add Round Key for (round = 1; round < Nr1; ++round)
{
SubBytes ShiftRowsMixColumns AddRoundKey
}
SubBytes ShiftRows AddRoundKey
copy State[] to output []
}
B .Asymmetric Key cryptographic Algorithms

RSA

DSA

DiffieHellman

ELGAMMAL

RSA algorithm
RivestShamirAdleman (RSA) is a special type of public key cryptography which over the years has reigned supreme as the most widely accepted and implemented generalpurpose approach publickey encryption techniques [2]. The RSA algorithm follows a block cipher encryption technique, in which the plaintext and the cipher are integers between 0 and n 1 for some n. A typical size for n is 1024 bits, or 309 decimal digits. That is, n is less than to1024.RSA algorithm has three major steps.

Key generation

Encryption

Decryption Algorithm

Key Generation; KeyGen (p,q)
Input : Select two prime integers p ,q.

Compute n = p q , (n ) = (p1)(q1)

Choose e as exponent then gcd (e, p1) = 1 4. gcd (e, q1) = 1
5. gcd (e, (p1) (q1)) = 1

Compute d such that ed =1(mod (n))

Compute d = e1 (mod (n)) Find a unique value d such that
(n) divides 5d1 value — pi Key Public Key = (n, e).
Private Key = (n, d). Encryption
C M E (mod N)

Encrypt the message M C M E (mod N) Decryption

To decrypt the cipher text we have M = Cd (mod n)
M = Plain Text.
MD5 (Message Digest5)
The Message Digest5 (MD5) was developed by Ronald Rivest in 1992 by taking the block sizes as 512 bit and the digest size as 128 bit. The hash function producing the
128 bit hash value. The MD5 can be used as the best solution to impos the brute force attack to act against the extensive vulnerabilities and to provide excessive security. SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm)
The Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) is the most prominent hash algorithm used in the cryptographic systems. It uses 160 bit which is also a resemblance of the MD5 algorithm. The SHA1 was originally developed by the National Security Agency (NSA) to be part of the Digital Signature Algorithm.


DSA
The Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) was proposed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in August 1991. DSA, the entropy, secrecy, and uniqueness of the random signature value k is critical [6]. It is so critical that violating any one of those three requirements can reveal the entire private key to an attacker. Using the same value twice (even while keeping k secret), using a predictable value, or leaking even a few bits of k in each of several signatures, is enough to break DSA. [5]

DiffieHellman Key Exchange (DH)
DiffieHellman key exchange is a specific method of exchanging cryptographic keys. It is one of the earliest practical examples of key exchange implemented within the field of cryptography. The DiffieHellman key exchange method allows two parties that have no prior knowledge of each other to jointly establish a shared secret key over an insecure communications channel. This key can then be used to encrypt subsequent communications using a symmetric key cipher.

EIGamel
In cryptography, the EI Gammel encryption system is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm for publickey cryptography which is based on the DiffieHellman key exchange. It was described by Taher EI Gammel in 1984. EI Gammel encryption is used in the free GNU Privacy Guard software, recent versions of PGP, and other cryptosystems. The Digital Signature Algorithm is a variant of the EIGamel signature scheme, which should not be confused with EI Gammel encryption. EIGamel encryption can be defined over any cyclic group .Its security depends upon the difficulty of a certain problem in related to computing discrete logarithms.

TWOFISH
Bruce Schneier is the person who composed Blowfish and its successor Twofish. The Keys used in this algorithm may be up to 256 bits in length .Twofish is regarded as one of the fastest of its kind, and ideal for use in both hardware and software environments. Twofish is also freely available to anyone who wants to use it. As a result, well find it bundled in encryption programs such as Photo Encrypt, GPG, and the popular open source software [6].

IDEA
IDEA stands for International Data Encryption Algorithm which was proposed by James Massey and Xuejia Lai in 1991. IDEA is considered as best symmetric key algorithm. It accepts 64 bits plain text. The key size is 128 bits. IDEA consists of 8.5 rounds. In IDEA the 64 bits of data is divided into 4 blocks each having size 16 bits. The basic operations are modular, addition, multiplication, and bitwise exclusive OR (XOR) are applied on sub blocks. There are eight and half rounds in IDEA each round consist of different sub keys. Maximum number of keys used for performing different rounds is 52 [7].

Homomorphic Encryption
Homomorphic encryption was a one of encryption technique which allows specific types of computations to be carried out on cipher text. It gives an encrypted result which when decrypted matches the result of operations performed on the plaintext. When the data is transferred to the cloud we use standard encryption methods to secure this data, but when we want to do the calculations on data located on a remote server, it is necessary that the cloud provider has access to the raw data, and then it will decrypt them [8].


RELATIVE WORK
Comparison of symmetric and asymmetric cryptography with existing vulnerabilities and countermeasures gives us theoretical comparison of symmetric and asymmetric cryptography algorithms [9].compares symmetric and asymmetric cryptography algorithms using parameters key length ,speed , encryption ratio and security attacks[10]. Comparisons DES,3DES and AES algorithms with nine factors key length , cipher type, block size, developed year
,cryptanalytic resistance , possible keys, possible Ascii keys and time required to check all possible keys[11] . Comparative study of symmetric and asymmetric cryptography techniques using throughput, key length, tunability, speed, encryption ratio and security attacks [12]. Evaluation of blowfish algorithm based on avalanche effect gives a new performance measuring metric avalanche effect [13].

COMPARISON OF SYMMETRIC AND ASYMMETRIC
ALGORITHMS
S.NO
CHARAC TERISTIC S ALGORIT HM
BSI ZE BIT S
KEY LENG TH
SECUR ITY
SPEE D
1
DES
64
56
Inadequa te
Very slow
2
Blow Fish
64
448
Secure
Fast
3
RC2
64
128
High secure
Very fast
4
RC5
32,6
4 or 128
2040
Secure
Slow
5
RC6
128
128 or 256
Secure
Fast
6
3DES
64
112,16
8
InSecure
Slow
7
AES
128,
192
or 256
128,19
2 or
256
High secure
Very fast
8
RSA
128
1024
4096
Secure
Very slow
9
DSA
256
192
Secure
Fast
10
DIffe Hellman
—
—
In secure
Slow
11
Two Fish
128
128,19
2or 56
Secure
Very Fast
12
IDEA
64
128
Inadequa te
Slow
13
Elgammel
—
—
Not secure
Fast
14
Homomorp hic Encryption
—
—
Secure
Fast
15
SHA
512
160
Secure
Slow
16
MD5
512
128
Secure
Slow
17
RC4
40
124
Secure
Very fast
Table. I.. Comparison of Symmetric key and asymmetric key Cryptographic Algorithms
Blowfish is the better than other algorithms in throughput and power consumption [14]. Blowfish encryption algorithm is leading with the security level that they provide and faster encryption speed. Blowfish was replaced by Two fish.RC6 might be observed as interweaving two parallel RC5 encryption Techniques. The RC6 can use an extra multiplication operation but not present in RC5 in order to make the rotation dependent on each bit, and not the least significant few bits [15]. Triple DES has slow performance in terms of power consumption and
throughput when compared with DES [14] [16]. AES encryption is fast and flexible, it can be implemented on various platforms especially in small devices. AES has been carefully tesed for many security applications [16][17].
RSA is an asymmetric cryptographic algorithm. Asymmetric means that there are two different keys are used in encryption and decryption process [16]. The RSA algorithm can be used for both public key encryption and digital signatures. Its security is based on the difficulty of factorization of large integers. The main disadvantage of RSA is that it consumes more time to encrypt data. Actually this is disadvantage of asymmetric key algorithms because the use of two asymmetric keys. It provides good level of security but it is slow for encrypting files. The strength of the each encryption algorithm depends upon the key management, type of cryptography, number of keys, number of bits used in a key. Longer the key length and data length more will be the power consumption that will lead to more heat dissipation. So, it is not advisable to use short data sequence and key lengths.
The DSA is a variant of the EIGamal signature scheme, which should not be confused with EIGamal encryption.
Table. 2.Experimental results using Crypto ++
S.NO
Algorithm
Megabytes(2^20 bytes) Processed
Time Taken
MB/Second
1
Blowfish
256
3.976
64.386
2
Rijndael (128bit key)
256
4.196
61.010
3
Rijndael (192bit key)
256
4.817
53.145
4
Rijndael (256bit key)
256
5.308
48.229
5
Rijndael
(128) CTR
256
4.436
57.710
6
Rijndael
(128) OFB
256
4.837
52.925
7
Rijndael
(128) CFB
256
5.378
47.601
8
Rijndael
(128) CBC
256
4.617
55.447
9
DES
128
5.998
21.340
10
(3DES)DES XEX3
128
6.159
20.783
11
(3DES)DES EDE3
64
6.499
9.848
The security of EIGamal depends on the difficulty of a particular problem in related to computing discrete logarithms [18]. Homomorphic encryption was a one of encryption technique which allows specific types of computations to be carried out on cipher text.
AES algorithm is most efficient in terms of speed, time, and throughput. DES algorithm consumes least encryption time and AES algorithm has least memory usage while
encryption time difference is very minor in case of AES and DES algorithm. RSA encryption time and memory usage is also very high but output byte is least in case of RSA algorithm.
The experiment result shows that the memory required for implementation is smallest in blowfish whereas it is largest in RSA. DES and AES require medium size of memory. So the Blowfish is best option smaller size of memory. AES is the more confident, integrity and highest priority for any application. Blowfish consumes the least time amongst all. Blowfish is efficient in software, at least on some software platforms. AES is the best suitable for better cryptographic strength. DES is the best suitable for network bandwidth.

V.EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

Experimental results using Crypto ++
The experiment are conducted on commonly used cryptographic algorithms based on system parameters Pentium 4 and 2.1 GHZ processor on windows XP compiled C++ code with Microsoft Visual C++.NET 2003to evaluate the execution time for encryption and speed benchmarks [19].
The result shows that Blowfish and AES have the best performance among others. Compare to both AES the best secure and efficient algorithm with limited key size among the all above algorithms. Finally AES performs highly secure encryption algorithm and accepted with higher key size. The popular secret key algorithms including DES, 3DES, AES (Rijndael), Blowfish, were implemented, and their performance was compared by encrypting input files of varying contents and sizes. The algorithms were implemented in a uniform language (Java), using their standard specifications, and were tested on two different hardware platforms, to compare their performance.
The performance of the Secret key or Symmetric key algorithms comparing by the encrypting input files with various contents and sizes using Java as common language in two different platforms. The first experiment on PII 266 MHZ and P4 2.4 GHZ
File Size Bytes
DES
3DES
AES
BF
20,527
2
7
4
2
36,002
4
13
6
3
45,911
5
17
8
4
59,852
7
23
11
6
69,545
9
26
13
7
137,325
17
51
26
14
158,959
20
60
30
16
166,364
21
62
31
17
191,383
24
72
36
19
232,398
30
87
44
24
Average Time
14
42
21
11
B/Sec
7,988
2,663
5,320
10,167
Table.4.Performance comparison on Symmetric key algorithms
The observations based on the results shows that Blowfish has a very good performance compared to other algorithms. AES has better performance than 3DES and DES. AES is considered among best secure and efficient algorithm in the above all algorithms [20].


CONCLUSION

We discuss the weakness and strength of asymmetric key algorithms and symmetric key algorithms. Based on survey RC5 and RC4 security is questionable but RC4 faster than RC5. These encryption algorithms AES is more secure, efficient and faster than to all algorithms with allowing 256bit key sizes and protect against future attacks. Blowfish was replaced by Twofish.
RSA is best Asymmetric key algorithm but it consumes more time for encryption and factorization problem for large Integers in the decryption process.
AUTHORS INFORMATION
I am U.Thirupalu joined as a Research Scholar (PT) in the department of computer science ,S V U CM&CS , Tirupati. I am pursuing PhD under the guidance of Dr.E.kesavulu Reddy in the Dept. of Computer Science, S v u CM&CS, Tirupati.

Show the results of their experiments conducted on PII 266 MHz with Java.
File Size KB 
DES 
3DES 
AES 
BF 
20,527 
24 
72 
39 
19 
36,002 
48 
123 
74 
35 
45,911 
57 
158 
94 
46 
59,852 
74 
202 
125 
58 
69,545 
83 
243 
143 
67 
137,325 
160 
461 
285 
136 
158,959 
190 
543 
324 
158 
166,364 
198 
569 
355 
162 
191,383 
227 
655 
378 
176 
232,398 
276 
799 
460 
219 
Average Time 
134 
383 
228 
108 
B/Sec 
835 
292 
491 
1,036 
Table 3. The experiment shows the Comparative execution times (in seconds) of encryption algorithms in ECB mode on a PII 266 MHz machine.
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