Institute of Fundamental Technological Research
Polish Academy of Sciences

Partners

Prof. Błażej Skoczeń, PhD, DSc

Cracow University of Technology (PL)

Supervision of doctoral theses
1.  2018-05-09 Tabin Jakub  
(Politechnika Krakowska)
Modelowanie i badanie lokalizacji odkształceń w nieciągłym płynięciu plastycznym w kriogenicznym zakresie temperatury 

Recent publications
1.  Nalepka K., Skoczeń B., Ciepielowska M., Schmidt R., Tabin J., Schmidt E., Zwolińska-Faryj W., Chulist R., Phase transformation in 316L austenitic steel induced by fracture at cryogenic temperatures: experiment and modelling, Materials, ISSN: 1996-1944, DOI: 10.3390/ma14010127, Vol.14, No.1, pp.127-1-27, 2021

Abstract:
Investigations by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and X-ray diffraction with the use of synchrotron radiation, as well as parallel extended finite element (XFEM) simulations, reveal the evolution of the 316L stainless steel microstructure in the vicinity of a macro-crack developing at the temperature of liquid helium (4.2 K). The fracture propagation induces a dynamic, highly localized phase transformation of face-centred cubic austenite into α' martensite with a body-centred cubic structure. Synchrotron studies show that the texture of the primary phase controls the transition process. The austenite grains, tending to the stable Brass orientation, generate three mechanisms of the phase transformation. EBSD studies reveal that the secondary phase particles match the ordered austenitic matrix. Hence, interphase boundaries with the Pitsch disorientation are most often formed and α’ martensite undergoes intensive twinning. The XFEM simulations, based on the experimentally determined kinetics of the phase transformation and on the relevant constitutive relationships, reveal that the macro-crack propagates mainly in the martensitic phase. Synchrotron and EBSD studies confirm the almost 100% content of the secondary phase at the fracture surface. Moreover, they indicate that the boundaries formed then are largely random. As a result, the primary beneficial role of martensite as reinforcing particles is eliminated.

Keywords:
austenitic steel, cryogenic temperatures, fracture process, fcc-bcc phase transformation, synchrotron radiation, electron backscatter diffraction, XFEM simulation

Affiliations:
Nalepka K. - IPPT PAN
Skoczeń B. - Cracow University of Technology (PL)
Ciepielowska M. - other affiliation
Schmidt R. - other affiliation
Tabin J. - IPPT PAN
Schmidt E. - other affiliation
Zwolińska-Faryj W. - other affiliation
Chulist R. - other affiliation
2.  Tabin J., Skoczeń B., Bielski J., Discontinuous plastic flow in stainless steels subjected to combined loads at extremely low temperatures, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL SCIENCES, ISSN: 0020-7403, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2021.106448, Vol.200, pp.106448-1-14, 2021

Abstract:
In the present paper, the question of the mechanism of discontinuous plastic flow (DPF) occurring at extremely low temperatures (in the proximity of absolute zero), is for the first time raised in the context of kinematically controlled combined loads (independent control of displacement and rotation) and non-proportional loading paths. In order to identify the multiaxial stress state during DPF, a unique set-up for testing tubular samples under kinematically controlled traction and torsion in liquid helium (4.2 K) has been developed. The results of tests performed on grade 304 stainless steel thin-walled tubular samples subjected to combined loads (traction and torsion) in the proximity of absolute zero are for the first time reported. These novel results confirm the assumptions accepted when building the multiaxial constitutive model of discontinuous plastic flow, namely, the production of lattice barriers, the pile-ups of dislocations and the criterion of their collective failure, as well as the assumption that the serrations may be recorded by force and torque transducers independently. Thus, the numerically implemented model allows to reproduce the observed serrations, and to redistribute them between the loading directions.

Keywords:
plasticity, discontinuous plastic flow, cryogenic temperatures, combined loads, non-proportional loading paths

Affiliations:
Tabin J. - IPPT PAN
Skoczeń B. - Cracow University of Technology (PL)
Bielski J. - Cracow University of Technology (PL)
3.  Tabin J., Skoczeń B., Bielski J., Discontinuous plastic flow in superconducting multifilament composites, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES, ISSN: 0020-7683, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2020.05.033, Vol.202, pp.12-27, 2020

Abstract:
Modern superconducting intermetallic materials (e.g. NbTi, Nb3Sn) are used to build conductors composed of a matrix and the superconductor strands. One of the most popular materials for matrix is copper, because of its excellent physical and mechanical properties at extremely low temperatures. Ductile OFE copper stabilizes, on one hand, the mechanical response of brittle superconductor strands and, on the other hand, takes over the electrical charge in case of quench (resistive transition). Thus, the composite structure of modern conductors used to build the coils of superconducting magnets is fully justified. Such a composite structure results in common deformation of the matrix and the strands when winding the coils and during the operation, when the coils are subjected to the prestress and to the Lorentz forces at extremely low temperatures (liquid or superfluid helium). When the loads are large enough, the copper-superconductor strands composite is subjected to inelastic deformation, including moderately large plastic strains. It is known, that copper and superconductor strands exhibit the so-called discontinuous plastic flow (DPF) at extremely low temperatures, that results in abrupt drops of stress against strain of different amplitude and frequency. In order to describe correctly the behaviour of composite superconductors at extremely low temperatures, a constitutive model of DPF has been developed and applied to both components: matrix and strands. The results of numerical analysis are compared with the experiments, carried out in dedicated cryostat containing liquid helium and the relevant instruments.

Keywords:
superconductor, plastic deformation, cryogenic temperatures, constitutive model

Affiliations:
Tabin J. - IPPT PAN
Skoczeń B. - Cracow University of Technology (PL)
Bielski J. - Cracow University of Technology (PL)
4.  Ustrzycka A., Skoczeń B., Nowak M., Kurpaska Ł., Wyszkowska E., Jagielski J., Elastic–plastic-damage model of nano-indentation of the ion-irradiated 6061 aluminium alloy, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DAMAGE MECHANICS, ISSN: 1056-7895, DOI: 10.1177/1056789520906209, pp.1-35, 2020

Abstract:
The paper presents experimental and numerical characterization of damage evolution for ion-irradiated materials subjected to plastic deformation during nano-indentation. Ion irradiation technique belongs to the methods where creation of radiation-induced defects is controlled with a high accuracy (including both, concentration and depth distribution control), and allows to obtain materials having a wide range of damage level, usually expressed in terms of displacements per atom (dpa) scale. Ion affected layers are usually thin, typically less than 1 micrometer thick. Such a low thickness requires to use nano-indentation technique to measure the mechanical properties of the irradiated layers. The He or Ar ion penetration depth reaches approximately 150 nm, which is sufficient to perform several loading-partial-unloading cycles at increasing forces. Damage evolution is reflected by the force-displacement diagram, that is backed by the stress–strain relation including damage. In this work the following approach is applied: dpa is obtained from physics (irradiation mechanisms), afterwards, the radiation-induced damage is defined in the framework of continuum damage mechanics to solve the problem of further evolution of damage fields under mechanical loads. The nature of radiation-induced damage is close to porosity because of formation of clusters of vacancies. The new mathematical relation between radiation damage (dpa) and porosity parameter is proposed. Deformation process experienced by the ion irradiated materials during the nano-indentation test is then numerically simulated by using extended Gurson–Tvergaard– Needleman (GTN) model, that accounts for the damage effects. The corresponding numerical results are validated by means of the experimental measurements. It turns out, that the GTN model quite successfully reflects closure of voids, and increase of material density during the nano-indentation.

Keywords:
radiation-induced damage, evolution of vacancy clusters, nano-indentation test, ion irradiation, radiation hardening

Affiliations:
Ustrzycka A. - IPPT PAN
Skoczeń B. - Cracow University of Technology (PL)
Nowak M. - IPPT PAN
Kurpaska Ł. - National Centre for Nuclear Research (PL)
Wyszkowska E. - National Centre for Nuclear Research (PL)
Jagielski J. - National Centre for Nuclear Research (PL)
5.  Tabin J., Skoczeń B., Bielski J., Discontinuous plastic flow coupled with strain induced fcc–bcc phase transformation at extremely low temperatures, Mechanics of Materials, ISSN: 0167-6636, DOI: 10.1016/j.mechmat.2018.10.007, Vol.129, pp.23-40, 2019

Abstract:
A popular class of materials massively used at cryogenic temperatures comprises the stainless steels of different grades, such as 304, 304L, 316, 316Ti, 316L, 316LN etc. Such materials are metastable at extremely low temperatures, and usually undergo plastic strain induced phase transformation. In addition, these materials applied in the proximity of absolute zero exhibit the so-called discontinuous (intermittent, serrated) plastic flow (DPF). It consists in frequent, abrupt drops of stress against strain, characterized by increasing amplitude of the stress oscillations. Strong coupling between both phenomena: DPF and phase transformation is observed. Recent experiments performed by means of stainless steel samples tested in liquid helium (4.2 K) clearly indicate strong strain localization during DPF, in the form of shear bands propagating along the sample. However, as soon as the phase transformation process takes place, the motion of shear bands is hindered by formation of secondary phase. A physically based constitutive model developed in the present paper reflects coupling between the discontinuous plastic flow and the plastic strain induced phase transformation in the temperature range 0–T1. The model involves nonlinear mixed hardening, that occurs during the 2nd stage of each serration (stress–strain oscillation). The hardening is based on two mechanisms: interaction of dislocations with the inclusions of secondary phase, evolution of tangent stiffness operator due to changing proportions between the primary and the secondary phases. Nonlinear hardening strongly increases the stress level during each serration, which affects production of the internal lattice barriers, and the amount of the accumulated plastic strain. This, in turn, affects intensity of the phase transformation (full coupling). The constitutive model and its numerical version allow to reproduce the observed serrations, which is crucial for its application in the design of components operating at extremely low temperatures.

Keywords:
multiscale constitutive model, discontinuous plastic flow, strain induced phase transformation, cryogenic temperatures

Affiliations:
Tabin J. - other affiliation
Skoczeń B. - Cracow University of Technology (PL)
Bielski J. - Cracow University of Technology (PL)
6.  Tabin J., Skoczeń B., Bielski J., Damage affected discontinuous plastic flow (DPF), Mechanics of Materials, ISSN: 0167-6636, DOI: 10.1016/j.mechmat.2017.04.007, Vol.110, pp.44-58, 2017

Abstract:
Evolution of micro-damage in the course of discontinuous plastic flow (DPF, serrated yielding) at extremely low temperatures is investigated. DPF is observed in many metals and alloys loaded in cryogenic conditions, within the temperature range specific of a given material and starting practically at absolute zero. The appearance of DPF is similar to dynamic strain ageing, however, its origin is attributed to the mechanism of local catastrophic failure of lattice barriers under the stress fields related to edge dislocation pile-ups. Failure of barriers, occurring in weakly excited lattice, leads to dynamic and massive motion of released dislocations. The phenomenon is accompanied by step-wise increase of the strain rate and drastic drop of stress during each serration. DPF has strong thermodynamic background consisting in the fact, that the plastic power dissipated in the course of serrations is partially converted to heat, which results in a local jump of temperature. It results from the so-called thermodynamic instability associated with vanishing specific heat when the temperature tends to absolute zero. The evolution of micro-damage affects loading and unloading moduli during each serration. This, in turn, results in gradual evolution of the amount of plastic slip accompanying each serration. The physically based constitutive model describes damage affected serrated yielding at the temperatures close to absolute zero. The model accounts for the thermodynamic background, including phonon mechanism of heat transport. Experimental identification of parameters of the constitutive model has been carried out based on a number of loading/unloading traction tests. A comparison between the experimental and the numerical results is presented and discussed.

Keywords:
Multiscale constitutive model, Discontinuous plastic flow, Microstructures radiation induced damage, Cryogenic temperatures

Affiliations:
Tabin J. - other affiliation
Skoczeń B. - Cracow University of Technology (PL)
Bielski J. - Cracow University of Technology (PL)
7.  Ryś M., Skoczeń B., Coupled constitutive model of damage affected two-phase continuum, MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, ISSN: 0167-6636, DOI: 10.1016/j.mechmat.2017.08.015, Vol.115, pp.1-15, 2017

Abstract:
A broad class of metastable materials, including selected alloys (e.g. stainless steels) used for applications in radiation environment (particle accelerators), is characterized by simultaneous occurrence of the plastic strain driven phase transformation and evolution of nano/micro damage. Plastic flow in such materials is usually accompanied by dynamic evolution of microstructure, resulting from the strain induced fcc-bcc phase transformation. Two-phase continuum is composed of austenitic matrix (fcc) and martensitic inclusions (bcc), represented by type Eshelby ellipsoidal entities embedded in ductile matrix. The matrix remains entirely plastic, and contains micro-cracks and micro-voids representing ductile damage. On the other hand, the inclusions are characterized by much higher yield stress and their behavior is generally brittle. Thus, brittle damage develops in the inclusions. The origin of damage is mechanical (manufacturing and load induced defects), and related to the source of radiation (primary or secondary particles flux). Among the lattice defects induced by radiation, the clusters of nano/micro voids are accounted for. The constitutive model takes into account the evolution of mechanically and radiation induced nano/micro damage in the presence of microstructure evolution, reflected by the plastic strain driven dynamic change of proportions between the matrix and the inclusions. The model is multiscale since the processes that occur at different scales (micro, meso, macro) are addressed, and coupled, since both phenomena: phase transformation and damage are described by coupled equations. Application to irradiated corrugated shells, components of thermo-mechanical compensation systems, are presented.

Affiliations:
Ryś M. - IPPT PAN
Skoczeń B. - Cracow University of Technology (PL)
8.  Skoczeń B., Ustrzycka A., Kinetics of evolution of radiation induced micro-damage in ductile materials subjected to time-dependent stresses, International Journal of Plasticity, ISSN: 0749-6419, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijplas.2016.01.006, Vol.80, pp.86-110, 2016

Abstract:
The present paper aims at predicting evolution of radiation induced damage in the solids subjected to mechanical loads beyond the yield stress. Moreover, the evolution of radiation induced damage is combined with the evolution of mechanically induced damage within the common framework of Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM). An additive formulation with respect to damage parameters (tensors) has been postulated. Multiscale constitutive model containing strong physical background related to the mechanism of generation of clusters of voids in the irradiated solids has been built. The model is based on the experimental estimation of concentration of lattice defects (interstitials, di-interstitials, interstitial clusters, vacancies, di-vacancies, vacancy clusters) in Al as a function of dpa (displacement per atom), and comprises the relevant kinetics of evolution of radiation induced damage under mechanical loads. Two kinetic laws of damage evolution were taken into account: the Rice & Tracey model and – for comparison – the Gurson model. As an application, estimation of lifetime of a cylindrical shell (coaxial target embedded in a detector of particles) subjected to combination of irradiation and mechanical loads, has been carried out. It is demonstrated that the number of cycles to failure depends strongly on the accumulation of micro-damage due to irradiation. The lifetime of irradiated components has been expressed as a function of two parameters: maximum dpa and axial stress amplitude on cycle.

Affiliations:
Skoczeń B. - Cracow University of Technology (PL)
Ustrzycka A. - other affiliation
9.  Tabin J., Skoczeń B., Bielski J., Strain localization during discontinuous plastic flow at extremely low temperatures, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES, ISSN: 0020-7683, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2016.06.012, Vol.97-98, pp.593-612, 2016

Abstract:
The phenomenon of strain localization in the course of discontinuous plastic flow (DPF) at extremely low temperatures is investigated. DPF is observed mainly in fcc metals and alloys strained in cryogenic conditions, practically down to absolute zero. These materials undergo at low temperatures a process similar to dynamic strain ageing, manifested by the so called serrated yielding (DPF). DPF is attributed to the mechanism of local catastrophic failure of lattice barriers (including Lomer–Cottrell locks), under the stress fields related to the accumulating edge dislocations. Failure of LC locks leads to massive motion of released dislocations, accompanied by step-wise increase of the strain rate (macroscopic slip) and drastic drop of stress. Recent experiments indicate strong strain localization in the form of shear bands propagating along the sample. The plastic power dissipated in the shear band is partially converted to heat, which results in a local drastic increase of temperature promoted by the so-called thermodynamic instability (nearly adiabatic process). The Dirac-like temperature function is measured by two thermometers located in the gage length of the sample. Spatio-temporal correlation indicates smooth shear band propagation, as long as the process of phase transformation remains on hold. A physically based multiaxial constitutive model presented in the paper describes both DPF and strain localization, accompanied by temperature distribution represented by Green-like solution of heat diffusion equation. The model accounts for the thermodynamic background, including phonon mechanism of heat transport, accompanied by specific heat vanishing with the temperature approaching absolute zero. Experimental identification of parameters of the constitutive model is carried out. A projection of the model to the range where the phase transformation takes place is discussed.

Keywords:
Multiscale constitutive model, Discontinuous plastic flow, Cryogenic temperatures, Strain localization

Affiliations:
Tabin J. - other affiliation
Skoczeń B. - Cracow University of Technology (PL)
Bielski J. - Cracow University of Technology (PL)
10.  Ortwein R., Ryś M., Skoczeń B., Damage evolution in a stainless steel bar undergoing phase transformation under torsion at cryogenic temperatures, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DAMAGE MECHANICS, ISSN: 1056-7895, DOI: 10.1177/1056789516656746, Vol.25, No.7, pp.967-1016, 2016

Abstract:
Phase transformation driven by plastic strains is commonly observed in austenitic stainless steels. In the present paper, this phenomenon is addressed in connection with damage evolution. A three-dimensional constitutive model has been derived, and scalar variables for damage and the volume fraction of the transformed phase were used. The model was solved using Abaqus UMAT user defined procedure, as well as by means of simplified one-dimensional approach for a twisted circular bar. Large experimental campaign of tests was performed, including martensite content measurements within the cross-section and on the surface of the bar during monotonic and cyclic loading. Based on the residual angle of twist, damage variable was calculated. The global response of torque versus the angle of twist was measured as well. Comparison between the experimental results and the results obtained from the simplified one-dimensional approach and from the full three-dimensional approach are presented. It turns out that one-dimensional formulation agrees quite well with full three-dimensional model. Thus, much simpler approach can effectively be used. Moreover, experimental results agree well in terms of the martensite content evolution and relation: torque versus the angle of twist. Damage evolution is correctly predicted in terms of the maximum values. Lastly, the evolution of damage during cyclic torsion is discussed, as the experimental results indicate rather surprising effect of unloading modulus recovery after each reversion of twist direction

Keywords:
Cryogenic temperatures, plastic strain-induced phase transformation, torsion, damage evolution, constitutive model, martensite, austenitic stainless steels

Affiliations:
Ortwein R. - CERN (CH)
Ryś M. - other affiliation
Skoczeń B. - Cracow University of Technology (PL)
11.  Egner H., Skoczeń B., Ryś M., Constitutive and numerical modeling of coupled dissipative phenomena in 316L stainless steel at cryogenic temperatures, International Journal of Plasticity, ISSN: 0749-6419, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijplas.2014.08.005, Vol.64, pp.113-133, 2015

Abstract:
A macroscopic material model for simulation of coupled dissipative phenomena taking place in FCC metals and alloys at low temperatures is developed. Three phenomena: plastic flow, plastic strain induced transformation from the parent phase ( to the secondary phase ( and evolution of micro-damage are studied using a thermodynamically consistent framework. The experimental results indicate a correlation between decreasing damage rate and increasing martensite content. For the micro-damage evolution in the parent austenitic phase a generalization of the classical isotropic ductile damage concept to anisotropic model has been adopted. The kinetics of damage evolution is based on the accumulated plastic strain as a driving force of ductile damage. On the other hand, the deterioration of the brittle secondary phase is described by the damage evolution equation expressed in the form of tensorial function, where the damage tensor depends directly on the stresses applied. This formulation accounts both for the isotropic damage, and for the oriented damage due to different effects of the stress tensor. Total amount of damage in the representative volume element is obtained via the linear rule of mixture. The results obtained in the course of numerical simulations fit well the experimental data

Keywords:
B. Constitutive behavior, A. Microcracking, A. Phase transformation, Cryogenic temperature

Affiliations:
Egner H. - Cracow University of Technology (PL)
Skoczeń B. - Cracow University of Technology (PL)
Ryś M. - other affiliation
12.  Skoczeń B., Bielski J., Tabin J., Multiaxial constitutive model of discontinuous plastic flow at cryogenic temperatures, International Journal of Plasticity, ISSN: 0749-6419, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijplas.2013.09.004, Vol.55, pp.198-218, 2014

Abstract:
FCC metals and alloys are massively used in cryogenic applications down to the temperature of absolute zero, because of suitable physical and mechanical properties including high level ductility. Many of these materials undergo at low temperatures a process similar to dynamic strain ageing, reflected by the so-called discontinuous plastic flow (DPF, serrated yielding). The physically based multiaxial constitutive model presented in the paper constitutes a generalization of the previous uniaxial model that proved efficient in describing the plastic flow instabilities occurring at extremely low temperatures. The model takes into account thermodynamic background, including the phonon mechanism of heat transport and thermodynamic instability caused by specific heat vanishing with the temperature approaching absolute zero. The DPF is described by the mechanism of local catastrophic failure of lattice barriers (for instance Lomer-Cottrell locks) under the stress fields related to the accumulating edge dislocations. The failure of LC locks leads to massive motion of released dislocations accompanied by step-wise increase of the strain rate (macroscopic slip). In the present paper the plastic flow discontinuity associated with the proportional loading paths is studied. Identification of parameters of the constitutive model is based on the experimental data collected during several campaigns of tensile tests carried out on copper and stainless steel samples immersed in liquid helium (4.2 K).

Keywords:
Multiscale constitutive model, Discontinuous plastic flow, Cryogenic temperatures, Multiaxial loads

Affiliations:
Skoczeń B. - Cracow University of Technology (PL)
Bielski J. - Cracow University of Technology (PL)
Tabin J. - other affiliation
13.  Baussan E., Bielski J., Bobeth C., Bouquerel E., Caretta O., Cupial P., Davenne T., Densham C., Dracos M., Fitton M., Gaudiot G., Kozien M., Lacny L., Lepers B., Longhin A., Loveridge P., Osswald F., Poussot P., Rooney M., Skoczeń B., Szybinski B., Ustrzycka A., Vassilopoulos N., Wilcox D., Wroblewski A., Wurtz J., Zeter V., Zito M., Neutrino super beam based on a superconducting proton linac, PHYSICAL REVIEW SPECIAL TOPICS - ACCELERATORS AND BEAMS, ISSN: 1098-4402, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.17.031001, Vol.17, No.3, pp.031001-1-26, 2014

Abstract:
We present a new design study of the neutrino Super Beam based on the Superconducting Proton Linac at CERN. This beam is aimed at megaton mass physics, a large water Cherenkov detector, proposed for the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane in France, with a baseline of 130 km. The aim of this proposed facility is to study CP violation in the neutrino sector. In the study reported here, we have developed the conceptual design of the neutrino beam, especially the target and the magnetic focusing device. Indeed, this beam presents several unprecedented challenges, related to the high primary proton beam power (4 MW), the high repetition rate (50 Hz), and the low kinetic energy of the protons (4.5 GeV). The design is completed by a study of all the main components of the system, starting from the transport system to guide the beam to the target up to the beam dump. This is the first complete study of a neutrino beam based on a pebble-bed target capable of standing the large heat deposition of MW class proton beams

Affiliations:
Baussan E. - Université de Strasbourg (FR)
Bielski J. - Cracow University of Technology (PL)
Bobeth C. - Université de Strasbourg (FR)
Bouquerel E. - Université de Strasbourg (FR)
Caretta O. - STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (GB)
Cupial P. - AGH University of Science and Technology (PL)
Davenne T. - STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (GB)
Densham C. - STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (GB)
Dracos M. - Université de Strasbourg (FR)
Fitton M. - STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (GB)
Gaudiot G. - Université de Strasbourg (FR)
Kozien M. - Cracow University of Technology (PL)
Lacny L. - Cracow University of Technology (PL)
Lepers B. - Université de Strasbourg (FR)
Longhin A. - Irfu, CEA-Saclay (FR)
Loveridge P. - STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (GB)
Osswald F. - Université de Strasbourg (FR)
Poussot P. - Université de Strasbourg (FR)
Rooney M. - STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (GB)
Skoczeń B. - Cracow University of Technology (PL)
Szybinski B. - other affiliation
Ustrzycka A. - other affiliation
Vassilopoulos N. - Université de Strasbourg (FR)
Wilcox D. - STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (GB)
Wroblewski A. - other affiliation
Wurtz J. - Université de Strasbourg (FR)
Zeter V. - Université de Strasbourg (FR)
Zito M. - Irfu, CEA-Saclay (FR)
14.  Edgecock T.R., Caretta O., Davenne T., Densam C., Fitton M., Kelliher D., Loveridge P., Machida S., Prior C., Rogers C., Rooney M., Thomason J., Wilcox D., Wildner E., Efthymiopoulos I., Garoby R., Gilardoni S., Hansen C., Benedetto E., Jensen E., Kosmicki A., Martini M., Osborne J., Prior G., Stora T., Melo Mendonca T., Vlachoudis V., Waaijer C., Cupial P., Chancé A., Longhin A., Payet J., Zito M., Baussan E., Bobeth C., Bouquerel E., Dracos M., Gaudiot G., Lepers B., Osswald F., Poussot P., Vassilopoulos N., Wurtz J., Zeter V., Bielski J., Kozien M., Lacny L., Skoczeń B., Szybinski B., Ustrzycka A., et al., High intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe, PHYSICAL REVIEW SPECIAL TOPICS - ACCELERATORS AND BEAMS, ISSN: 1098-4402, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.16.021002, Vol.16, No.2, pp.021002-1-18, 2013

Abstract:
The EUROnu project has studied three possible options for future, high intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe. The first is a Super Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of pions created by bombarding targets with a 4 MW proton beam from the CERN High Power Superconducting Proton Linac. The far detector for this facility is the 500 kt MEMPHYS water Cherenkov, located in the Fréjus tunnel. The second facility is the Neutrino Factory, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of μ+ and μ− beams in a storage ring. The far detector in this case is a 100 kt magnetized iron neutrino detector at a baseline of 2000 km. The third option is a Beta Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of beta emitting isotopes, in particular He6 and Ne18, also stored in a ring. The far detector is also the MEMPHYS detector in the Fréjus tunnel. EUROnu has undertaken conceptual designs of these facilities and studied the performance of the detectors. Based on this, it has determined the physics reach of each facility, in particular for the measurement of CP violation in the lepton sector, and estimated the cost of construction. These have demonstrated that the best facility to build is the Neutrino Factory. However, if a powerful proton driver is constructed for another purpose or if the MEMPHYS detector is built for astroparticle physics, the Super Beam also becomes very attractive

Affiliations:
Edgecock T.R. - STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (GB)
Caretta O. - STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (GB)
Davenne T. - STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (GB)
Densam C. - STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (GB)
Fitton M. - STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (GB)
Kelliher D. - STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (GB)
Loveridge P. - STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (GB)
Machida S. - STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (GB)
Prior C. - STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (GB)
Rogers C. - STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (GB)
Rooney M. - STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (GB)
Thomason J. - STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (GB)
Wilcox D. - STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (GB)
Wildner E. - CERN (CH)
Efthymiopoulos I. - CERN (CH)
Garoby R. - CERN (CH)
Gilardoni S. - CERN (CH)
Hansen C. - CERN (CH)
Benedetto E. - CERN (CH)
Jensen E. - CERN (CH)
Kosmicki A. - other affiliation
Martini M. - CERN (CH)
Osborne J. - CERN (CH)
Prior G. - CERN (CH)
Stora T. - CERN (CH)
Melo Mendonca T. - CERN (CH)
Vlachoudis V. - CERN (CH)
Waaijer C. - CERN (CH)
Cupial P. - AGH University of Science and Technology (PL)
Chancé A. - Irfu, CEA-Saclay (FR)
Longhin A. - Irfu, CEA-Saclay (FR)
Payet J. - Irfu, CEA-Saclay (FR)
Zito M. - Irfu, CEA-Saclay (FR)
Baussan E. - Université de Strasbourg (FR)
Bobeth C. - Université de Strasbourg (FR)
Bouquerel E. - Université de Strasbourg (FR)
Dracos M. - Université de Strasbourg (FR)
Gaudiot G. - Université de Strasbourg (FR)
Lepers B. - Université de Strasbourg (FR)
Osswald F. - Université de Strasbourg (FR)
Poussot P. - Université de Strasbourg (FR)
Vassilopoulos N. - Université de Strasbourg (FR)
Wurtz J. - Université de Strasbourg (FR)
Zeter V. - Université de Strasbourg (FR)
Bielski J. - Cracow University of Technology (PL)
Kozien M. - Cracow University of Technology (PL)
Lacny L. - Cracow University of Technology (PL)
Skoczeń B. - Cracow University of Technology (PL)
Szybinski B. - other affiliation
Ustrzycka A. - other affiliation
et al. - other affiliation

List of chapters in recent monographs
1. 
Skoczeń B., Ustrzycka A., From Creep Damage Mechanics to Homogenization Methods, rozdział: Radiation Damage Evolution in Ductile Materials, Springer International Publishing, 64 of the series Advanced Structured Materials, pp.391-406, 2015

Conference abstracts
1.  Skoczeń B., Ustrzycka A., Radiation induced damage in ductile materials subjected to time-dependent stresses, ICDM2, 2nd International Conference on Damage Mechanics, 2015-07-08/07-11, Troyes (FR), pp.1, 2015
2.  Ustrzycka A., Skoczeń B., Kinetics of evolution of radiation induced damage, PCM-CMM 2015, 3rd Polish Congress of Mechanics and 21st Computer Methods in Mechanics, 2015-09-08/09-11, Gdańsk (PL), pp.693-694, 2015
3.  Skoczeń B., Ustrzycka A., Radiation damage evolution in ductile materials, Plasticity 2015, 21st International Symposium on Plasticity and its Current Applications, 2015-01-04/01-09, Montego Bay (JM), pp.1, 2015
4.  Ustrzycka A., Skoczeń B., Kinetics of evolution of radiation induced micro-damage in ductile materials subjected to time-dependent stresses, EMMC14, European Mechanics of Materials Conference, 2014-08-27/08-29, Gothenburg (SE), pp.1, 2014
5.  Ustrzycka A., Skoczeń B., Degradation of material properties due to evolution of radiation induced damage, SolMech 2014, 39th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2014-09-01/09-05, Zakopane (PL), pp.1-2, 2014
6.  Ustrzycka A., Skoczeń B., Kinetics of evolution of radiation induced micro-damage in ductile materials subjected to time-dependent stresses, ICMM3, 3rd International Conference on Material Modelling incorporating 13th European Mechanics of Materials Conference, 2013-09-08/09-11, Warszawa (PL), pp.162, 2013

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