Institute of Fundamental Technological Research
Polish Academy of Sciences

Staff

Amrita Jain, PhD

Department of Mechanics of Materials (ZMM)
Division of Advanced Composite Materials (PZMK)
position: Assistant Professor
telephone: (+48) 22 826 12 81 ext.: 456
room: 144
e-mail:
ORCID: 0000-0001-7657-8974

Recent publications
1.  Pietrzyk-Thel P., Jain A., Bochenek K., Michalska M., Basista M. A., Szabo T., Nagy P., Wolska A., Klepka M., Flexible, tough and high-performing ionogels for supercapacitor application, Journal of Materiomics, ISSN: 2352-8478, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmat.2024.01.008, pp.1-41, 2024

Abstract:
Ionogels are an attractive class of materials for smart and flexible electronics and are prepared from the combination of a polymer and ionic liquid which is entrapped in this matrix. Ionogels provide a continuous conductive phase with high thermal, mechanical, and chemical stability. However, because of the higher percentage of ionic liquids it is difficult to obtain an ionogel with high ionic conductivity and mechanical stability, which are very important from an application point of view. In this work, ionogel films with high flexibility, excellent ionic conductivity, and exceptional stability were prepared using polyvinyl alcohol as the host polymer matrix and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate as the ionic liquid using water as the solvent for energy storage application. The prepared ionogel films exhibited good mechanical stability along with sustaining strain of more than 100% at room temperature and low temperature, the ability to withstand twisting up to 360° and different bending conditions, and excellent ionic conductivity of 5.12 × 10−3 S/cm. The supercapacitor cell fabricated using the optimized ionogel film showed a capacitance of 39.9 F/g with an energy and power densities of 5.5 Wh/kg and 0.3 kW/kg, respectively confirming the suitability of ionogels for supercapacitor application.

Keywords:
Ionic liquid, Gel polymer electrolyte, Ionic conductivity, 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate, Supercapacitors

Affiliations:
Pietrzyk-Thel P. - IPPT PAN
Jain A. - IPPT PAN
Bochenek K. - IPPT PAN
Michalska M. - Łukasiewicz Research Network‒Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
Basista M. A. - IPPT PAN
Szabo T. - other affiliation
Nagy P. - other affiliation
Wolska A. - other affiliation
Klepka M. - other affiliation
2.  Gaurav A., Das A., Paul A., Jain A., Boruah B., Jalebi M., Could halide perovskites revolutionalise batteries and supercapacitors: A leap in energy storage, Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN: 2352-152X, DOI: 10.1016/j.est.2024.111468, Vol.88, No.111468, pp.1-22, 2024

Abstract:
Metal halide perovskites have rapidly emerged as a revolutionary frontier in materials science, catalyzing breakthroughs in energy storage technology. Originating as transformative entities in the field of solar cells, these perovskites have surpassed conventional boundaries. This comprehensive review embarks on a journey through the intriguing potentials of energy storage, driven by the exceptional properties of perovskite materials. We delve into three compelling facets of this evolving landscape: batteries, supercapacitors, and the seamless integration of solar cells with energy storage. In the realm of batteries, we introduce the utilization of perovskites, with a specific focus on both lead and lead-free halide perovskites for conciseness. Leveraging superior electrical properties such as high ionic conductivity (ranging from 10−3 to 10−4 Scm−1 for Li-ion) and diverse structural dimensions coupled with remarkable diffusion coefficients (2.68 × 10−8 cm2s−1 and 3.63 × 10−9 cm2s−1) for Chloride and Iodide-based halide perovskites, respectively, we explore the immense potential of perovskites as electrodes compared to other host materials such as layered oxide, carbon, etc., specifically for Al-ion, Zn-ion, and Li-ion batteries application, paving the way for the next generation of energy storage devices. In the domain of supercapacitors, we discuss the application of halide perovskites, highlighting both their advantages and limitations. We also provide a brief overview of the significant progress made in the supercapacitor domain using perovskite materials over the years. Additionally, we venture into unexplored territories, emphasizing the potential integration of solar cells and energy storage systems, delving into innovative concepts such as photo-accelerated capacitors/supercapacitors and photo-accelerated batteries. Importantly, we presented a detailed analysis of the impact of the perovskite composition on different energy storage applications. Ultimately, we outline the significant advantages, recognize the existing limitations, and stimulate imagination concerning the boundless future potential of halide perovskites in the energy storage domain, fostering a scientific and innovative perspective that contributes to the ongoing research and practical application of perovskite materials.

Keywords:
Metal halide perovskite, Energy storage, Battery, Supercapacitors, Perovskite solar cells-batteries

Affiliations:
Gaurav A. - other affiliation
Das A. - other affiliation
Paul A. - other affiliation
Jain A. - IPPT PAN
Boruah B. - other affiliation
Jalebi M. - other affiliation
3.  Witecka A., Pietrzyk-Thel P., Krajewski M., Sobczak K., Wolska A., Jain A., Preparation of activated carbon/iron oxide/chitosan electrodes for symmetric supercapacitor using electrophoretic deposition: A facile, fast and sustainable approach, JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS, ISSN: 0925-8388, DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2024.174040, Vol.985, No.174040, pp.1-15, 2024

Abstract:
In this research, electrophoretic deposition (EPD) was employed to prepare a porous composite film (ACF electrode) consisting of 90 wt% activated carbon particles, 10 wt% iron oxide nanoparticles, and a chitosan as binder in a facile, fast, and sustainable manner. This micro-mesoporous composite film, with a thickness of ∼45 µm and a surface area of ∼208.1 m2g−1, was coated on a stainless steel substrate. The SEM and TEM investigations proved the homogeneous distribution of carbon microparticles and iron oxide nanoparticles in the deposit, while the EDX, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, and XPS confirmed the chemical composition. ACF electrodes were also used in a symmetric two-electrode cell configuration with a sandwiched gel polymer electrolyte - PVdF(HFP)-PC-Mg(ClO4)2 and revealed a specific capacitance of ∼54.4 F g−1, along with satisfactory energy and power density of ∼4.7 Wh kg−1 and 1.2 kW kg−1, respectively, and excellent electrochemical stability up to ∼10,000 cycles (with merely 8.5% decay by the 5000th cycle). Obtained results confirmed the stability of the used system and its possible application in the field of energy storage and conversion.

Affiliations:
Witecka A. - IPPT PAN
Pietrzyk-Thel P. - IPPT PAN
Krajewski M. - IPPT PAN
Sobczak K. - other affiliation
Wolska A. - other affiliation
Jain A. - IPPT PAN
4.  Jain A., Michalska M., Enhanced electrochemical properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified with silver nanoparticles for energy storage application, MATERIALS CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, ISSN: 0254-0584, DOI: 10.1016/j.matchemphys.2024.129200, Vol.317, No.129200, pp.1-9, 2024

Abstract:
This work reports an easy, straightforward, and cost-effective method to synthesize a composite material using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) for application as an electrode in supercapacitors. The objective of this work was to enhance the charge transfer mechanism in supercapacitor cells by introducing the conductive particles in the MWCNT framework. The pivotal studies, like scanning (SEM), and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy confirmed the formation of the composite as well as a successful deposition of Ag NPs on MWCNT. The surface area of the composite was evaluated by using the N2 adsorption-desorption studies and it was found to be of the order of 358 m2 g−1. Electrochemical studies were performed using a two-electrode system. Magnesium ion-based polymer gel electrolyte was used as an electrolyte material. The single electrode-specific capacitance was observed to be ∼31.9 F g−1 with power density and energy density values of ∼4.4 kW kg−1 and 1.2 Wh kg−1, respectively, at a current density of 0.46 A g−1. The cell was stable up to ∼5000 charge-discharge cycles with ∼96% of capacitance retention at the end of 5000 cycles.

Keywords:
Supercapacitor, Gel polymer electrolyte, MWCNTs

Affiliations:
Jain A. - IPPT PAN
Michalska M. - Łukasiewicz Research Network‒Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
5.  Michalska M., Pietrzyk-Thel P., Sobczak K., Janssen M., Jain A., Carbon framework modification; an interesting strategy to improve the energy storage and dye adsorption, Energy Advances, ISSN: 2753-1457, DOI: 10.1039/d4ya00159a, pp.1-13, 2024

Abstract:
Porous carbons find various applications, including as adsorbents for clean water production and as electrode materials in energy storage devices such as supercapacitors. While supercapacitors reach higher power densities than batteries, they are less widely used, as their energy density is lower. We present a low-temperature wet ultrasonochemical synthesis technique to modify the surface of activated carbon with 1 wt% Cu nanoparticles. We analyzed the modified carbon using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy and confirmed the composite formation by N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms at 77 K. For comparison, we did the same tests on pristine carbon. We used the modified carbon as an electrode material in a homebuilt supercapacitor filled with gel polymer electrolyte and as an absorbent of Malachite green dye. In both applications, the modified carbon performed substantially better than its pristine counterpart. The modified-carbon supercapacitor exhibited a single electrode-specific capacitance of approximately 68.9 F g1. It also demonstrated an energy density of 9.8 W h kg1 and a power density of 1.4 kW kg1. These values represent improvements over the pristine-carbon supercapacitor, with increases of 25.7 F g1 in capacitance, 3.8 W h kg1 in energy density, and 0.5 kW kg1 in power density. After 10 000 charging–discharging cycles, the capacitance of the modified-carbon supercapacitor decreased by approximately 10%, indicating good durability of the material. We found that the modified carbon’s absorbance capacity for Malachite dye is more than that of the pristine carbon; the adsorption capacity value was B153.16 mg g1 for modified carbon with pseudo-second kinetic order, in accordance with the Redlich–Peterson adsorption model.

Affiliations:
Michalska M. - Łukasiewicz Research Network‒Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
Pietrzyk-Thel P. - IPPT PAN
Sobczak K. - other affiliation
Janssen M. - other affiliation
Jain A. - IPPT PAN
6.  Manjakkal L., Jain A., Nandy S., Goswami S., Carvalho J., Pereira L., See C., Pillai S., Hogg R., Sustainable electrochemical energy storage devices using natural bast fibres, Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN: 1385-8947, DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2023.142845, Vol.465, No.142845, pp.1-16, 2023

Abstract:
Naturally abundant materials play a crucial role in the development of sustainable electrochemical energy storage (EES) devices including batteries and supercapacitors (SCs). This is due to limited available resources with regards to energy storage materials, and the environmental pollution produced by the toxic materials utilized in conventional EESs. In the current review, development in the field of natural bast fibres (jute, flax, hemp and kenaf) based EES devices performances is highlighted. This review emphasizes methods such as the direct use of modified fibres and activated carbon from biomass for the design of EES devices. Activated fibres were developed using both physical and chemical activation methods. Key challenges including active electrode materials preparation, capacitive retention, and the implementation of the fibre based EES devices are critically discussed. Furthermore, the recent surge in the use of wearables and portable technologies that demand further development of flexible/non-flexible EES devices are also explored. Future trends and perspectives on materials development, power management interface, recycling, biodegradability and circular economy are also addressed. It is concluded that the development of new renewable energy systems using bast fibres has many remarkable advances in device performance. For this, an innovative approach is required to develop high energy density bast fibre based sustainable EES devices which will be potentially implemented for clean energy solutions.

Keywords:
Biomass derived carbon, Electrochemical energy storage, Supercapacitor, Modified fibres, Natural fibres

Affiliations:
Manjakkal L. - other affiliation
Jain A. - IPPT PAN
Nandy S. - other affiliation
Goswami S. - other affiliation
Carvalho J. - other affiliation
Pereira L. - other affiliation
See C. - other affiliation
Pillai S. - other affiliation
Hogg R. - other affiliation
7.  Peringath Anjana R., Haghighat Bayan Mohammad A., Beg M., Jain A., Pierini F., Gadegaard N., Hogg R., Manjakkal L., Chemical synthesis of polyaniline and polythiophene electrodes with excellent performance in supercapacitors, Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN: 2352-152X, DOI: 10.1016/j.est.2023.108811, Vol.73, No.Part A, pp.108811-1-9, 2023

Abstract:
The emergence of portable electronics in miniaturized and intelligent devices demands high-performance supercapacitors (SC) and batteries as power sources. For the fabrication of such energy storage devices, conducting polymers (CPs) have significant advantages due to their high theoretical capacitive performance and conductivity. In this work, we developed two CPs including polyaniline and polythiophene through a low-cost chemically synthesized approach and the film-by-spin coating method. The structural and morphological properties of the CPs are analyzed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), contact angle measurement, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Based on these CPs, novel pristine polyaniline and polythiophene-based SCs (PASC and PTSC) are developed. The prepared CPs contribute to high electrochemical performances due to their high conductive nature of the electrode and conjugated polymer materials reaction. Hence both electrochemical double-layer formation and pseudocapacitance contributed to the energy-storing performances of the device. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic analysis (0.1 Hz to 100 kHz) demonstrates faster ionic exchange and high capacitance of the PASC electrode as compared to PTSC in H3PO4 electrolyte. The PASC devices exhibit specific capacitance of 13.22 mF·cm−2 with energy and power densities of 1.175 μW·h·cm−2 and 4.99 μW·cm−2 at a current of 50 μA. Compared to PTSC (specific capacitance 3.30 mF·cm−2) the PASC shows four times higher specific capacitance due to its improved surface, structural and electrical properties. The electrochemical performance reveals the superior SC performance for this type of CP electrode.

Keywords:
Conductive polymers, Spin coating, Polyaniline, Polythiophene, Supercapacitor, Electrochemical performances

Affiliations:
Peringath Anjana R. - other affiliation
Haghighat Bayan Mohammad A. - IPPT PAN
Beg M. - other affiliation
Jain A. - IPPT PAN
Pierini F. - IPPT PAN
Gadegaard N. - other affiliation
Hogg R. - other affiliation
Manjakkal L. - other affiliation
8.  Manippady S., Michalska M., Krajewski M., Bochenek K., Basista M.A., Zaszczyńska A., Czeppe T., Rogal , Jain A., One-step synthesis of a sustainable carbon material for high performance supercapacitor and dye adsorption applications, Materials Science and Engineering: B, ISSN: 0921-5107, DOI: 10.1016/j.mseb.2023.116766, Vol.297, No.116766, pp.1-14, 2023

Abstract:
The sustainable transformation of bio-waste into usable, material has gained great scientific interest. In this paper, we have presented preparation of an activated carbon material from a natural mushroom (Suillus boletus) and explor its properties for supercapacitor and dye adsorption applications. The produced cell exhibited a single electrode capacitance of ∼247 F g−1 with the energy and power density of ∼35 Wh kg−1 and 1.3 kW kg−1, respectively. The cell worked well for ∼20,000 cycles with ∼30% initial declination in capacitance. Three cells connected in series glowed a 2.0 V LED for ∼1.5 min. Moreover, ultrafast adsorption of methylene blue dye onto the prepared carbon as an adsorbent was recorded with ∼100% removal efficiency in an equilibrium time of three minutes. The performed tests indicate that the mushroom-derived activated carbon has the potential to become a high-performance electrode material for supercapacitors and an adsorbent for real-time wastewater treatment applications.

Keywords:
Activated carbon, Amorphous material, Biomass, Polymer gel electrolyte, Supercapacitor, Dye adsorption

Affiliations:
Manippady S. - IPPT PAN
Michalska M. - Łukasiewicz Research Network‒Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
Krajewski M. - IPPT PAN
Bochenek K. - IPPT PAN
Basista M.A. - IPPT PAN
Zaszczyńska A. - IPPT PAN
Czeppe T. - Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Rogal  - Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Jain A. - IPPT PAN
9.  Jain A., Ziai Y., Bochenek K., Manippady Sai R., Pierini F., Michalska M., Utilization of compressible hydrogels as electrolyte materials for supercapacitor applications, RSC Advances, ISSN: 2046-2069, DOI: 10.1039/d3ra00893b, Vol.13, pp.11503-11512, 2023

Abstract:
Utilization of CoO@Co3O4-x-Ag (x denotes 1, 3, and 5 wt% of Ag) nanocomposites as supercapacitor electrodes is the main aim of this study. A new low-temperature wet chemical approach is proposed to modify the commercial cobalt oxide material with silver nanoparticle (NP) balls of size 1–5 nm. The structure and morphology of the as-prepared nanocomposites were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and N2 adsorption–desorption measurements. Hydrogels known to be soft but stable structures were used here as perfect carriers for conductive nanoparticles such as carbons. Furthermore, hydrogels with a large amount of water in their network can give more flexibility to the system. Fabrication of an electrochemical cell can be achieved by combining these materials with a layer-by-layer structure. The performance characteristics of the cells were examined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and galvanostatic charge discharge (GCD). Cobalt oxide modified with 5 wt% Ag gave the best supercapacitor results, and the cell offers a specific capacitance of ∼38 mF cm−2 in two-electrode configurations.

Affiliations:
Jain A. - IPPT PAN
Ziai Y. - IPPT PAN
Bochenek K. - IPPT PAN
Manippady Sai R. - IPPT PAN
Pierini F. - IPPT PAN
Michalska M. - Łukasiewicz Research Network‒Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
10.  Jain A., Manippady S., Tang R., Nishihara H., Sobczak K., Matejka V., Michalska M., Vanadium oxide nanorods as an electrode material for solid state supercapacitor, Scientific Reports, ISSN: 2045-2322, DOI: 10.1038/s41598-022-25707-z, Vol.12, No.21024, pp.1-12, 2022

Abstract:
The electrochemical properties of metal oxides are very attractive and fascinating in general, making them a potential candidate for supercapacitor application. Vanadium oxide is of particular interest because it possesses a variety of valence states and is also cost effective with low toxicity and a wide voltage window. In the present study, vanadium oxide nanorods were synthesized using a modified sol–gel technique at low temperature. Surface morphology and crystallinity studies were carried out by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. To the best of our knowledge, the as-prepared nanorods were tested with magnesium ion based polymer gel electrolyte for the first time. The prepared supercapacitor cell exhibits high capacitance values of the order of ~ 141.8 F g−1 with power density of ~ 2.3 kW kg−1 and energy density of ~ 19.1 Wh kg−1. The cells show excellent rate capability and good cycling stability.

Affiliations:
Jain A. - IPPT PAN
Manippady S. - IPPT PAN
Tang R. - other affiliation
Nishihara H. - other affiliation
Sobczak K. - other affiliation
Matejka V. - other affiliation
Michalska M. - Łukasiewicz Research Network‒Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
11.  Gaurav A., Jain A., Tripathi S.K., Review on Fluorescent Carbon/Graphene Quantum Dots: Promising Material for Energy Storage and Next-Generation Light-Emitting Diodes, Materials, ISSN: 1996-1944, DOI: 10.3390/ma15227888, Vol.15, No.22, pp.1-35, 2022

Abstract:
Carbon/graphene quantum dots are 0D fluorescent carbon materials with sizes ranging from 2 nm to around 50 nm, with some attractive properties and diverse applications. Different synthesis routes, bandgap variation, higher stability, low toxicity with tunable emission, and the variation of physical and chemical properties with change in size have drawn immense attention to its potential application in different optoelectronics-based materials, especially advanced light-emitting diodes and energy storage devices. WLEDs are a strong candidate for the future of solid-state lighting due to their higher luminance and luminous efficiency. High-performance batteries play an important part in terms of energy saving and storage. In this review article, the authors provide a comparative analysis of recent and ongoing advances in synthesis (top-down and bottom-up), properties, and wide applications in different kinds of next-generation light-emitting diodes such as WLEDs, and energy storage devices such as batteries (Li-B, Na-B) and supercapacitors. Furthermore, they discuss the potential applications and progress of carbon dots in battery applications such as electrode materials. The authors also summarise the developmental stages and challenges in the existing field, the state-of-the-art of carbon/graphene quantum dots, and the potential and possible solutions for the same.

Keywords:
carbon dots, graphene quantum dots, white-LED, supercapacitors, Na-ion batteries, Li-ion batteries

Affiliations:
Gaurav A. - other affiliation
Jain A. - IPPT PAN
Tripathi S.K. - Mahatma Gandhi Central University (IN)
12.  Jain A., Michalska M., Zaszczyńska A., Denis P., Surface modification of activated carbon with silver nanoparticles for electrochemical double layer capacitors, Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN: 2352-152X, DOI: 10.1016/j.est.2022.105367, Vol.54, pp.105367-1-9, 2022

Abstract:
In the present work, we report the synthesis of surface modified activated carbon (AC). The surface of the activated carbon have been modified by using silver nanoparticles. The synthesis process is simple, cost effective and environment friendly. The modified-AC powders have been characterized by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and surface area and pore size measurements. The electrochemical performance of the prepared materials have been tested by fabricating symmetric configuration of EDLC by using magnesium-ion based polymer electrolytes. The cells have been tested by using cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge-discharge technique. AC with 3 wt% of silver presents best results with specific capacitance of the order of 398 F g−1 energy density and power density of 55 Wh kg−1 and 2.4 kW kg−1 making it an interesting material for supercapacitor application.

Keywords:
supercapacitor, activated carbon-silver composite, gel polymer electrolyte, electrochemical studies

Affiliations:
Jain A. - IPPT PAN
Michalska M. - Łukasiewicz Research Network‒Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
Zaszczyńska A. - IPPT PAN
Denis P. - IPPT PAN
13.  Michalska M., Buchberger D.A., Jasiński J.B., Thapa A.K., Jain A., Surface modification of nanocrystalline LiMn2O4 using graphene oxide flakes, Materials, ISSN: 1996-1944, DOI: 10.3390/ma14154134, Vol.14, No.15, pp.4134-1-13, 2021

Abstract:
In this work, a facile, wet chemical synthesis was utilized to achieve a series of lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4, (LMO) with 1–5%wt. graphene oxide (GO) composites. The average crystallite sizes estimated by the Rietveld method of LMO/GO nanocomposites were in the range of 18–27 nm. The electrochemical performance was studied using CR2013 coin-type cell batteries prepared from pristine LMO material and LMO modified with 5%wt. GO. Synthesized materials were tested as positive electrodes for Li-ion batteries in the voltage range between 3.0 and 4.3 V at room temperature. The specific discharge capacity after 100 cycles for LMO and LMO/5%wt. GO were 84 and 83 mAh g^−1, respectively. The LMO material modified with 5%wt. of graphene oxide flakes retained more than 91% of its initial specific capacity, as compared with the 86% of pristine LMO material.

Keywords:
lithium manganese oxide, LiMn2O4, graphene oxide, cathode material, lithium ion battery

Affiliations:
Michalska M. - Łukasiewicz Research Network‒Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
Buchberger D.A. - University of Warsaw (PL)
Jasiński J.B. - other affiliation
Thapa A.K. - other affiliation
Jain A. - IPPT PAN
14.  Gupta A., Jain A., Kumari M., Tripathi S.K., Electrical, electrochemical and structural studies of a chlorine-derived ionic liquid-based polymer gel electrolyte, Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, ISSN: 2190-4286, DOI: 10.3762/bjnano.12.92, Vol.12, pp.1252-1261, 2021

Abstract:
In the present article, an ionic liquid-based polymer gel electrolyte was synthesized by using poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluo-ropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) as a host polymer. The electrolyte films were synthesized by using the solution casting technique. The as-prepared films were free-standing and transparent with good dimensional stability. Optimized electrolyte films exhibit a maximum room-temperature ionic conductivity of σ = 8.9 × 10^−3 S·cm^−1. The temperature dependence of the prepared polymer gel electrolytes follows the thermally activated behavior of the Vogel–Tammann–Fulcher equation. The total ionic transference number was ≈0.91 with a wider electrochemical potential window of 4.0 V for the prepared electrolyte film which contains 30 wt % of the ionic liquid. The optimized films have good potential to be used as electrolyte materials for energy storage applications.

Keywords:
ionic liquid, polymer gel electrolytes, solution casting technique, transference number

Affiliations:
Gupta A. - Government Tulsi Degree College (IN)
Jain A. - IPPT PAN
Kumari M. - Viva Institute of Technology (IN)
Tripathi S.K. - Mahatma Gandhi Central University (IN)
15.  Michalska M., Xu H., Shan Q., Zhang S., Gao Y., Jain A., Krajewski M., Dall'Agnese Y., Solution combustion synthesis of a nanometer-scale Co3O4 anode material for Li-ion batteries, Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, ISSN: 2190-4286, DOI: 10.3762/bjnano.12.34, Vol.12, pp.424-431, 2021

Abstract:
A novel solution combustion synthesis of nanoscale spinel-structured Co3O4 powder was proposed in this work. The obtained material was composed of loosely arranged nanoparticles whose average diameter was about 36 nm. The as-prepared cobalt oxide powder was also tested as the anode material for Li-ion batteries and revealed specific capacities of 1060 and 533 mAh·g^−1 after 100 cycles at charge–discharge current densities of 100 and 500 mA·g^−1, respectively. Moreover, electrochemical measurements indicate that even though the synthesized nanomaterial possesses a low active surface area, it exhibits a relatively high specific capacity measured at 100 mA·g^−1 after 100 cycles and a quite good rate capability at current densities between 50 and 5000 mA·g^−1.

Keywords:
anode material, cobalt oxide, lithium-ion battery, solution combustion synthesis, transition metal oxide

Affiliations:
Michalska M. - Łukasiewicz Research Network‒Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
Xu H. - other affiliation
Shan Q. - other affiliation
Zhang S. - other affiliation
Gao Y. - other affiliation
Jain A. - IPPT PAN
Krajewski M. - IPPT PAN
Dall'Agnese Y. - other affiliation
16.  Jain A., Ghosh M., Krajewski M., Kurungot S., Michalska M., Biomass-derived activated carbon material from native European deciduous trees as an inexpensive and sustainable energy material for supercapacitor application, Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN: 2352-152X, DOI: 10.1016/j.est.2020.102178, Vol.34, pp.102178-1-9, 2021

Abstract:
Activated carbons are one of the possible electrode materials for supercapacitors (SCs), which are widely used in commercial applications. Herein, we reported the synthesis of a novel activated carbon derived through a cavitation process from the mixture of native European deciduous trees, Birch, Fagaceae, and Carpinus betulus (commonly known as European hornbeam), which was employed as the electrode material in SC. From the morphological and structural characterization, we observed that the prepared sample is a desirable carbon with good porosity and high specific surface area of about 614 m^2 g^-1. The electrochemical properties of the synthesized material were evaluated with a three-electrode configuration in 1.0 M H2SO4 electrolyte. It was found that in device mode, the carbon material delivers a specific capacitance of 24 F g^-1 at 0.25 A g^-1 with excellent cycling stability of over 10000 consecutive charge/discharge cycles. Thus, our studies demonstrate the facile synthesis of biomass-derived carbon and its application as a versatile electrode material for SC applications.

Keywords:
biomass, carbon material, deciduous trees, electrode material, supercapacitor

Affiliations:
Jain A. - IPPT PAN
Ghosh M. - other affiliation
Krajewski M. - IPPT PAN
Kurungot S. - other affiliation
Michalska M. - Łukasiewicz Research Network‒Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
17.  Gupta A., Jain A., Tripathi S., Structural, electrical and electrochemical studies of ionic liquid-based polymer gel electrolyte using magnesium salt for supercapacitor application, Journal of Polymer Research, ISSN: 1572-8935, DOI: 10.1007/s10965-021-02597-9, Vol.28, pp.235-1-11, 2021

Abstract:
In the present studies, the effect of ionic liquid 1-Ethyl-2,3-dimethylimidazoliumtetrafluoroborate (EDiMIM)(BF4) on ionic conductivity of gel polymer electrolyte using poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) [PVdF(HFP)] and magnesium perchlorate [Mg(ClO4)2] as salt was investigated. The maximum room temperature ionic conductivity for the optimized system was found to be of the order of 8.4 × 10^–3 S cm^−1. The optimized composition reflects Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) behavior in the temperature range of 25 °C to 100 °C. The X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy studies confirm the uniform blending of ionic liquid, polymer, and salts along with the enhanced amorphous nature of the optimized system. Dielectric and modulus spectra studies provide the information of electrode polarization as well as dipole relaxation properties of polymeric materials. The optimized electrolyte system possesses a sufficiently large electrochemical window of the order of 6.0 V with stainless steel electrodes.

Keywords:
gel polymer electrolyte, ionic liquid, ionic conductivity, temperature dependence, supercapacitors

Affiliations:
Gupta A. - Government Tulsi Degree College (IN)
Jain A. - IPPT PAN
Tripathi S. - Mahatma Gandhi Central University (IN)
18.  Ghosal K., Augustine R., Zaszczyńska A., Barman M., Jain A., Hasan A., Kalarikkal N., Sajkiewicz P., Thomas S., Novel drug delivery systems based on triaxial electrospinning based nanofibers, REACTIVE AND FUNCTIONAL POLYMERS, ISSN: 1381-5148, DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2021.104895, Vol.163, pp.104895-1-9, 2021

Abstract:
Electrospinning is a widely investigated process for forming nanofibers. Nanofibers in drug delivery systems are extensively tested due to its remarkable properties e.g. small pore size or large surface area. Recent articles have informed about formation of fibers using triaxial electrospinning in drug delivery systems. This paper summarizes the process of triaxial electrospinning and its application in drug delivery. Triaxial electrospinning has advantages in forming complex nanostructures for specific drug delivery applications. This paper summarizes the possibility to use triaxial electrospinning to resolve the problem of limited drug solubility, to protect biomolecules from hostile environment, and to control drug release kinetics, with the possibility of loading of various drugs. There are literature data evidencing the possibility to achieve sustained release with a border case of zero rate order kinetics. There is no doubt that triaxial electrospinning opens a new way to develop sophisticated nanomaterials for achieving the desired functional performances and to expand the applications in the drug delivery area. Triaxial electrospinning method is interdisciplinary area with great potential in nanotechnology.

Keywords:
triaxial electrospinning, complex nanostructures, drug delivery, desired functional performance, sustained/controlled release

Affiliations:
Ghosal K. - Jadavpur University (IN)
Augustine R. - Qatar University (QA)
Zaszczyńska A. - IPPT PAN
Barman M. - Dr. B. C. Roy College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences (IN)
Jain A. - IPPT PAN
Hasan A. - Qatar University (QA)
Kalarikkal N. - Mahatma Gandhi Central University (IN)
Sajkiewicz P. - IPPT PAN
Thomas S. - Mahatma Gandhi Central University (IN)
19.  Gupta A., Jain A., Kumari M., Tripathi S.K., Structural, electrical and electrochemical studies of sodium ion conducting blend polymer electrolytes, Materials Today: Proceedings, ISSN: 2214-7853, DOI: 10.1016/j.matpr.2020.05.030, Vol.34, pp.780-786, 2021

Abstract:
In the present study sodium ion conducting polymer blend electrolytes has been prepared using poly (vinylidene fluoride – hexafluoro – propylene) (PVdF-HFP), poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN) salt by solution-cast technique. The highest ionic conductivity of the optimized blend polymer electrolyte system [PVdF(HFP)-PMMA (4:1)] (20 wt%)-[NaSCN (1 M)] (80 wt%) has been found to be 4.54 × 10^−2 S cm^−1 at room temperature. The temperature dependence conductivity plot shows the Arrhenius behaviour and its activation energy calculated from the plot were found to be 0.13 eV. The structural and morphological studies of polymer blend electrolyte were investigated by XRD, SEM and FTIR spectroscopy. Complex formation between polymer and salt has been confirmed by these studies. The thermal properties of optimized electrolyte system were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. The ionic transport number was calculated using d.c polarization techniques and was found to be 0.92, which shows that electrolyte system is predominantly ionic in nature. The electrochemical potential window of optimized polymer blend electrolyte was tested and observed to be ~2.8 V.

Keywords:
polymer blends electrolyte, solution cast technique, sodium ion, FTIR, DSC

Affiliations:
Gupta A. - Government Tulsi Degree College (IN)
Jain A. - IPPT PAN
Kumari M. - Viva Institute of Technology (IN)
Tripathi S.K. - Mahatma Gandhi Central University (IN)
20.  Gupta A., Jain A., Tripathi S., Structural and electrochemical studies of bromide derived ionic liquid-based gel polymer electrolyte for energy storage application, Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN: 2352-152X, DOI: 10.1016/j.est.2020.101723, Vol.32, pp.101723-1-7, 2020

Abstract:
In the present studies, poly (vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP), ionic liquid {1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide} (EMIM)(Br), and magnesium perchlorate Mg(ClO4)2 as salt were used to synthesize free standing electrolyte films by using solution cast technique. The prepared electrolyte films were investigated by using various structural and electrochemical techniques like scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as well as ionic and temperature dependence studies. It has been observed that addition of ionic liquid significantly increases the properties like ionic conductivity, thermal stability, transparency etc. The maximum room temperature ionic conductivity for the optimized system was found to be of the order of 2.05 × 10^−2 S cm^−1 which is suitable for device fabrication point of view. The optimized electrolyte films are suitable for supercapacitor application.

Keywords:
gel polymer electrolytes, ionic liquid, solution cast technique, supercapacitors

Affiliations:
Gupta A. - Government Tulsi Degree College (IN)
Jain A. - IPPT PAN
Tripathi S. - Mahatma Gandhi Central University (IN)
21.  Roszkiewicz A., Jain A., Teodorczyk M., Nasalski W., Formation and characterization of hole nanopattern on photoresist layer by scanning near-field optical microscope, Nanomaterials, ISSN: 2079-4991, DOI: 10.3390/nano9101452, Vol.9, No.10, pp.1452-1-11, 2019

Abstract:
Patterning of lines of holes on a layer of positive photoresist SXAR-P3500/6 (Allresist GmbH, Strausberg, Germany) spin-coated on a quartz substrate is carried out by using scanning near-field optical lithography. A green 532 nm-wavelength laser, focused on a backside of a nanoprobe of 90 nm diameter, is used as a light source. As a result, after optimization of parameters like laser power, exposure time, or sleep time, it is confirmed that it is possible to obtain a uniform nanopattern structure in the photoresist layer. In addition, the lines of holes are characterized by a uniform depth (71–87nm) and relatively high aspect ratio ranging from 0.22 to 0.26. Numerical modelling performed with a rigorous method shows that such a structure can be potentially used as a phase zone plate.

Keywords:
optical lithography, photoresist, quartz, hole nanopatterning

Affiliations:
Roszkiewicz A. - IPPT PAN
Jain A. - IPPT PAN
Teodorczyk M. - Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
Nasalski W. - IPPT PAN
22.  Jain A., Tripathi S.K., Almond shell-based activated nanoporous carbon electrode for EDLCs, Ionics, ISSN: 0947-7047, DOI: 10.1007/s11581-014-1282-1, Vol.21, No.5, pp.1391-1398, 2015

Abstract:
Almondshell-basedchemicallytreatedandactivated nanoporous charcoal powder (AS(T)) has been successfully prepared by chemical activation method using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as an activating agent. The as-synthesized AS(T)wassystematicallycharacterizedbyvarioustechniques like N2 adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Xray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. The AS(T)based nanoporous activated charcoal is tested as an electrode material with ionic liquid-based polymer gel electrolyte for electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). EDLCs prepared from AS(T) exhibit specific capacitance of 986.3 mF cm−2 (equivalent to single-electrodespecific capacitance of 563.6 F g−1). The energy density of 62.8 Wh kg−1 and power density of 2.1 kW kg−1 have been observed for nanoporous AS(T)-based EDLCs.

Keywords:
Almond shell, Nanoporous carbon, Ionicliquid, Electrochemical double-layer capacitor

Affiliations:
Jain A. - other affiliation
Tripathi S.K. - Mahatma Gandhi Central University (IN)
23.  Jain A., Tripathi S.K., Nano-porous activated carbon from sugarcane waste for supercapacitor application, Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN: 2352-152X, DOI: 10.1016/j.est.2015.09.010, Vol.4, pp.121-127, 2015

Abstract:
Low cost with high specific capacitance and energy density is the critical and main requirement for practical supercapacitors. In the present work, nano porous activated carbon having specific surface area of 400 m2 g-1 from sugarcane waste (bagasse) has been synthesized and characterized as an electrode material for supercapacitor applications using ionic liquid based polymer gel electrolytes. The fabricated cell shows the overall specific capacitance of 372 mF cm-2 which is equivalent to single electrode specific capacitance of 248 F g-1. The corresponding energy and power density of 16.3Wh kg-1 and 1.66 kWkg-1 were achieved for EDLCs.

Affiliations:
Jain A. - other affiliation
Tripathi S.K. - Mahatma Gandhi Central University (IN)

List of recent monographs
1. 
Jain A., Roszkiewicz A., Nasalski W., A note on optical materials for photolithography applications, IPPT Reports on Fundamental Technological Research, 3, pp.1-41, 2018

List of chapters in recent monographs
1. 
Mandal M., Chattopadhyay K., Jain A., Bhattacharya S.K., Materials Horizons: From Nature to Nanomaterials, rozdział: Porous Carbon Materials for Supercapacitor Applications, Springer, Singapore, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-7188-4_5, pp.117-146, 2023
2. 
Bhat Y., Chadha N., Jain A., An Introduction to Permittivity, rozdział: Role of Dielectric Permittivity in Electrode Materials for Energy Storage Device Applications: A fundamental and brief overview, Nova Science Publishers Inc. New York , pp.219-238, 2022

Conference abstracts
1.  Jain A., Michalska M., Pietrzyk-Thel P., Development of surface modified carbon material electrode for EDLC application, E-MRS 2023, The Fall Meeting of the European Materials Research Society, 2023-09-18/09-21, Warszawa (PL), pp.1-1, 2023

Keywords:
Supercapacitors, Activated Carbon, Polymer gel electrolyte, Surface modification

Affiliations:
Jain A. - IPPT PAN
Michalska M. - Łukasiewicz Research Network‒Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
Pietrzyk-Thel P. - IPPT PAN
2.  Jain A., Michalska M., Manippady S.R., Fabrication of electrochemical double layer capacitor using surface modified WCNTs as an electrode materials, THERMEC 2023, International Conference on PROCESSING & MANUFACTURING OF ADVANCED MATERIALS Processing, Fabrication, Properties, Applications, 2023-07-02/07-07, Wiedeń (AT), pp.1-1, 2023

Keywords:
Supercapacitors, MWCNTs, Polymer gel electrolyte, Surface modification

Affiliations:
Jain A. - IPPT PAN
Michalska M. - Łukasiewicz Research Network‒Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
Manippady S.R. - IPPT PAN
3.  Jain A., Michalska M., Modified carbon materials for energy storage application, 2nd annual meeting of the AtomDeC project, 2022-11-02/11-04, Smolenice (SK), pp.1-2, 2022

Keywords:
Supercapacitors, Activated carbon, Polymer gel electrolyte

Affiliations:
Jain A. - IPPT PAN
Michalska M. - Łukasiewicz Research Network‒Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (PL)
4.  Jain A., Michalska M., Silver-modified carbon material and its application in supercapacitor devices, FuNaM-3, 3rd International Workshop on Functional Nanostructured Materials, 2021-10-06/10-08, Kraków (PL), pp.1-1, 2021

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