Institute of Fundamental Technological Research
Polish Academy of Sciences

Staff

Karolina Zakrzewska, PhD

Department of Biosystems and Soft Matter (ZBiMM)
Division of Modelling in Biology and Medicine (PMBM)
position: senior specialist
telephone: (+48) 22 826 12 81 ext.: 468
room: 309
e-mail:
ORCID: 0000-0002-1346-2445

Doctoral thesis
2016-06-21 Metody hodowli ludzkich komórek pochodzenia wątrobowego z wykorzystaniem modyfikowanych genetycznie komórek podtrzymujących hodowlę  (IBIB PAN)
supervisor -- Dorota Pijanowska, IBIB PAN
supervisor -- Krzysztof Pluta, IBIB PAN
 

Recent publications
1.  Wencel A., Ciezkowska M., Wisniewska M., Zakrzewska K.E., Pijanowska D.G., Pluta K.D., Effects of genetically modified human skin fibroblasts, stably overexpressing hepatocyte growth factor, on hepatic functions of cocultured C3A cells, Biotechnology & Bioengineering, ISSN: 0006-3592, DOI: 10.1002/bit.27551, pp.1-10, 2020

Abstract:
Diseases leading to terminal hepatic failure are among the most common causes of death worldwide. Transplant of the whole organ is the only effective method to cure liver failure. Unfortunately, this treatment option is not available universally due to the serious shortage of donors. Thus, alternative methods have been developed that are aimed at prolonging the life of patients, including hepatic cells transplantation and bridging therapy based on hybrid bioartificial liver devices. Parenchymal liver cells are highly differentiated and perform many complex functions, such as detoxification and protein synthesis. Unfortunately, isolated hepatocytes display a rapid decline in viability and liver‐specific functions. A number of methods have been developed to maintain hepatocytes in their highly differentiated state in vitro, amongst them the most promising being 3D growth scaffolds and decellularized tissues or coculture with other cell types required for the heterotypic cell‐cell interactions. Here we present a novel approach to the hepatic cells culture based on the feeder layer cells genetically modified using lentiviral vector to stably produce additional amounts of hepatocyte growth factor and show the positive influence of these coculture conditions on the preservation of the hepatic functions of the liver parenchymal cells' model—C3A cells.

Keywords:
cell genetic modifications, growth surface engineering, hepatocyte growth factor, hepatocytes‐fibroblasts coculture, lentiviral vectors

Affiliations:
Wencel A. - Nałęcz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Ciezkowska M. - other affiliation
Wisniewska M. - other affiliation
Zakrzewska K.E. - IPPT PAN
Pijanowska D.G. - Nałęcz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Pluta K.D. - Nałęcz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
2.  Pluta K.D., Samluk A., Wencel A., Zakrzewska K.E., Gora M., Burzynska B., Ciezkowska M., Motyl J., Pijanowska D.G., Genetically modified C3A cells with restored urea cycle for improved bioartificial liver, Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, ISSN: 0208-5216, DOI: 10.1016/j.bbe.2019.12.006, Vol.40, No.1, pp.378-387, 2020

Abstract:
The bioartificial liver, a hybrid device aimed at improving the survival of patients with fulminant liver failure, requires a cell source to replicate human liver function. However, liver support systems that utilize porcine or human hepatoma-derived cells felt short of expectations in clinical trials. Here we present engineered C3A cells, with a restored function of the urea cycle, which can be used in an efficacious bioartificial liver. The genetic modification was performed using a lentiviral-mediated gene transfer which led to effective integration of the transgenes, coding for arginase I and ornithine transcarbamylase, into the target cell genomes. The engineered cells are more resistant to the oxidative/nitrosative stress induced by the presence of high concentrations of ammonia cations and produce more urea than their unmodified counterparts. Interestingly, the genetically modified cells secrete more albumin than control C3A cells and the synthesis of the protein is induced by increasing concentrations of ammonia. Although the physiological capabilities of the new cell line need to be further examined, at this stage of our study we may conclude that the genetically modified cells are able to convert ammonia to urea more effectively than regular C3A cells.

Keywords:
bioartificial liver, genetically modified cells, lentiviral vectors, urea cycle

Affiliations:
Pluta K.D. - Nałęcz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Samluk A. - Nałęcz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Wencel A. - Nałęcz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Zakrzewska K.E. - IPPT PAN
Gora M. - other affiliation
Burzynska B. - other affiliation
Ciezkowska M. - other affiliation
Motyl J. - other affiliation
Pijanowska D.G. - Nałęcz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
3.  Zakrzewska K.E., Samluk A., Wencel A., Dudek K., Pijanowska D.G., Pluta K.D., Liver tissue fragments obtained from males are the most promising source of human hepatocytes for cell-based therapies – Flow cytometric analysis of albumin expression, PLOS ONE, ISSN: 1932-6203, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182846, Vol.12, No.8, pp.1-14, 2017

Abstract:
Cell-based therapies that could provide an alternative treatment for the end-stage liver disease require an adequate source of functional hepatocytes. There is little scientific evidence for the influence of patient's age, sex, and chemotherapy on the cell isolation efficiency and metabolic activity of the harvested hepatocytes. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hepatocytes derived from different sources display differential viability and biosynthetic capacity. Liver cells were isolated from 41 different human tissue specimens. Hepatocytes were labeled using specific antibodies and analyzed using flow cytometry. Multiparametric analysis of the acquired data revealed statistically significant differences between some studied groups of patients. Generally, populations of cells isolated from the male specimens had greater percentage of biosynthetically active hepatocytes than those from the female ones regardless of age and previous chemotherapy of the patient. Based on the albumin staining (and partially on the α-1-antitrypsin labeling) after donor liver exclusion (6 out of 41 samples), our results indicated that: 1. samples obtained from males gave a greater percentage of active hepatocytes than those from females (p = 0.034), and 2. specimens from the males after chemotherapy greater than those from the treated females (p = 0.032).

Affiliations:
Zakrzewska K.E. - other affiliation
Samluk A. - Nałęcz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Wencel A. - Nałęcz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Dudek K. - Medical University of Warsaw (PL)
Pijanowska D.G. - Nałęcz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Pluta K.D. - Nałęcz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
4.  Wencel A., Zakrzewska K.E., Samluk A., Noszczyk B.H., Pijanowska D.G., Pluta K.D., Dried human skin fibroblasts as a new substratum for functional culture of hepatic cells, ACTA BIOCHIMICA POLONICA, ISSN: 0001-527X, DOI: 10.18388/abp.2016_1481, Vol.64, No.2, pp.357-363, 2017

Abstract:
The primary hepatocytes culture is still one of the main challenges in toxicology studies in the drug discovery process, development of in vitro models to study liver function, and cell-based therapies. Isolated hepatocytes display a rapid decline in viability and liver-specific functions including albumin production, conversion of ammonia to urea, and activity of the drug metabolizing enzymes. A number of methods have been developed in order to maintain hepatocytes in their highly differentiated state in vitro. Optimization of culture conditions includes a variety of media formulations and supplements, growth surface coating with the components of extracellular matrix or with synthetic polymers, three-dimensional growth scaffolds and decellularized tissues, and coculture with other cell types required for the normal cell-cell interactions. Here we propose a new substratum for hepatic cells made by drying confluent human skin fibroblasts' culture. This growth surface coating, prepared using maximally simplified procedure, combines the advantages of the use of extracellular matrices and growth factors/cytokines secreted by the feeder layer cells. In comparison to the hepatoma cells grown on a regular tissue culture plastic, cells cultured on the dried fibroblasts were able to synthesize albumin in larger quantities and to form greater number of apical vacuoles. Unlike the coculture with the living feeder layer cells, the number of cells grown on the new substratum was not reduced after fourteen days of culture. This fact could make the dried fibroblasts coating an ideal candidate for the substrate for non-dividing human hepatocytes.

Keywords:
cocultures, culture substratum, dried fibroblasts, human skin fibroblasts, C3A cells

Affiliations:
Wencel A. - Nałęcz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Zakrzewska K.E. - other affiliation
Samluk A. - Nałęcz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Noszczyk B.H. - Medical University of Warsaw (PL)
Pijanowska D.G. - Nałęcz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Pluta K.D. - Nałęcz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
5.  Zakrzewska K.E., Samluk A., Wierzbicki M., Jaworski S., Kutwin M., Sawosz E., Chwalibog A., Pijanowska D.G., Pluta K.D., Analysis of the Cytotoxicity of Carbon-Based Nanoparticles, Diamond and Graphite, in Human Glioblastoma and Hepatoma Cell Lines, PLOS ONE, ISSN: 1932-6203, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0122579, Vol.10, No.3, pp.1-15, 2015

Abstract:
Nanoparticles have attracted a great deal of attention as carriers for drug delivery to cancer cells. However, reports on their potential cytotoxicity raise questions of their safety and this matter needs attentive consideration. In this paper, for the first time, the cytotoxic effects of two carbon based nanoparticles, diamond and graphite, on glioblastoma and hepatoma cells were compared. First, we confirmed previous results that diamond nanoparticles are practically nontoxic. Second, graphite nanoparticles exhibited a negative impact on glioblastoma, but not on hepatoma cells. The studied carbon nanoparticles could be a potentially useful tool for therapeutics delivery to the brain tissue with minimal side effects on the hepatocytes. Furthermore, we showed the influence of the nanoparticles on the stable, fluorescently labeled tumor cell lines and concluded that the labeled cells are suitable for drug cytotoxicity tests.

Affiliations:
Zakrzewska K.E. - other affiliation
Samluk A. - Nałęcz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Wierzbicki M. - Warsaw University of Life Sciences (PL)
Jaworski S. - Warsaw University of Life Sciences (PL)
Kutwin M. - Warsaw University of Life Sciences (PL)
Sawosz E. - Warsaw University of Life Sciences (PL)
Chwalibog A. - University of Copenhagen (DK)
Pijanowska D.G. - Nałęcz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Pluta K.D. - Nałęcz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
6.  Zakrzewska K.E., Samluk A., Pluta K.D., Pijanowska D.G., Evaluation of the effects of antibiotics on cytotoxicity of EGFP and DsRed2 fluorescent proteins used for stable cell labeling, ACTA BIOCHIMICA POLONICA, ISSN: 0001-527X, Vol.61, No.4, pp.809-813, 2014

Abstract:
The use of fluorescent markers has proven to be an attractive tool in biological imaging. However, its usefulness may be confined by the cytotoxicity of the fluorescent proteins. In this article, for the first time, we have examined an influence of the antibiotics present in culture medium on cytotoxicity of the EGFP and DsRed2 markers used for whole-cell labeling. Results showed that doxycycline negatively affected albumin synthesis in DsRed2-expressing hepatoma cells, and that both hepatoma cells and human skin fibroblasts, labeled with this protein, were characterized by the lowered growth rates. Thus, the cytotoxic effect of fluorescent markers depends on both protein used for cell labeling and on growth conditions that may cause cell stress.

Keywords:
stable fluorescent labeling, whole-cell labeling, fluorescent protein cytotoxicity

Affiliations:
Zakrzewska K.E. - other affiliation
Samluk A. - Nałęcz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Pluta K.D. - Nałęcz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Pijanowska D.G. - Nałęcz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
7.  Samluk A., Zakrzewska K.E., Pluta K.D., Generation of Fluorescently Labeled Cell Lines, C3A Hepatoma Cells, and Human Adult Skin Fibroblasts to Study Coculture Models, Artificial Organs, ISSN: 0160-564X, DOI: 10.1111/aor.12064, Vol.37, No.7, pp.E123-E130, 2013

Abstract:
Hepatic/nonhepatic cell cocultures are widely used in studies on the role of homo- and heterotypic interactions in liver physiology and pathophysiology. In this article, for the first time, establishment of the coculture model employing hepatoma C3A cells and human skin fibroblasts, stably expressing fluorescent markers, is described. Suitability of the model in studying coculture conditions using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry was examined. C3A cells spontaneously formed island-like growth patterns surrounded by fibroblasts. The “islands” size and resulting intensity of the homo- and heterotypic interactions can easily be tuned by applying various plated cells ratios. We examined the capability of the hepatoma cells to produce albumin in hepatic/nonhepatic cell cocultures. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests showed that greater number of fibroblasts in coculture, resulting in smaller sizes of hepatoma “islands,” and thus, a larger heterotypic interface, promoted higher albumin synthesis. The use of fluorescently labeled cells in flow cytometry measurements enabled us to separately gate two cell populations and to evaluate protein expression only in/on cells of interest. Flow cytometry confirmed ELISA results indicating the highest albumin production in hepatoma cells cocultured with the greatest number of fibroblasts and the inhibited protein synthesis in coculture with osteosarcoma cells.

Keywords:
C3A fluorescent cell line, Fluorescently labeled fibroblasts, Liver coculture model, Lentiviral vectors, Flow cytometry

Affiliations:
Samluk A. - Nałęcz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Zakrzewska K.E. - other affiliation
Pluta K.D. - Nałęcz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)

Conference abstracts
1.  Zakrzewska K.E., Jetka T., Nienałtowski K., Szymańska K., Andryka K., Topolewski P., Głów E., Komorowski M., Sensing and remembering IFNs concentrations, Cytokine, ISSN: 1043-4666, DOI: 10.1016/j.cyto.2017.09.011, Vol.100, pp.Mo-P7-12-100-100, 2017

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