prof. dr hab. Tomasz Kowalewski

Zakład Mechaniki i Fizyki Płynów (ZMiFP)
Pracownia Modelowania w Biologii i Medycynie (PMBM)
Laboratorium Bio- i Mikro-Przepływów
stanowisko: profesor zwyczajny
telefon bezpośredni: (+48) 22 826 98 03
telefon: (+48) 22 826 12 81 wew.: 422
pokój: 227
e-mail: tkowale
strona www: http://bluebox.ippt.pan.pl/~tkowale/

Doktorat
1982Badania eksperymentalne laminarnego przepływu zawiesin w kanale 
promotor -- prof. dr hab. inż. Władysław Fiszdon, IPPT PAN
382 
Habilitacja
1995Wybrane przepływy ze swobodną powierzchnią - strugi i krople 
Profesura
2007-01-22Nadanie tytułu naukowego profesora
Promotor prac doktorskich
1.2015-02-03Nakielski Paweł  
(IBIB PAN)
Systemy uwalniania leków oparte na nanowłóknach1082
 
2.2009-09-24Błoński Sławomir  Analiza przepływu turbulentnego w mikrokanale622
 
3.2009-01-22Dekajło Krzysztof  Analiza stabilności przepływów termicznych w pochyłej geometrii620
 
4.2008-11-27Korczyk Piotr  Drobnoskalowa turbulencja w procesie mieszania chmury z otoczeniem - model laboratoryjny618
 
5.2005-11-24Michałek Tomasz  Metoda oceny wiarygodności symulacji numerycznych przepływów lepkich i termicznych 

Kierownik projektów
1. Dynamika mikro i nano obiektów zawieszonych w płynie, Badania własne, Okres realizacji od 2012-08-07 do 2015-08-06, Finansowanie: NCN, 2011/03/B/ST8/05481
2. Elucidating the mechanizm of lubrication for sliding droplets: hydrodynamics, surface forces, and role of surfactans and polymers, Badania własne, Okres realizacji od 2012-08-01 do 2014-07-30, Finansowanie: UE, PIOF-GA-2011-302803
3. Zastosowanie elektroprzędzonych nanowłókien jako opatrunków aktywnych w zapobieganiu pourazowym zmianom w tkance mózgowej, Badania własne, Okres realizacji od 2010-11-01 do 2013-10-31, Finansowanie: NCBiR, NR13-0081010/2010
4. Biocentrum Ochota - infrastruktura informatyczna dla rozwoju strategicznych kierunków biologii i medycyny, Fundusze strukturalne, Okres realizacji od 2009-10-01 do 2013-09-30, Finansowanie: NCBiR, POIG.02.03.00-00-003/09
5. Transport zawiesin w przepływie turbulentnym (Particles in turbulence), Sieć naukowa, Okres realizacji od 2009 do 2013, COST MP0806 (ESF Project)
6. CEZAMAT- Centrum Zaawansowanych Materiałów i Technologii, Fundusze strukturalne, Okres realizacji od 2008-08-01 do 2015-12-31, Finansowanie: Narodowa Strategia Spójności, Program Operacyjny Innowacyjna Gospodarka, -
7. Intensyfikacja procesu mieszania w mikro-przepływach, Badania własne, Okres realizacji od 2007 do 2010, N501 0087 33
8. Zdalne wykrywanie i identyfikacja skażeń biologicznych z wykorzystaniem zaawansowanych metod optoelektronicznych, Projekt zamawiany, Okres realizacji od 2007 do 2011, PBZ-MNiSW-DBO-03/I/2007
9. System projektowania i wytwarzania elementów motoryzacyjnych w oparciu o lekkie stopy aluminium, Projekt SPUB-M, Okres realizacji od 2007 do 2010, -
10. Optymalizacja procesu wytwarzania nanowłókien metodą elektroprzędzenia, Badania własne, Okres realizacji od 2006 do 2009, N508 031 31/1740
11. NADIA - Systemy projektowania i wytwarzania elementów motoryzacyjnych w oparciu o lekkie stopy aluminium, Grant zagraniczny, Okres realizacji od 2006 do 2010, Finansowanie: Komisja Europejska UE, 6PR, -

Ostatnie publikacje
1.Adamowicz J., Pokrywczyńska M., Tworkiewicz J., Kowalczyk T., van Breda S.V., Tyloch D., Kloskowski T., Bodnar M., Skopińska-Wiśniewska J., Marszałek A., Frontczak-Baniewicz M., Kowalewski T.A., Drewa T., New Amniotic Membrane Based Biocomposite for Future Application in Reconstructive Urology, PLOS ONE, ISSN: 1932-6203, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0146012, Vol.11, No.1, pp.e0146012-1-20, 2016
Adamowicz J., Pokrywczyńska M., Tworkiewicz J., Kowalczyk T., van Breda S.V., Tyloch D., Kloskowski T., Bodnar M., Skopińska-Wiśniewska J., Marszałek A., Frontczak-Baniewicz M., Kowalewski T.A., Drewa T., New Amniotic Membrane Based Biocomposite for Future Application in Reconstructive Urology, PLOS ONE, ISSN: 1932-6203, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0146012, Vol.11, No.1, pp.e0146012-1-20, 2016

Abstract:
Objective
Due to the capacity of the amniotic membrane (Am) to support re-epithelisation and inhibit scar formation, Am has a potential to become a considerable asset for reconstructive urology i.e., reconstruction of ureters and urethrae. The application of Am in reconstructive urology is limited due to a poor mechanical characteristic. Am reinforcement with electrospun nanofibers offers a new strategy to improve Am mechanical resistance, without affecting its unique bioactivity profile. This study evaluated biocomposite material composed of Am and nanofibers as a graft for urinary bladder augmentation in a rat model.

Material and Methods
Sandwich-structured biocomposite material was constructed from frozen Am and covered on both sides with two-layered membranes prepared from electrospun poly-(L-lactide-co-E-caprolactone) (PLCL). Wistar rats underwent hemicystectomy and bladder augmentation with the biocomposite material.

Results
Immunohistohemical analysis (hematoxylin and eosin [H&E], anti-smoothelin and Masson’s trichrome staining [TRI]) revealed effective regeneration of the urothelial and smooth muscle layers. Anti-smoothelin staining confirmed the presence of contractile smooth muscle within a new bladder wall. Sandwich-structured biocomposite graft material was designed to regenerate the urinary bladder wall, fulfilling the requirements for normal bladder tension, contraction, elasticity and compliance. Mechanical evaluation of regenerated bladder wall conducted based on Young’s elastic modulus reflected changes in the histological remodeling of the augmented part of the bladder. The structure of the biocomposite material made it possible to deliver an intact Am to the area for regeneration. An unmodified Am surface supported regeneration of the urinary bladder wall and the PLCL membranes did not disturb the regeneration process.

Conclusions
Am reinforcement with electrospun nanofibers offers a new strategy to improve Am mechanical resistance without affecting its unique bioactivity profile.

Keywords:
Bladder, Smooth muscles, Muscle regeneration, Bionanotechnology, Renal system, Urothelium, Urology, Nanomaterials

40p.
2.Pierini F., Lanzi M., Nakielski P., Pawłowska S., Zembrzycki K., Kowalewski T.A., Electrospun poly(3-hexylthiophene)/poly(ethylene oxide)/graphene oxide composite nanofibers: effects of graphene oxide reduction, Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN: 1042-7147, DOI: 10.1002/pat.3816, Vol.27, No.11, pp.1465-1475, 2016
Pierini F., Lanzi M., Nakielski P., Pawłowska S., Zembrzycki K., Kowalewski T.A., Electrospun poly(3-hexylthiophene)/poly(ethylene oxide)/graphene oxide composite nanofibers: effects of graphene oxide reduction, Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN: 1042-7147, DOI: 10.1002/pat.3816, Vol.27, No.11, pp.1465-1475, 2016

Abstract:
In this article, we report on the production by electrospinning of P3HT/PEO, P3HT/PEO/GO, and P3HT/PEO/rGO nanofibers in which the filler is homogeneously dispersed and parallel oriented along the fibers axis. The effect of nanofillers' presence inside nanofibers and GO reduction was studied, in order to reveal the influence of the new hierarchical structure on the electrical conductivity and mechanical properties. An in-depth characterization of the purity and regioregularity of the starting P3HT as well as the morphology and chemical structure of GO and rGO was carried out. The morphology of the electrospun nanofibers was examined by both scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The fibrous nanocomposites are also characterized by differential scanning calorimetry to investigate their chemical structure and polymer chains arrangements. Finally, the electrical conductivity of the electrospun fibers and the elastic modulus of the single fibers are evaluated using a four-point probe method and atomic force microscopy nanoindentation, respectively. The electrospun materials crystallinity as well as the elastic modulus increase with the addition of the nanofillers while the electrical conductivity is positively influenced by the GO reduction.

Keywords:
electrospun composite nanofibers, poly(3-hexylthiophene), graphene oxide, electrical conductivity, mechanical properties

30p.
3.Pierini F., Zembrzycki K., Nakielski P., Pawłowska S., Kowalewski T.A., Atomic force microscopy combined with optical tweezers (AFM/OT), MEASUREMENT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ISSN: 0957-0233, DOI: 10.1088/0957-0233/27/2/025904, Vol.27, pp.025904-1-11, 2016
Pierini F., Zembrzycki K., Nakielski P., Pawłowska S., Kowalewski T.A., Atomic force microscopy combined with optical tweezers (AFM/OT), MEASUREMENT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ISSN: 0957-0233, DOI: 10.1088/0957-0233/27/2/025904, Vol.27, pp.025904-1-11, 2016

Abstract:
The role of mechanical properties is essential to understand molecular, biological materials, and nanostructures dynamics and interaction processes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is the most commonly used method of direct force evaluation, but due to its technical limitations this single probe technique is unable to detect forces with femtonewton resolution. In this paper we present the development of a combined atomic force microscopy and optical tweezers (AFM/OT) instrument. The focused laser beam, on which optical tweezers are based, provides us with the ability to manipulate small dielectric objects and to use it as a high spatial and temporal resolution displacement and force sensor in the same AFM scanning zone. We demonstrate the possibility to develop a combined instrument with high potential in nanomechanics, molecules manipulation and biological studies. AFM/OT equipment is described and characterized by studying the ability to trap dielectric objects and quantifying the detectable and applicable forces. Finally, optical tweezers calibration methods and instrument applications are given.

Keywords:
optical trap, nanomanipulation, nanomechanics, femtonewton forces

30p.
4.Nakielski P., Pawłowska S., Pierini F., Liwińska W., Hejduk P., Zembrzycki K., Zabost E., Kowalewski T.A., Hydrogel nanofilaments via core-shell electrospinning, PLOS ONE, ISSN: 1932-6203, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0129816, Vol.10, No.6, pp.e0129816-1-16, 2015
Nakielski P., Pawłowska S., Pierini F., Liwińska W., Hejduk P., Zembrzycki K., Zabost E., Kowalewski T.A., Hydrogel nanofilaments via core-shell electrospinning, PLOS ONE, ISSN: 1932-6203, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0129816, Vol.10, No.6, pp.e0129816-1-16, 2015

Abstract:
Recent biomedical hydrogels applications require the development of nanostructures with controlled diameter and adjustable mechanical properties. Here we present a technique for the production of flexible nanofilaments to be used as drug carriers or in microfluidics, with deformability and elasticity resembling those of long DNA chains. The fabrication method is based on the core-shell electrospinning technique with core solution polymerisation post electrospinning. Produced from the nanofibers highly deformable hydrogel nanofilaments are characterised by their Brownian motion and bending dynamics. The evaluated mechanical properties are compared with AFM nanoindentation tests.

Correction: Hydrogel Nanofilaments via Core-Shell Electrospinning, Nakielski P., Pawłowska S., Pierini F., Liwińska W., Hejduk P., Zembrzycki K., Zabost E., Kowalewski T.A., PLOS ONE, ISSN: 1932-6203, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0133458, Vol.10, No.7, pp.e0133458-1-2, 2015

Keywords:
Gels, Nanomaterials, Atomic force microscopy, Polymerization, Bending, Mass diffusivity, Mechanical properties, Hydrodynamics

40p.
5.Nakielski P., Kowalczyk T., Zembrzycki K., Kowalewski T.A., Experimental and numerical evaluation of drug release from nanofiber mats to brain tissue, Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, ISSN: 1552-4973, DOI: 10.1002/jbm.b.33197, Vol.103B, No.2, pp.282-291, 2015
Nakielski P., Kowalczyk T., Zembrzycki K., Kowalewski T.A., Experimental and numerical evaluation of drug release from nanofiber mats to brain tissue, Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, ISSN: 1552-4973, DOI: 10.1002/jbm.b.33197, Vol.103B, No.2, pp.282-291, 2015

Abstract:
Drug delivery systems based on nanofibrous mats appear to be a promising healing practice for preventing brain neurodegeneration after surgery. One of the problems encountered during planning and constructing optimal delivery system based on nanofibrous mats is the estimation of parameters crucial for predicting drug release dynamics. This study describes our experimental setup allowing for spatial and temporary evaluation of drug release from nanofibrous polymers to obtain data necessary to validate appropriate numerical models. We applied laser light sheet method to illuminate released fluorescent drug analog and CCD camera for imaging selected cross-section of the investigated volume. Transparent hydrogel was used as a brain tissue phantom. The proposed setup allows for continuous observation of drug analog (fluorescent dye) diffusion for time span of several weeks. Images captured at selected time intervals were processed to determine concentration profiles and drug release kinetics. We used presented method to evaluate drug release from several polymers to validate numerical model used for optimizing nanofiber system for neuroprotective dressing.

Keywords:
neural therapy, brain phantom, drug delivery, laser light sheet, computational modeling, nanofibers

30p.
6.Sielamowicz I., Czech A., Kowalewski T.A., Comparative analysis of empirical descriptions of eccentricflow in silo model by the linear and nonlinear regressions, POWDER TECHNOLOGY, ISSN: 0032-5910, DOI: 10.1016/j.powtec.2014.10.007, Vol.270, pp.393-410, 2015
Sielamowicz I., Czech A., Kowalewski T.A., Comparative analysis of empirical descriptions of eccentricflow in silo model by the linear and nonlinear regressions, POWDER TECHNOLOGY, ISSN: 0032-5910, DOI: 10.1016/j.powtec.2014.10.007, Vol.270, pp.393-410, 2015

Abstract:
This paper is a third of a series of the three where eccentric cases of flow in silo models recorded by the DPIV technique are presented and discussed in detail. The methodology of empirical descriptions of velocities, flow rate and stagnant zone boundaries on the base of registered velocity fields in eccentric filling and discharge in 2D silo model was discussed. In previous two papers [1] and [2] we analyzed also eccentric flows but with different locations of the outlet. It was stated that in practice even tiny eccentricity of filling or discharge processes may lead to quite an unexpected behavior of the silo structure. During asymmetrical processes, flow patterns and wall stresses may be quite different. It is therefore crucial to identify how flow patterns developed in the material during eccentric filling or discharge and to determine both the flow rate and wall stresses occurring under such state of loads. Thus, we discuss here the third case of discharge — located in the center of the silo bottom. A comparison of these three cases of discharge mode will be presented in the next paper. Empirical descriptions of eccentric flow velocities in silo model by the linear and nonlinear regressions are presented here with specific functions like the Gaussian function and “the double logarithmic function”. In both methods the velocity was also descripted by linearization and in the Gaussian method also by the nonlinear method of Gauss–Newton and in the case of the method of double logarithm — the nonlinear method of Levenberg–Marquardt was applied. Velocities were predicted by using interpolation due to the nonlinear model of the Gaussian type and to the nonlinear function of “the double logarithm”.

Keywords:
Eccentric granular flow, Silo model, Empirical description, Linear and nonlinear regression, Gaussian description, Double logarithm

30p.
7.Chrzanowska J., Hoffman J., Małolepszy A., Mazurkiewicz M., Kowalewski T.A., Szymański Z., Stobiński L., Synthesis of carbon nanotubes by the laser ablation method: Effect of laser wavelength, PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI B-BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, ISSN: 0370-1972, DOI: 10.1002/pssb.201451614, Vol.252, No.8, pp.1860-1867, 2015
Chrzanowska J., Hoffman J., Małolepszy A., Mazurkiewicz M., Kowalewski T.A., Szymański Z., Stobiński L., Synthesis of carbon nanotubes by the laser ablation method: Effect of laser wavelength, PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI B-BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, ISSN: 0370-1972, DOI: 10.1002/pssb.201451614, Vol.252, No.8, pp.1860-1867, 2015

Abstract:
The effect of laser wavelength on single-wall carbon nanotubes synthesis yield and their properties was studied. A double-pulse Nd:YAG laser, working at a wavelength of 355 or 1064 nm, was used for carbon nanotubes production. The synthesized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were investigated using the SEM/STEM microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that the useful range of UV laser radiation fluence is narrower and the properties of synthesized CNTs depend much more on the laser fluence than in the case of infrared laser radiation.

Keywords:
carbon nanotubes, laser radiation fluence, pulsed laser vaporization, Raman spectra

20p.
8.Pokrywczyńska M., Jundziłł A., Adamowicz J., Kowalczyk T., Warda K., Rasmus M., Buchholz Ł., Krzyżanowska S., Nakielski P., Chmielewski T., Bodnar M., Marszałek A., Dębski R., Frontczak-Baniewicz M., Mikułowski G., Nowacki M., Kowalewski T.A., Drewa T., Is the Poly (L- Lactide- Co– Caprolactone) Nanofibrous Membrane Suitable for Urinary Bladder Regeneration?, PLOS ONE, ISSN: 1932-6203, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105295, Vol.9, No.8, pp.105295-1-12, 2014
Pokrywczyńska M., Jundziłł A., Adamowicz J., Kowalczyk T., Warda K., Rasmus M., Buchholz Ł., Krzyżanowska S., Nakielski P., Chmielewski T., Bodnar M., Marszałek A., Dębski R., Frontczak-Baniewicz M., Mikułowski G., Nowacki M., Kowalewski T.A., Drewa T., Is the Poly (L- Lactide- Co– Caprolactone) Nanofibrous Membrane Suitable for Urinary Bladder Regeneration?, PLOS ONE, ISSN: 1932-6203, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105295, Vol.9, No.8, pp.105295-1-12, 2014

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to compare: a new five-layered poly (L–lactide–co–caprolactone) (PLC) membrane and small intestinal submucosa (SIS) as a control in rat urinary bladder wall regeneration. The five-layered poly (L–lactide–co–caprolactone) membrane was prepared by an electrospinning process. Adipose tissue was harvested from five 8-week old male Wistar rats. Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) were seeded in a density of 3×106 cells/cm2 onto PLC membrane and SIS scaffolds, and cultured for 5-7 days in the stem cell culture medium. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five equal groups. Augmentation cystoplasty was performed in a previously created dome defect. Groups: (I) PLC+ 3×106ADSCs; (II) SIS+ 3×106ADSCs; (III) PLC; (IV) SIS; (V) control. Cystography was performed after three months. The reconstructed urinary bladders were evaluated in H&E and Masson's trichrome staining. Regeneration of all components of the normal urinary bladder wall was observed in bladders augmented with cell-seeded SIS matrices. The urinary bladders augmented with SIS matrices without cells showed fibrosis and graft contraction. Bladder augmentation with the PLC membrane led to numerous undesirable events including: bladder wall perforation, fistula or diverticula formation, and incorporation of the reconstructed wall into the bladder lumen. The new five-layered poly (L–lactide–co–caprolactone) membrane possesses poorer potential for regenerating the urinary bladder wall compared with SIS scaffold.

Keywords:
urinary bladder regeneration, electrospinning

40p.
9.Kloskowski T., Jundziłł A., Kowalczyk T., Nowacki M., Bodnar M., Marszałek A., Pokrywczyńska M., Frontczak-Baniewicz M., Kowalewski T.A., Chłosta P., Drewa T., Ureter Regeneration–The Proper Scaffold Has to Be Defined, PLOS ONE, ISSN: 1932-6203, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0106023, Vol.9, No.8, pp.106023-1-13, 2014
Kloskowski T., Jundziłł A., Kowalczyk T., Nowacki M., Bodnar M., Marszałek A., Pokrywczyńska M., Frontczak-Baniewicz M., Kowalewski T.A., Chłosta P., Drewa T., Ureter Regeneration–The Proper Scaffold Has to Be Defined, PLOS ONE, ISSN: 1932-6203, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0106023, Vol.9, No.8, pp.106023-1-13, 2014

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to compare two different acellular scaffolds: natural and synthetic, for urinary conduit construction and ureter segment reconstruction. Acellular aortic arch (AAM) and poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLCL) were used in 24 rats for ureter reconstruction in both tested groups. Follow-up period was 4 weeks. Intravenous pyelography, histological and immunohistochemical analysis were performed. All animals survived surgical procedures. Patent uretero-conduit junction was observed only in one case using PLCL. In case of ureter segment reconstruction ureters were patent in one case using AAM and in four cases using PLCL scaffolds. Regeneration of urothelium layer and focal regeneration of smooth muscle layer was observed on both tested scaffolds. Obtained results indicates that synthetic acellular PLCL scaffolds showed better properties for ureter reconstruction than naturally derived acellular aortic arch.

Keywords:
Ureter, Muscle regeneration, Kidneys, Collagens, Urine, Surgical and invasive medical procedures, Smooth muscles, Inflammation

40p.
10.Gomez-Sanchez C., Kowalczyk T., Ruiz De Eguino G., Lopez-Arraiza A., Infante A., Rodriguez C.I., Kowalewski T.A., Sarrionandia M., Aurrekoetxea J., Electrospinning of poly(lactic acid)/polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane nanocomposites and their potential in chondrogenic tissue regeneration, JOURNAL OF BIOMATERIALS SCIENCE, POLYMER EDITION, ISSN: 0920-5063, DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2014.910151, Vol.25, No.8, pp.802-825, 2014
Gomez-Sanchez C., Kowalczyk T., Ruiz De Eguino G., Lopez-Arraiza A., Infante A., Rodriguez C.I., Kowalewski T.A., Sarrionandia M., Aurrekoetxea J., Electrospinning of poly(lactic acid)/polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane nanocomposites and their potential in chondrogenic tissue regeneration, JOURNAL OF BIOMATERIALS SCIENCE, POLYMER EDITION, ISSN: 0920-5063, DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2014.910151, Vol.25, No.8, pp.802-825, 2014

Abstract:
The study was conducted to evaluate the cytocompatibility and hydrolytic degradability of the new poly(lactic acid)/polyethylene glycol-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (peg-POSS/PLLA) nanocomposite as potential material for cartilage regeneration. PLLA scaffolds containing 0 to 5% of peg-POSS were fabricated by electrospinning. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC’s) were cultured in vitro to evaluate the cytocompatibility of the new nanocomposite material. Hydrolytic degradation studies were also carried out to analyze the mass loss rate of the nanocomposites through time. The addition of the peg-POSS to the PLLA did not affect the processability of the nanocomposite by electrospinning. It was also observed that peg-POSS did not show any relevant change in fibers morphology, concluding that it was well dispersed. However, addition of peg-POSS caused noticeable decrease in mean fiber diameter, which made the specific surface area of the scaffold to rise. hMSC’s were able to attach, to proliferate, and to differentiate into chondrocytes in a similar way onto the different types of electrospun peg-POSS/PLLA and pure PLLA scaffolds, showing that the peg-POSS as nano-additive does not exhibit any cytotoxicity. The hydrolytic degradation rate of the material was lower when peg-POSS was added, showing a higher durability of the nanocomposites through time. Results demonstrate that the addition of peg-POSS to the PLLA scaffolds does not affect its cytocompatibility to obtain hyaline cartilage from hMSC’s.

Keywords:
PLLA, peg-POSS, nanocomposite, electrospinning, chondrocyte, stem cells, scaffold, cartilage repair, hydrolytic degradation

25p.
11.Sulejczak D., Andrychowski J., Kowalczyk T., Nakielski P., Frontczak-Baniewicz M., Kowalewski T.A., Electrospun nanofiber mat as a protector against the consequences of brain injury, FOLIA NEUROPATHOLOGICA, ISSN: 1641-4640, DOI: 10.5114/fn.2014.41744, Vol.52, No.1, pp.56-69, 2014
Sulejczak D., Andrychowski J., Kowalczyk T., Nakielski P., Frontczak-Baniewicz M., Kowalewski T.A., Electrospun nanofiber mat as a protector against the consequences of brain injury, FOLIA NEUROPATHOLOGICA, ISSN: 1641-4640, DOI: 10.5114/fn.2014.41744, Vol.52, No.1, pp.56-69, 2014

Abstract:
Traumatic/surgical brain injury can initiate a cascade of pathological changes that result, in the long run, in severe damage of brain parenchyma and encephalopathy. Excessive scarring can also interfere with brain function and the glial scar formed may hamper the restoration of damaged brain neural pathways. In this preliminary study we aimed to investigate the effect of dressing with an L-lactide-caprolactone copolymer nanofiber net on brain wound healing and the fate of the formed glial scar. Our rat model of surgical brain injury (SBI) of the fronto-temporal region of the sensorimotor cortex imitates well the respective human neurosurgery situation. Brains derived from SBI rats with net-undressed wound showed massive neurodegeneration, entry of systemic inflammatory cells into the brain parenchyma and the astrogliosis due to massive glial scar formation. Dressing of the wound with the nanofiber net delayed and reduced the destructive phenomena. We observed also a reduction in the scar thickness. The observed modification of local inflammation and cicatrization suggest that nanofiber nets could be useful in human neurosurgery.

Keywords:
brain injury, L-lactide-caprolactone copolymer nanofiber net, glial scar, neurodegeneration

20p.
12.Stasiek J., Jewartowski M., Kowalewski T.A., The Use of Liquid Crystal Thermography in Selected Technical and Medical Applications—Recent Development, Journal of Crystallization Process and Technology, ISSN: 2161-7678, DOI: 10.4236/jcpt.2014.41007, Vol.4, No.2, pp.46-59, 2014
Stasiek J., Jewartowski M., Kowalewski T.A., The Use of Liquid Crystal Thermography in Selected Technical and Medical Applications—Recent Development, Journal of Crystallization Process and Technology, ISSN: 2161-7678, DOI: 10.4236/jcpt.2014.41007, Vol.4, No.2, pp.46-59, 2014

Abstract:
Thermochromic liquid crystals (TLC) and true-colour digital image processing have been successfully used in non-intrusive technical, industrial and biomedical studies and applications. Thin coatings of TLC at surfaces are utilized to obtain detailed temperature distributions and heat transfer rates for steady or transient processes. Liquid crystals also can be used to make the temperature and velocity fields in liquids visible by the simple expedient of directly mixing the liquid crystal material into the liquid (water, glycerol, glycol, and silicone oils) in very small quantities to use as thermal and hydrodynamic tracers. In biomedical situations, e.g., skin diseases, breast cancer, blood circulation and other medical application, TLC and image processing are successfully used as an additional non-invasive diagnostic method especially useful for screening large groups of potential patients. The history of this technique is reviewed, principal methods and tools are described and some examples are presented. Also steady-state and transient liquid crystal thermography (LCT) is used to measure local heat transfer on a plate equipped with transverse vortex generators. Automated evaluation allows determining the heat transfer coefficient without arbitrary influence of human interpretation.

Keywords:
Liquid Crystal Thermography, Steady-State and Transient Method, Vortex Generators, Biomedicine

13.Andrychowski J., Frontczak-Baniewicz M., Sulejczak D., Kowalczyk T., Chmielewski T., Czernicki Z., Kowalewski T.A., Nanofiber nets in prevention of cicatrisation in spinal procedures. Experimental study, FOLIA NEUROPATHOLOGICA, ISSN: 1641-4640, DOI: 10.5114/fn.2013.35958, Vol.51, No.2, pp.147-157, 2013
Andrychowski J., Frontczak-Baniewicz M., Sulejczak D., Kowalczyk T., Chmielewski T., Czernicki Z., Kowalewski T.A., Nanofiber nets in prevention of cicatrisation in spinal procedures. Experimental study, FOLIA NEUROPATHOLOGICA, ISSN: 1641-4640, DOI: 10.5114/fn.2013.35958, Vol.51, No.2, pp.147-157, 2013

Abstract:
Excessive cicatrisation or epidural fibrosis in the operative field is an inappropriate event occasionally occurring after neurosurgical procedures (i.e., spine procedures and craniotomies). This excessive process may disturb the postopera­tive course and render reoperations more difficult and risky. The literature describes this phenomenon as accompanying up to 20% of neurosurgical procedures. The scar tissue that forms postoperatively adheres to the dura mater, penetrates into the spinal canal and can cause narrowing symptoms, neurological deficits and pain. The incidence and spread of this excessive scar or epidural fibrosis can be prevented through the modification of the surgical technique by incorporating endoscopic or microscopic access to minimize the operative field and the use of isolating substances (autogenous or heterogeneous) administered intraoperatively.

The aim of this experimental study was to morphologically assess the cicatrisation process, adhesion and to prevent excessive scar formation with the local use of membranes manufactured by an electrospinning process (nanotechnology). We also investigated whether the biodegradable nanofibrous net triggers or modifies the immunological response or the local inflammatory process.

Micro-nanofibrous membranes were produced by the electrospinning process. A biodegradable, medically certified copolymer poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLCL) was used as the electrospun material.

An experimental rat model was used in this study. Experimental and control groups were formed with specified follow-up times of 4, 14 and 30 days. During the operation, a two-level laminectomy in the thoracic segment was performed. The operative field was divided into two regions. Isolating material was used on the dura mater and surface of the spinal cord in the area where the laminectomy was performed. The material was analysed with the use of light and electron microscopy.

Local cicatrisation can be modified using nanomaterials. Scar formation and epidural fibrosis can be limited and modi­fied locally. No local inflammation process was observed.

Initial observations indicate the potential for the effective use of materials obtained in the electrospinning process to prevent cicatrisation.

Keywords:
neurosurgery, cicatrisation, epidural fibrosis, copolymer, poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone), nanofibrous net, rat model

15p.
14.Nakielski P., Kowalczyk T., Kowalewski T.A., Drug delivery system based on polymer nano-fibers, IPPT REPORTS, ISSN: 2299-3657, Vol.4b, pp.1-6, 2013
Nakielski P., Kowalczyk T., Kowalewski T.A., Drug delivery system based on polymer nano-fibers, IPPT REPORTS, ISSN: 2299-3657, Vol.4b, pp.1-6, 2013

Abstract:
This work presents our attempts to characterize release of two model drugs from electrospun polymer nanofibers. Such drug delivery system offers great potential for applications in medicine especially as neurosurgery protective membranes. Proper delivery of drugs requires precise control of the drug diffusion process during the release for days or even weeks. Lipophilic model drug Rhodamine B and hydrophilic Bovine Serum Albumin conjugated with Fluoresceine (BSA - FITC) were embedded in electrospun poly(L -lactide-co -ε-caprolactone) (PLC) nanofibers. Release of Rhodamine B showed saturation in cumulative release profile at 60% and 86% for 1.5% and 3% wt. initial drug content, respectively. Nanofibers electrospun from emulsion released almost entire drug encapsulated in water vesicles inside the nanofibers. Possible location of vesicles close to the surface of the nanofibers exposed them for surrounding fluid and caused leaching of the drug. In this case encapsulation of drug in emulsion prevented the initial burst release.Dependence of a drug release and composition of nanofiber is essential for production of drug delivery systems. Mathematical model constructed with this data allows to avoid tedious experimental work. This research was supported by Ministry of Science and Higher Education, National Centre for Research and Development Project grant no. R13008110. The first author has been supported with a scholarship from the European Social Fund, Human Capital Operational Programme.

Keywords:
nanofibres, drug delivery, vesicles

15.Kołbuk D., Sajkiewicz P., Kowalewski T.A., Optical birefringence and molecular orientation of electrospun polycaprolactone fibers by polarizing-interference microscopy, EUROPEAN POLYMER JOURNAL, ISSN: 0014-3057, DOI: 10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2011.11.012, Vol.48, pp.275-283, 2012
Kołbuk D., Sajkiewicz P., Kowalewski T.A., Optical birefringence and molecular orientation of electrospun polycaprolactone fibers by polarizing-interference microscopy, EUROPEAN POLYMER JOURNAL, ISSN: 0014-3057, DOI: 10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2011.11.012, Vol.48, pp.275-283, 2012

Abstract:
The potential of polarizing-interference Pluta microscope for determination of optical birefringence of individual nanofibers formed by electrospinning was shown. This technique can be applied for measurements of fiber birefringence, practically at diameter above 300 nm. The molecular orientation of individual polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers was determined from birefringence assuming the same orientation of both phases, crystal and amorphous. The molecular orientation was determined using DSC crystallinity, crystal intrinsic birefringence calculated for the first time for PCL from bond polarizabilities as well as estimated value of amorphous intrinsic birefringence. Our results indicate that the birefringence and thus molecular orientation are strongly inhomogeneous along the nanofibers, reflecting a complex nature of forces acting during electrospinning process. The average molecular orientation is weak if any, being dependent together with fiber thickness and crystallinity on electrospinning parameters, like applied voltage, concentration and type of solvent. The obtained results indicate that the average molecular orientation displays similar dependence on applied voltage as fiber diameter. Relatively low melting temperature of electrospun nanofibers suggests low crystal size and/or high concentration of defects in crystals. This observation corresponds with low crystallinity and molecular orientation, indicating together relatively low degree of crystal ordering due to high rate of cooling and solvent evaporation during electrospinning, limiting thus crystallization process.

Keywords:
Nanofibers, Electrospinning, Birefringence, Polarizing-interference microscopy, Polycaprolactone

35p.
16.Baranowska-Korczyc A., Reszka A., Sobczak K., Sikora B., Dziawa P., Aleszkiewicz M., Kłopotowski Ł., Paszkowicz W., Dłużewski P., Kowalski B.J., Kowalewski T.A., Sawicki M., Elbaum D., Fronc K., Magnetic Fe doped ZnO nanofibers obtained by electrospinning, JOURNAL OF SOL-GEL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ISSN: 0928-0707, DOI: 10.1007/s10971-011-2650-1, Vol.61, No.3, pp.494-500, 2012
Baranowska-Korczyc A., Reszka A., Sobczak K., Sikora B., Dziawa P., Aleszkiewicz M., Kłopotowski Ł., Paszkowicz W., Dłużewski P., Kowalski B.J., Kowalewski T.A., Sawicki M., Elbaum D., Fronc K., Magnetic Fe doped ZnO nanofibers obtained by electrospinning, JOURNAL OF SOL-GEL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ISSN: 0928-0707, DOI: 10.1007/s10971-011-2650-1, Vol.61, No.3, pp.494-500, 2012

Abstract:
Comprehensive studies of drug transport in nanofibres based mats have been performed to predict drug release kinetics. The paper presents our approach to analyze the impact of fibers arrangement, one of the parameters varied in our parallel experimental studies. Drug encapsulation in submicron fibers and subsequent controlled release of drugs is a tedious task due to the large number of process and material parameters involved. In the numerical study we constructed a 3D finite element geometry representing nanofibrous cubic element. COMSOL Multiphysics has been used to assess the impact of the various purposed arrangements of fibers within the mat. Drug release from nanofibers was modeled by adsorption -desorption and diffusion equation, where drug diffusion coefficient in the fluid between the fibers was altered depending on porosity of the material. Our study shows that for the same material porosity drug release from the matrix of regularly oriented fibers is slower than from randomly oriented, isotropic nanofibrous material. Also by decreasing distance between the fibers drug transport rate is reduced.

Keywords:
Electrospinning, ZnO nanofibers, ZnFeO, Room temperature ferromagnetism, Magnetic oxides

35p.
17.Korczyk P.M., Kowalewski T.A., Malinowski Sz.P., Turbulent mixing of clouds with the environment: Small scale two phase evaporating flow investigated in a laboratory by particle image velocimetry, PHYSICA D-NONLINEAR PHENOMENA, ISSN: 0167-2789, DOI: 10.1016/j.physd.2011.11.003, Vol.241, pp.288-296, 2012
Korczyk P.M., Kowalewski T.A., Malinowski Sz.P., Turbulent mixing of clouds with the environment: Small scale two phase evaporating flow investigated in a laboratory by particle image velocimetry, PHYSICA D-NONLINEAR PHENOMENA, ISSN: 0167-2789, DOI: 10.1016/j.physd.2011.11.003, Vol.241, pp.288-296, 2012

Abstract:
In this report, experiments mimicking some aspects of cloud-clear-air mixing in a laboratory chamber are discussed. A saturated plume containing small droplets of water (a surrogate of an atmospheric cloud) is mixed with unsaturated environmental air in order to study effect of evaporative cooling at the interfaces between cloudy and clear air filaments on small-scale turbulence. Two components of the turbulent velocity at a small scale are determined using particle imaging velocimetry of the cloud droplets. Enhanced velocity fluctuations between the Kolmogorov (η ≈ 0.8 mm) and Taylor (λ ≈ 8 mm) microscales are observed.
The characteristic feature of these microscales is anisotropy with a preferred vertical direction. A straightforward dependence of the observed effects on the relative humidity of the environment indicates the importance of buoyancy production by evaporative cooling. This conclusion is in agreement with previous numerical experiments described in the literature and suggests that, under certain conditions, effects similar to the above may influence the smallest scales of turbulence in natural clouds.

Keywords:
Small-scale turbulence, Atmospheric turbulence, Evaporative cooling, Cloud-clear-air mixing

35p.
18.Sielamowicz I., Czech M., Kowalewski T.A., Empirical analysis of eccentric flow registered by the DPIV technique inside a silo model, POWDER TECHNOLOGY, ISSN: 0032-5910, DOI: 10.1016/j.powtec.2011.04.022, Vol.212, pp.38-56, 2011
Sielamowicz I., Czech M., Kowalewski T.A., Empirical analysis of eccentric flow registered by the DPIV technique inside a silo model, POWDER TECHNOLOGY, ISSN: 0032-5910, DOI: 10.1016/j.powtec.2011.04.022, Vol.212, pp.38-56, 2011

Abstract:
In this paper we continue empirical description of eccentric granular flow registered by the DPIV (Digital Particle Image Velocimetry) technique. The first results concerning eccentric flow with the outlet located on the right were published in Sielamowicz et al. [30]. Here we present a methodology of empirical descriptions of velocities, flow rate and the flow channel boundary (FCB) in another eccentric case. The analysis is based on the experimental results (velocity profiles) obtained in the DPIV technique. Statistical analysis of the experimental results was also performed. We show how to fit the proper type of function to describe flow parameters in the silo model. The presented methodology is universal and can be applied in any case of eccentric flow of any granular material.

Keywords:
Universal methodology of empirical analysis, DPIV technique, Eccentric granular flow, Discharge on the left, Vertical model, Plexiglas, Velocity, Gaussian type function, Ch function, Multiple regression, “Joined functions”, Flow channel boundary (FCB)

35p.
19.Sielamowicz I., Czech M., Kowalewski T.A., Empirical description of granular flow inside a model silo with vertical walls, BIOSYSTEMS ENGINEERING, ISSN: 1537-5110, DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2011.01.004, Vol.108, pp.334-344, 2011
Sielamowicz I., Czech M., Kowalewski T.A., Empirical description of granular flow inside a model silo with vertical walls, BIOSYSTEMS ENGINEERING, ISSN: 1537-5110, DOI: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2011.01.004, Vol.108, pp.334-344, 2011

Abstract:
DPIV (Digital Particle Image Velocimetry) is often used to record the flows in silo models and to recognise the flow in two-dimensional structures. Flow in a two-dimensional laboratory model with transparent walls was recorded using the DPIV technique. Recorded images were processed and the velocities of the flowing material were obtained. Statistical analysis of the readings taken from velocity profiles was also performed. To describe the flow the theoretical model of velocity presented in Choi, Kudrolli, and Bazant (2005) was modified. An empirical description of the flow rate was carried out. An analysis of the kinematic parameter b was carried out and compared to the solutions given by Medina, Córdova, Luna, and Treviño (1998) and Choi et al. (2005). Comparisons between the experimental measurements and the empirical descriptions are presented. Comparing the Gaussian based kinematic model of Choi et al. (2005) and a modified empirical kinematic model, a better description of velocity was obtained by using the latter. In further comparisons using the two aformentioned models and a parabolic description the best description of velocity was given by the parabolic function. Flow rate was analysed using the three types of functions. Both the Gaussian and modified empirical kinematic model gave almost the same values for calculated levels h = 5, 10 cm. Using the parabolic description the value of flow rates differed slightly. The flow channel boundary was analysed using parabolic and hyperbolic descriptions. Both descriptions were good because the correlation coefficients, had values ranging from 0.928 to 0.997.

25p.
20.Błoński S., Domagalski P., Dziubiński M., Kowalewski T.A., Hydro-dynamically modified seeding for micro-PIV, ARCHIVES OF MECHANICS, ISSN: 0373-2029, Vol.63, No.2, pp.163-182, 2011
Błoński S., Domagalski P., Dziubiński M., Kowalewski T.A., Hydro-dynamically modified seeding for micro-PIV, ARCHIVES OF MECHANICS, ISSN: 0373-2029, Vol.63, No.2, pp.163-182, 2011

Abstract:
This paper presents numerical and experimental analysis of the hydrodynamic flow focusing in a rectangular microchannel. Aim of the study is to improve performance of the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique app lied to micro-scale flow analysis. The symmetric flow focusing system of two channels crossed at right angle is investigated. The numerical model is used to analyse the e ffect of Reynolds number on the flow focusing mechanism. In the experiment, the flow foc using is applied to concentrate seeding tracers into a thin sheet at the channel axis. Such a modification removes the out of focus images of the seeding particles, effe ctively improving PIV evaluation of vector fields in microchannel. Based on the exp erimental and numerical results we have found that expected improvement is possible for the flow at Reynolds number less than 10 only.

Keywords:
selective seeding, flow focusing

20p.
21.Kowalewski T.A., Validation problems in computational fluid mechanics, COMPUTER ASSISTED METHODS IN ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE, ISSN: 2299-3649, Vol.18, pp.39-52, 2011
Kowalewski T.A., Validation problems in computational fluid mechanics, COMPUTER ASSISTED METHODS IN ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE, ISSN: 2299-3649, Vol.18, pp.39-52, 2011

Abstract:
Recent developments in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) increased interest in quantifying quality of the numerical models. One of the necessary steps is the so-called code validation procedure, an assessment of a numerical simulation by comparisons between simulation results and laboratory measurements. The focus of the present review is application of modern full field experimental techniques, mostly based on the digital image analysis, in validating numerical solutions of complex flow configurations. Each validation procedure opens new issues of quantifying its outcome to find directions for model updating, limits of computer simulation quality, and to perform uncertainty quantification.

Keywords:
CFD validation, experimental methods

6p.
22.Kowalewski T.A., Kowalczyk T., Frontczak-Baniewicz M.M., Gołąbek-Sulejczak D.A., Andrychowski J., Nanofibres for medical applications at Biocentrum Ochota, Annual Report - Polish Academy of Sciences, ISSN: 1640-3754, pp.62-65, 2011
Kowalewski T.A., Kowalczyk T., Frontczak-Baniewicz M.M., Gołąbek-Sulejczak D.A., Andrychowski J., Nanofibres for medical applications at Biocentrum Ochota, Annual Report - Polish Academy of Sciences, ISSN: 1640-3754, pp.62-65, 2011

Abstract:
Electrospun nonwovens have recently been successfully applied as a dressing material in spinal neurosurgery. Scarring is known to be one of the major post-operative complications for neurosurgery. If it occurs, it may trap a nerve, so that when a patient moves the nerve becomes stretched, causing nerve damage, pain, and internal scarring of the nerve. This causes subsequent complications related to ingrowths of connective tissue onto the spinal canal. The formation of an astroglial scar is another serious postoperative complication of brain neuro-surgery. The use of bio-absorbable isolative materials as anti-liaison protection and as possible carriers for neuroprotective drug delivery is expected to help in solving such problems. The nanostructured material acts as an anti-bacterial and anti-liaison barrier while enabling transport of oxygen, nutrients, and metabolites, facilitating the healing process of the surgical wound.

Keywords:
Nanofibres for neurosurgery, protection of scar formation

23.Szumbarski J., Błoński S., Kowalewski T.A., Impact of transversely-oriented wall corrugation on hydraulic resistance of a channel flow, Archive of Mechanical Engineering, ISSN: 0004-0738, Vol.LVIII, No.4, pp.441-466, 2011
Szumbarski J., Błoński S., Kowalewski T.A., Impact of transversely-oriented wall corrugation on hydraulic resistance of a channel flow, Archive of Mechanical Engineering, ISSN: 0004-0738, Vol.LVIII, No.4, pp.441-466, 2011

Abstract:
The impact of the transversely-oriented sinusoidal wall corrugation on the hydraulic drag is investigated numerically for the flow through the channel of finite width and with flat sidewalls. The numerical method, based on the domain transformation and Chebyshev-Galerkin discretization, is used to investigate the flow resistance of the laminar, parallel and pressure-driven flow. The obtained results are compared to the reference case, i.e., to the flow through the channel with rectangular cross section of the same aspect ratio. Simple explanation of the gain in the volumetric flow rate observed in the flow through spanwise-periodic channel with long-wave transversely-oriented wall corrugation is provided. In the further analysis, pressure drop in the flows with larger Reynolds numbers are studied numerically by means of the finite-volume commercial package Fluent. Preliminary experimental results confirm the predicted tendency.

Keywords:
Drug reduction, finite volume flow modeling, corrugated walls

24.Sadlej K., Wajnryb E., Ekiel-Jeżewska M.L., Lamparska D., Kowalewski T.A., Dynamics of nanofibres conveyed by low Reynolds number flow in a microchannel, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEAT AND FLUID FLOW, ISSN: 0142-727X, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2010.02.021, Vol.31, No.6, pp.996-1004, 2010
Sadlej K., Wajnryb E., Ekiel-Jeżewska M.L., Lamparska D., Kowalewski T.A., Dynamics of nanofibres conveyed by low Reynolds number flow in a microchannel, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEAT AND FLUID FLOW, ISSN: 0142-727X, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2010.02.021, Vol.31, No.6, pp.996-1004, 2010

Abstract:
In this paper we aim to create an experimental and numerical model of nano and micro filaments suspended in a confined Poiseuille flow. The experimental data obtained for short nanofibres will help to elucidate fundamental questions concerning mobility and deformation of biological macromolecules due to hydrodynamic stresses from the surrounding fluid motion. Nanofibres used in the experiments are obtained by electrospinning polymer solutions. Their typical dimensions are 100–1000 μm (length) and 0.1–1 μm (diameter). The nanofibre dynamics is followed experimentally under a fluorescence microscope. A precise multipole expansion method of solving the Stokes equations, and its numerical implementation are used to construct a bead-spring model of a filament moving in a Poiseuille flow between two infinite parallel walls. Simulations show typical behaviour of elongated macromolecules. Depending on the parameters, folding and unfolding sequences of a flexible filament are observed, or a rotational and translation motion of a shape-preserving filament. An important result of our experiments is that nanofibres do not significantly change their shape while interacting with a micro-flow. It appeared that their rotational motion is better reproduced by the shape-preserving Stokesian bead model with all pairs of beads connected by springs, omitting explicit bending forces.

Keywords:
Nanofibres suspension, Microchannels, Filament dynamics, Stokesian dynamics, Multipole expansion

32p.
25.Sielamowicz I., Czech M., Kowalewski T.A., Empirical description of flow parameters in eccentric flow inside a silo model, POWDER TECHNOLOGY, ISSN: 0032-5910, Vol.198, pp.381-394, 2010
Sielamowicz I., Czech M., Kowalewski T.A., Empirical description of flow parameters in eccentric flow inside a silo model, POWDER TECHNOLOGY, ISSN: 0032-5910, Vol.198, pp.381-394, 2010

Abstract:
The paper presents the methodology of empirical description and statistical analysis of velocity profiles that were depicted by the Digital Particle Image Velocimetry technique (DPIV). Experimental runs were recorded by the high resolution camera in the model with vertical walls. Here we analyze the eccentric discharge with the outlet located in the bottom close to the right vertical wall of the model. On the base of the experimental results we present an empirical analysis of velocities and calculation of the flow rate in two proposed descriptions of the flow. Velocity functions were presented by the exponential function (the modi fi ed Gauss type), by the multiple regression and by the ch function. Also the fl ow rate was calculated for two presented descriptions. Empirical calculations of the stagnant zone boundary was also presented using the readings from velocity profiles.

Keywords:
Particle Image Velocimetry, granular flow, Multiple regression

32p.
26.Bretcanu O., Misra S.K., Yunos D.M., Boccaccini A.R., Roy I., Kowalczyk T., Błoński S., Kowalewski T.A., Electrospun nanofibrous biodegradable polyester coatings on Bioglass®-based glass-ceramics for tissue engineering, MATERIALS CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, ISSN: 0254-0584, DOI: 10.1016/j.matchemphys.2009.08.011, Vol.118, pp.420-426, 2009
Bretcanu O., Misra S.K., Yunos D.M., Boccaccini A.R., Roy I., Kowalczyk T., Błoński S., Kowalewski T.A., Electrospun nanofibrous biodegradable polyester coatings on Bioglass®-based glass-ceramics for tissue engineering, MATERIALS CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, ISSN: 0254-0584, DOI: 10.1016/j.matchemphys.2009.08.011, Vol.118, pp.420-426, 2009

Abstract:
Biodegradable polymeric nanofibrous coatings were obtained by electrospinning different polymers onto sintered 45S5 Bioglass®-based glass-ceramic pellets. The investigated polymers were poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P3HB), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and a composite of poly(caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) (PCL–PEO). The fibrous coatings morphology was evaluated by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The electrospinning process parameters were optimised to obtain reproducible coatings formed by a thin web of polymer nanofibres. In-vitro studies in simulated body fluid (SBF) were performed to investigate the bioactivity and mineralisation of the substrates by inducing the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) on the nanofiber-coated pellets. HA crystals were detected on all samples after 7 days of immersion in SBF, however the morphology of the HA layer depended on the characteristic fibre diameter, which in turn was a function of the specific polymer-solvent system used. The bioactive and resorbable nanofibrous coatings can be used to tailor the surface topography of bioactive glass-ceramics for applications in tissue engineering scaffolds.

Keywords:
Electrospinning, Nanofibers, Bioglass®, Polyhydroxyalkanoates, Tissue engineering

32p.
27.Alabrudziński S., Ekiel-Jeżewska M.L., Chehata-Gomez D., Kowalewski T.A., Particle clusters settling under gravity in a viscous fluid, PHYSICS OF FLUIDS, ISSN: 1070-6631, DOI: 10.1063/1.3168615, Vol.21, No.7, pp.73302-1-8, 2009
Alabrudziński S., Ekiel-Jeżewska M.L., Chehata-Gomez D., Kowalewski T.A., Particle clusters settling under gravity in a viscous fluid, PHYSICS OF FLUIDS, ISSN: 1070-6631, DOI: 10.1063/1.3168615, Vol.21, No.7, pp.73302-1-8, 2009

Abstract:
Clusters made of a small number of close solid spherical particles at a random configuration, sedimenting through a viscous fluid at small Reynolds number, were experimentally investigated at a short-time scale. The cluster settling velocities were measured and shown to be well approximated by the ensemble-averaged formula derived earlier for the uniform distribution of the point particles inside a spherical volume. It was emphasized that the “effective radius” of this volume in general should be smaller than the actual radius of a cluster made of the spheres, and the relation between both radii was determined. The formula was also shown to account well for the gravitational settling of rigid conglomerates, measured and computed elsewhere.

Keywords:
cluster of sendimenting particles, small Reynolds number

32p.
28.Kowalewski T.A., Barral S., Modelling electrospinning of nanofibres, Proceedings in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, ISSN: 1617-7061, DOI: 10.1002/pamm.200910204, Vol.9, pp.463-464, 2009
Kowalewski T.A., Barral S., Modelling electrospinning of nanofibres, Proceedings in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, ISSN: 1617-7061, DOI: 10.1002/pamm.200910204, Vol.9, pp.463-464, 2009

Abstract:
Electrospinning is based on so-called bending instability which results in an erratic spiralling motion of the liquid jet as it proceeds towards a collecting electrode, where it is eventually de posited as a mat of micro/nanosized fibres. Most electrospinning models formulated within the slender approximation rely, however, on an inconsistent description of electrostatic interactions which renders them grossly inappropriate whenever the discretization is either too coarse or too fine. The present work aims at proposing a discrete slender model which is numerically consistent (allowing use of arbitrary fine meshes) and remains accurate even for coarse meshes. At the same time, efficient numerical techniques based on hierarchical charge clustering are introduced that drastically decrease computational times. Finally, a versatile boundary value method is implemented to enforce fixed-potential boundary conditions, allowing realistic electrode configurations to be investigated.

Keywords:
Electrospinning numerical model, boundary value method, bending instability

29.Kowalczyk T., Nowicka A., Elbaum D., Kowalewski T.A., Electrospinning of bovine serum albumin. Optimization and the use for production of biosensors, BIOMACROMOLECULES, ISSN: 1525-7797, DOI: 10.1021/bm800421s, Vol.9, No.7, pp.2087-2090, 2008
Kowalczyk T., Nowicka A., Elbaum D., Kowalewski T.A., Electrospinning of bovine serum albumin. Optimization and the use for production of biosensors, BIOMACROMOLECULES, ISSN: 1525-7797, DOI: 10.1021/bm800421s, Vol.9, No.7, pp.2087-2090, 2008

Abstract:
Electrospinning of the globular protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), was optimized to obtain proteinous fibers suitable asbiosensors. It was shown that the as-spun protein preserves its native form, whereas solubility of the cross-linked in the ambient conditions BSA nanofibers evidently decreases. Insoluble BSA fibers can be easily modified to be used as two-dimensional biosensors. Here, we show the micro pH sensor obtained from the BSA fiber stained with a fluorescein derivative (FITC).

Keywords:
Electrospinning BSA, pH sensor

32p.
30.Malinowski Sz., Andrejczuk M., Grabowski W., Korczyk P., Smolarkiewicz P., Kowalewski T.A., Laboratory and modeling studies of cloud-clear air interfacial mixing: anisotropy of small-scale turbulence due to evaporative cooling, NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS, ISSN: 1367-2630, DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/10/7/075020, Vol.10, pp.75020-15, 2008
Malinowski Sz., Andrejczuk M., Grabowski W., Korczyk P., Smolarkiewicz P., Kowalewski T.A., Laboratory and modeling studies of cloud-clear air interfacial mixing: anisotropy of small-scale turbulence due to evaporative cooling, NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS, ISSN: 1367-2630, DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/10/7/075020, Vol.10, pp.75020-15, 2008

Abstract:
Small-scale mixing between cloudy air and unsaturated clear air is investigated in numerical simulations and in a laboratory cloud chamber. Despite substantial differences in physical conditions and some differences in resolved scales of motion, results of both studies indicate that small-scale turbulence generated through cloud–clear air interfacial mixing is highly anisotropic. For velocity fluctuations, numerical simulations and cloud chamber observations demonstrate that the vertical velocity variance is up to a factor of two larger than the horizontal velocity variance. The Taylor microscales calculated separately for the horizontal and vertical directions also indicate anisotropy of turbulent eddies. This anisotropy is attributed to production of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) by buoyancy forces due to evaporative cooling of cloud droplets at the cloud–clear air interface. Numerical simulations quantify the effects of buoyancy oscillations relative to the values expected from adiabatic and isobaric mixing, standardly assumed in cloud physics. The buoyancy oscillations result from microscale transport of liquid water due to the gravitational sedimentation of cloud droplets. In the particular modeling setup considered here, these oscillations contribute to about a fifth of the total TKE production.

Keywords:
laboratory cloud formation, TKE of cloud air, microscale cloud turbulence

32p.
31.Alabrudziński S., Kowalewski T.A., Ekiel-Jeżewska M.L., Suchecki W., Metoda pomiaru ruchu malej grupy czastek opadajacej w cieczy, Wybrane zagadnienia przepływów i wymiany ciepła, pp.59-85, 2008
Alabrudziński S., Kowalewski T.A., Ekiel-Jeżewska M.L., Suchecki W., Metoda pomiaru ruchu malej grupy czastek opadajacej w cieczy, Wybrane zagadnienia przepływów i wymiany ciepła, pp.59-85, 2008

Abstract:
Praca zawiera opis badań zjawiska opadania cząstek kulistych w cieczy o dużej lepkości, a w szczególności wzajemnych oddzaiływań między poszczególnymi, opadającymi razem cząstkami. Opisano stanowisko badawcze, sposób przeprowadzenia pomiarów oraz przedstawiono wybrane wyniki badań.

Keywords:
gliceryna, kilka cząsteki szklanych, eksperyment, trajektorie cząstek, dynamika

32.Kowalewski T.A., Błoński S., Korczyk P., Eksperymentalna analiza przeplywów w skali mikro i nano, Wybrane zagadnienia przepływów i wymiany ciepła, Vol.6, pp.127-149, 2008
Kowalewski T.A., Błoński S., Korczyk P., Eksperymentalna analiza przeplywów w skali mikro i nano, Wybrane zagadnienia przepływów i wymiany ciepła, Vol.6, pp.127-149, 2008

Keywords:
mikroprzepływy, eksperymentalna mechanika płynów

33.Błoński S., Korczyk P., Kowalewski T.A., Analysis of turbulence in a micro-channel emulsifier, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCES, ISSN: 1290-0729, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2007.01.028, Vol.46, pp.1123-1141, 2007
Błoński S., Korczyk P., Kowalewski T.A., Analysis of turbulence in a micro-channel emulsifier, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCES, ISSN: 1290-0729, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2007.01.028, Vol.46, pp.1123-1141, 2007

Abstract:
Turbulent flow of water in an 1 mm long and 0.4 mm high gap of an emulsifier is investigated experimentally using micro-PIV technique and compared with numerical predictions. The purpose of the investigations is to develop a procedure for well-controlled generation of mono-disperse suspension of micro-droplets. The micro-flow measurements are based on epi-fluorescence illumination and high-speed imaging. The experimental data are compared with the numerical results obtained using direct simulation and turbulent flow model. From the turbulent modelling (k−ε) was found that, the maximum of turbulent energy dissipation rate takes place mainly in the micro-channel gap. However, measured and directly simulated (DNS) velocity fields indicate that flow turbulization is delayed and develops shortly behind the gap. Experimental and numerical results are used to predict droplet dimension of two different oil emulsions. Very low amount of oil-phase fraction in investigated emulsions justifies us to use flow characteristics evaluated for pure water to predict mean diameter of oil droplets. These predictions are validated using experimental data on statistics of droplets size.

Keywords:
Micro-flow, Micro-PIV, Particle Image Velocimetry, Turbulence, Micro-channel, Emulsion

32p.
34.Błoński S., Kowalewski T.A., PIV analysis of turbulent flow in a micro-channel, JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL AND APPLIED MECHANICS, ISSN: 1429-2955, Vol.45, pp.489-503, 2007
Błoński S., Kowalewski T.A., PIV analysis of turbulent flow in a micro-channel, JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL AND APPLIED MECHANICS, ISSN: 1429-2955, Vol.45, pp.489-503, 2007

Abstract:
Turbulent flow of water in a short 0.4 mm high micro-channel of an emulsifier is investigated experimentally using a micro-PIV technique and compared with numerical predictions. The micro-flow measurements are based on epi-fluorescence illumination and high-speed imaging. Velocity fields obtained from the measurements and direct numerical simulations indicate that flow turbulization is delayed and develops only at the outlet region of the micro-channe

Keywords:
micro-channel, micro-PIV, turbulence

9p.
35.Sielamowicz I., Błoński S., Kowalewski T.A., Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) technique in measurements of granular material flows, Part 2 of 3 - converging hoppers, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE, ISSN: 0009-2509, Vol.61, pp.5307-5317, 2006
Sielamowicz I., Błoński S., Kowalewski T.A., Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) technique in measurements of granular material flows, Part 2 of 3 - converging hoppers, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE, ISSN: 0009-2509, Vol.61, pp.5307-5317, 2006

Abstract:
The flow evolution of an amaranth seed is being investigated in a wedge-shaped model made of Plexiglas. The objective of this paper is to recognise flow patterns in the flowing material, and also to depict evolution of velocity fields, flow field discontinuities, velocity profiles for cross-sections of the model, shear zones and flow streamlines using the digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) optical technique. It is demonstrated that the DPIV technique used in the experiments enables quantitative analysis of the flow zones geometry. The technique also allows to reveal boundaries between flowing and stagnant zones and to extract velocity profiles at any selected sections of the model.

Keywords:
Optical technique, DPIV, Granular material flows, Converging hopper, Particle, Plug flow, Shear zones, Discharge flow rate

32p.
36.Korczyk P., Malinowski S.P., Kowalewski T.A., Mixing of cloud and clear air in centimeter scales observed in laboratory by means of Particle Image Velocimetry, ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH, ISSN: 0169-8095, DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2005.09.009, Vol.82, pp.173-182, 2006
Korczyk P., Malinowski S.P., Kowalewski T.A., Mixing of cloud and clear air in centimeter scales observed in laboratory by means of Particle Image Velocimetry, ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH, ISSN: 0169-8095, DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2005.09.009, Vol.82, pp.173-182, 2006

Abstract:
Cloudy air, containing small water droplets, undergoes mixing with the unsaturated environment inside the cloud chamber in the process resembling smallest scales of entrainment and mixing in real clouds. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) applied to images from the chamber interior is used to investigate dynamics of the process in scales from 1.2 mm to few centimeters. A special algorithm, allowing for investigation of droplets motion, is developed, tested and adapted to the experimental data. Two velocity components retrieved in the vertical cross-section through the chamber interior indicate anisotropy of small-scale turbulent motions, with the preferred vertical direction. This result confirms earlier numerical studies, indicating that evaporation of cloud droplets at the cloud – clear air interface may substantially influence the small-scale turbulence in clouds.

Keywords:
Atmospheric turbulence, Turbulence in clouds, Small-scale turbulence, Laboratory investigations of atmospheric turbulence, Particle Image Velocimetry

27p.
37.Sielamowicz I., Kowalewski T.A., Błoński S., Optical technique DPIV in measurements of granular material flows, Part 1/3 - plane hoppers, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE, ISSN: 0009-2509, DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2004.07.135, Vol.60, pp.589-598, 2005
Sielamowicz I., Kowalewski T.A., Błoński S., Optical technique DPIV in measurements of granular material flows, Part 1/3 - plane hoppers, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE, ISSN: 0009-2509, DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2004.07.135, Vol.60, pp.589-598, 2005

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to present the evolution of plug flow developing in three densely packed granular materials in the model of a hopper made of Plexiglas. For this purpose, the digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) technique is applied to analyse the flow field of the granular material. When discharge starts, a plug flow zone in the flowing material expands upward. This zone changes its width reaching the upper surface of the material. The plug flow evolution as a function of time is described using DPIV. This technique yields the velocity profiles of flowing granular materials, velocity magnitude contours, vector fields, velocity distributions on certain levels in the model and traces of the selected particles. The results obtained for the evolution of the vertical velocity, height and width of the plug flow zone as a function of time, measured at the symmetry axis of the model for the amarantus seed are compared to the results obtained by Waters and Drescher. Measurements of the stagnant boundary as a function of time are compared to the results available in the literature

Keywords:
Optical technique, Experiments, Granular, Materials, Flow, Particle, Plug flow

32p.
38.Michałek T., Kowalewski T.A., Šarler B., Natural convection for anomalous density variation of water - numerical benchmark, PROGRESS IN COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, ISSN: 1468-4349, Vol.5, pp.158-170, 2005
Michałek T., Kowalewski T.A., Šarler B., Natural convection for anomalous density variation of water - numerical benchmark, PROGRESS IN COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS, ISSN: 1468-4349, Vol.5, pp.158-170, 2005

Abstract:
A steady-state natural convection in a differentially heated cavity for temperatures in a vicinity of the freezing point is used to investigate and compare performance of four different numerical methods: finite differences, finite volume, finite elements and mesh-free diffuse approximation method. A primary aim of the exercise is to define a new numerical benchmark solution for natural convection problems, which includes challenging configuration of strongly non-linear buoyancy term. This configuration is used to test the performance of two popular commercial codes (Fluent and Fidap) and to compare them with two classical finite difference codes and the new promising mesh-free implementation.

Keywords:
numerical simulation, numerical benchmarks, mesh-free methods, natural convection

20p.
39.Kowalewski T.A., Błoński S., Barral S., Experiments and modelling of electrospinning process, BULLETIN OF THE POLISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES: TECHNICAL SCIENCES, ISSN: 0239-7528, Vol.53, No.4, pp.385-394, 2005
Kowalewski T.A., Błoński S., Barral S., Experiments and modelling of electrospinning process, BULLETIN OF THE POLISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES: TECHNICAL SCIENCES, ISSN: 0239-7528, Vol.53, No.4, pp.385-394, 2005

Abstract:
Very thin liquid jets can be obtained using electric field, whereas an electrically-driven bending instability occurs that enormously increases the jet path and effectively leads to its thinning by very large ratios, enabling the production of nanometre size fibres. This mechanism, although it was discovered almost one century ago, is not yet fully understood. In the following study, experimental data are collected, with the dual goal of characterizing the electro-spinning of different liquids and evaluating the pertinence of a theoretical model.

Keywords:
nanofibres, electrospinning, polymer fibres, electrified liquid jet

9p.

Lista rozdziałów w ostatnich monografiach
1.
467
Kowalewski T.A., Nakielski P., Pierini F., Zembrzycki K., Pawłowska S., Advances in Mechanics: Theoretical, Computational and Interdisciplinary Issues, rozdział: Micro and nano fluid mechanics, CRC Press/Balkema, Taylor & Francis Group, M. Kleiber et al. (Eds.), pp.27-34, 2016
2.
439
Dolińska I., Kowalewski T., Lewandowska B., Repozytorium Cyfrowe Instytutów Naukowych, rozdział: Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN, Muzeum i Instytut Zoologii PAN, pp.87-92, 2014
3.
376
Kowalewski T.A., Nanomechanics Selected problems, rozdział: Nanofluids and Nanofibres, Wydawnictwo Politechniki Krakowskiej, Muc A., Chwał M., Garstecki A., Szefer G. (Eds.), pp.31-50, 2014
4.
10
Drobniak S., Kowalewski T.A., Polskie i światowe osiągnięcia nauki: Nauki Techniczne, rozdział: Mechanika płynów - Dlaczego tak trudno przewidzieć ruch płynu?, Fundacja im. Wojciecha Świętosławskiego, 2, pp.389-428, 2010
5.
16
Gambin B., Lekszycki T., Kowalczyk T., Kowalewski T.A., Ziółkowski A., Pieczyska E., Stupkiewicz S., Scenariusze rozwoju technologii nowoczesnych materiałów metalicznych, ceramicznych i kompozytowych, rozdział: Biomateriały. Rola i strategia badawcza IPPT PAN w powstaniu nowoczesnych technologii materiałów współpracujących z ludzkimi tkankami, Wydawnictwo Naukowe Instytutu Technologii Eksploatacji PIB, 1, pp.181-222, 2010
6.
332
Kowalewski T.A., Nowicki A., Nauka Polska, jej potrzeby, organizacja i rozwój, rozdział: Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN. Główne kierunki badań i perspektywy rozwoju, Rocznik Kasy im. J. Mianowskiego, Fundacja Popierania Nauki, XIX (XLIV), pp.151-176, 2010
7.
158
Kowalewski T.A., Barral S., Kowalczyk T., IUTAM Symposium on modelling nanomaterials and nanosystems, IUTAM Bookseries, rozdział: Modeling electrospinning of nanofibers, Springer, Pyrz R., Rauhe J.C. (Eds.), 13, pp.279-292, 2009
8.
184
Kowalewski T.A., Błoński S., Proceedings of 7th World Conference on Experimental Heat Transfer, Fluid mechanics and thermodynamics, Krakow, Poland, 28 June 03 July 2009, rozdział: Turbulence in micro-channels, AGH, Szmyd J.S., Spalek J., Kowalewski T.A. (Eds.), CD-ROM, pp.361-368, 2009
9.
240
Kowalewski T.A., Błoński S., Korczyk P., Wybrane zagadnienia przepływu płynów i wymiany ciepła, rozdział: Eksperymentalna analiza przepływów w skali mikro i nano, Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Warszawskiej (Warszawa), Suchecki W. (Eds.), pp.127-149, 2008
10.
241
Alabrudziński S., Ekiel-Jeżewska M.L., Suchecki W., Kowalewski T.A., Wybrane zagadnienia przepływu płynów i wymiany ciepła, rozdział: Metoda pomiaru ruchu malej grupy cząstek opadającej w cieczy, Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Warszawskiej (Warszawa), Suchecki W. (Eds.), pp.59-85, 2008
11.
331
Alabrudziński S., Ekiel-Jeżewska M.L., Kowalewski T.A., Urbaniec K., Wybrane zagadnienia mechaniki w budowie urządzeń technicznych, rozdział: Badania eksperymentalne i interpretacja teoretyczna oddziaływań hydrodynamicznych grupy czastek kulistych opadajacych w lepkiej cieczy, Instytut Inżynierii Materiałowej Politechniki Warszawskiej, pp.7-21, 2008
12.
150
Kowalewski T.A., Handbook of experimental fluid mechanics, rozdział: Thermochromic liquid crystals, Springer, Tropea C., Yarin A.L., Foss J.F. (Eds.), B7.1, pp.488-499, 2007
Redaktor monografii
1.
370
Postek E., Kowalewski T.A., GRAFEN – IPPT PAN COMPUTER OF BIOCENTRUM OCHOTA GRID, IPPT Reports on Fundamental Technological Research, 3, pp.1-164, 2014

Prace konferencyjne
1.Nakielski P., Kowalczyk T., Kowalewski T.A., Modeling Drug Release from Materials Based on Electrospun Nanofibers, COMSOL 2013, COMSOL Conference, 2013-10-23/10-25, Rotterdam (NL), pp.1-6, 2013
Nakielski P., Kowalczyk T., Kowalewski T.A., Modeling Drug Release from Materials Based on Electrospun Nanofibers, COMSOL 2013, COMSOL Conference, 2013-10-23/10-25, Rotterdam (NL), pp.1-6, 2013

Abstract:
Comprehensive studies of drug transport in nanofibres based mats have been performed to predict drug release kinetics. The paper presents our approach to analyze the impact of fibers arrangement, one of the parameters varied in our parallel experimental studies. Drug encapsulation in submicron fibers and subsequent controlled release of drugs is a tedious task due to the large number of process and material parameters involved. In the numerical study we constructed a 3D finite element geometry representing nanofibrous cubic element. COMSOL Multiphysics has been used to assess the impact of the various purposed arrangements of fibers within the mat. Drug release from nanofibers was modeled by adsorption -desorption and diffusion equation, where drug diffusion coefficient in the fluid between the fibers was altered depending on porosity of the material. Our study shows that for the same material porosity drug release from the matrix of regularly oriented fibers is slower than from randomly oriented, isotropic nanofibrous material. Also by decreasing distance between the fibers drug transport rate is reduced.

Keywords:
Nanofibres, finite elements, drug release modelling

2.Zembrzycki K., Błoński S., Kowalewski T.A., Analysis of wall effect on the process of diffusion of nanoparticles in a microchannel, JOURNAL OF PHYSICS: CONFERENCE SERIES, ISSN: 1742-6588, DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/392/1/012014, Vol.392, pp.012014-1-11, 2012
Zembrzycki K., Błoński S., Kowalewski T.A., Analysis of wall effect on the process of diffusion of nanoparticles in a microchannel, JOURNAL OF PHYSICS: CONFERENCE SERIES, ISSN: 1742-6588, DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/392/1/012014, Vol.392, pp.012014-1-11, 2012

Abstract:
In this preliminary work we introduce a new method for verification of the no-slip boundary condition on the liquid-solid interface, by analyzing variations in Brownian motion coefficients of colloidal nanoparticles as a function of distance from the wall. The experimental investigations are performed in a small channel using an epi-fluorescent microscope. For precise measurements close to the wall an evanescent wave illumination is used. The experimental data obtained for 300nm particles gave us evidence of relatively large (0.3μm) slip length. The experiments are supplemented by two-dimensional Molecular Dynamics simulations.

10p.
3.Malinowski S.P., Górska A., Kowalewski T.A., Korczyk P., Błoński S., Kumala W., Small-scale mixing at cloud top observed in a laboratory cloud chamber - preliminary results, 13th AMS Conference on Cloud Physics, 2010-06-28/07-02, Portland (US), Vol.P1.22, pp.1-4, 2010
Malinowski S.P., Górska A., Kowalewski T.A., Korczyk P., Błoński S., Kumala W., Small-scale mixing at cloud top observed in a laboratory cloud chamber - preliminary results, 13th AMS Conference on Cloud Physics, 2010-06-28/07-02, Portland (US), Vol.P1.22, pp.1-4, 2010

Keywords:
small-scale turbulence, cloud, cloud droplets, evaporation

4.Błoński S., Domagalski P., Kowalewski T.A., Flow focusing in microfluidic devices, XIX Krajowa Konferencja Mechaniki Płynów, 2010-09-05/09-09, Poznań (PL), Vol.S3/F, pp.1-5, 2010
Błoński S., Domagalski P., Kowalewski T.A., Flow focusing in microfluidic devices, XIX Krajowa Konferencja Mechaniki Płynów, 2010-09-05/09-09, Poznań (PL), Vol.S3/F, pp.1-5, 2010

Abstract:
This paper presents numerical analysis of the hydrodynamic flow focusing in rectangular microchannels. The low Reynolds numer pressure driven flow in symmetric system of crossed channels with three inlets and one outlet is investigated. The numerical model is used to elucidate the origin of broadening of the focused flow sheet observed experimentally close to the side walls of the outlet channel. It is found that the observed broadening is mainly due to the residual flow inertia and can be totally eliminated if flow Reynolds number is less than one.

5.Kowalewski T.A., Błoński S., Turbulence in micro-channels, ExHFT-7, 7th World Conference on Experimental Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, 2009-06-28/07-03, Kraków (PL), pp.361-368, 2009
6.Sadlej K., Wajnryb E., Ekiel-Jeżewska M.L., Kowalewski T.A., Dynamics of nanofibres conveyed by low Reynolds number flow in a microchannel, ExHFT-7, 7th World Conference on Experimental Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, 2009-06-28/07-03, Kraków (PL), pp.237-244, 2009
7.Kowalewski T.A., Barral S., Kowalczyk T., Modeling Electrospinning of Nanofibers, in Modelling Nanomaterials and Nanosystems, IUTAM Symposium, 2009-05-19/05-22, Aalborg (DK), Vol.13, pp.279-292, 2009
Kowalewski T.A., Barral S., Kowalczyk T., Modeling Electrospinning of Nanofibers, in Modelling Nanomaterials and Nanosystems, IUTAM Symposium, 2009-05-19/05-22, Aalborg (DK), Vol.13, pp.279-292, 2009

Abstract:
A fast discrete model for the simulations of thin charged jets produced during the electrospinning process is derived, based on an efficient implementation of the boundary element method for the computation of electrostatic interactions of the jet with itself and with the electrodes. Short-range electrostatic forces are evaluated with slender-body analytical approximations, whereas a hierarchical force evaluation algorithm is used for long-range interactions. Qualitative comparisons with experiments is discussed.

Keywords:
modelling electrospinning, electrostatic interactions, BEM

8.Kołbuk D., Kowalewski T., Sajkiewicz P., Optical investigations of structure of poly(caprolactone) nanofibers formed by electrospinning, 1st Polish Conference on Nano- and Micromechanics, 2008-07-08/07-12, Krasiczyn (PL), pp.107-108, 2008

Abstrakty konferencyjne
1.Pawłowska S., Nakielski P., Pierini F., Zembrzycki K., Kowalewski T., Mobility of highly deformable nanofilaments, ICTAM XXIV, 24th International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2016-08-21/08-26, Montréal (CA), pp.1196-1197, 2016
Pawłowska S., Nakielski P., Pierini F., Zembrzycki K., Kowalewski T., Mobility of highly deformable nanofilaments, ICTAM XXIV, 24th International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2016-08-21/08-26, Montréal (CA), pp.1196-1197, 2016

Abstract:
Mobility of hydrogel nanofilaments suspended in liquid is investigated to gain basic knowledge on hydrodynamic interactions biased by Brownian fluctuations. Typical for long macromolecules effects like spontaneous conformational changes and cross-flow migration are observed and evaluated. The collected experimental data can be used to validate assumptions present in numerical models describing intercellular transport of long biomolecules.

Keywords:
persistence length, macromolecules, electrospinning, DNA, Brownian motion

2.Pierini F., Nakielski P., Pawłowska S., Zembrzycki K., Kowalewski T.A., Particles double layer evaluation by atomic force microscopy - optical tweezers, ICTAM XXIV, 24th International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2016-08-21/08-26, Montréal (CA), pp.1204-1205, 2016
Pierini F., Nakielski P., Pawłowska S., Zembrzycki K., Kowalewski T.A., Particles double layer evaluation by atomic force microscopy - optical tweezers, ICTAM XXIV, 24th International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2016-08-21/08-26, Montréal (CA), pp.1204-1205, 2016

Abstract:
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is the most commonly used method of direct force evaluation, but due to its technical limitations this single probe technique is unable to detect forces with femtonewton resolution. We present the development of a combined atomic force microscopy and optical tweezers (AFM/OT) instrument. The optical tweezers system provides us the ability to manipulate small dielectric objects and to use it as a high spatial and temporal resolution displacement and force sensor in the same AFM scanning zone. We demonstrate the possibility to develop a combined instrument with high potential in nanomechanics, molecules manipulation and biologic al studies. The presented study is aimed to quantify the interaction forces between two single polystyrene particles in the femtonewton scale by using the developed AFM/OT equipment.

Keywords:
optical trap, nanomanipulation, femtonewtons

3.Pawłowska S., Nakielski P., Pierini F., Zembrzycki K., Kowalewski T.A., Highly Deformable Hydrogel Nanofilaments in Poiseuille Flow, MNF 2016, 5th Micro and Nano Flows Conference, 2016-09-11/09-14, Milan (IT), pp.50, 2016
Pawłowska S., Nakielski P., Pierini F., Zembrzycki K., Kowalewski T.A., Highly Deformable Hydrogel Nanofilaments in Poiseuille Flow, MNF 2016, 5th Micro and Nano Flows Conference, 2016-09-11/09-14, Milan (IT), pp.50, 2016

Keywords:
Hydrogel Nanofilaments, Bending Dynamics, Poiseuille Flow, Electrospinning

4.Pierini F., Zembrzycki K., Nakielski P., Pawłowska S., Kowalewski T.A., Nanomanipulating and sensing single particles interactions with combined atomic force microscopy optical tweezers (AFM/OT), MNF 2016, 5th Micro and Nano Flows Conference, 2016-09-11/09-14, Milan (IT), pp.40-41, 2016
Pierini F., Zembrzycki K., Nakielski P., Pawłowska S., Kowalewski T.A., Nanomanipulating and sensing single particles interactions with combined atomic force microscopy optical tweezers (AFM/OT), MNF 2016, 5th Micro and Nano Flows Conference, 2016-09-11/09-14, Milan (IT), pp.40-41, 2016

Keywords:
Atomic force microscopy/optical tweezers, Nanomanipulation, Single particles analysis, Interaction force measurement, DLVO theory

5.Kowalewski T.A., New experimental tools in microfluidics, XXII Fluid Mechanics Conference, 2016-09-11/09-14, Słok k/Bełchatowa (PL), pp.33-34, 2016
6.Nakielski P., Pawłowska S., Pierini F., Hejduk P., Zembrzycki K., Kowalewski T.A., Novel hydrogel nanofilaments based on electrospun core-shell fibers, Europhysics Conference Biomolecules and Nanostructures 5, 2015-05-13/05-17, Jaroszowice (PL), Vol.39C, pp.101, 2015
Nakielski P., Pawłowska S., Pierini F., Hejduk P., Zembrzycki K., Kowalewski T.A., Novel hydrogel nanofilaments based on electrospun core-shell fibers, Europhysics Conference Biomolecules and Nanostructures 5, 2015-05-13/05-17, Jaroszowice (PL), Vol.39C, pp.101, 2015

Keywords:
nanofilaments, hydrogel, long molecules flexibility

7.Pawłowska S., Nakielski P., Pierini F., Zembrzycki K., Kowalewski T.A., Mobility of nanofilaments, Experiments in Fluid Mechanics 2015, 2015-10-26/10-27, Warszawa (PL), pp.1, 2015
Pawłowska S., Nakielski P., Pierini F., Zembrzycki K., Kowalewski T.A., Mobility of nanofilaments, Experiments in Fluid Mechanics 2015, 2015-10-26/10-27, Warszawa (PL), pp.1, 2015

Abstract:
We propose a microscale experimental model in form of highly deformable nanofilaments, which permits for precise optical measurements and to evaluate hydrodynamic interactions (mobility). The conducted research includes determination of the mechanical properties of elastic hydrogel nanofilaments obtained by electrospinning that can serve as experimental benchmark to validate theoretical and numerical models describing dynamics of long biological molecules (e.g. proteins, DNA). Nanofilaments mechanical properties are determined by studying their dynamic bending. in shear flow and deformations due to the thermal fluctuations (Brownian motion). These results are compared with AFM nanoindentation measurements. Data obtained from this research project will be a base to crea te biocompatible nanoobjects that can become tools for the regeneration of tissue (e.g. neural tissue).

Keywords:
Biocompatible nanoobjects, highly deformable nanofilaments, regeneration of tissue

8.Nakielski P., Pawłowska S., Pierini F., Hejduk P., Zembrzycki K., Kowalewski T.A., Processing and mechanical properties relationships in hydrogel nanofilamets for biological application, ICMCSF, International Conference on Mechanics of Complex Solids and Fluids, 2015-05-17/05-22, Lille (FR), pp.1, 2015
Nakielski P., Pawłowska S., Pierini F., Hejduk P., Zembrzycki K., Kowalewski T.A., Processing and mechanical properties relationships in hydrogel nanofilamets for biological application, ICMCSF, International Conference on Mechanics of Complex Solids and Fluids, 2015-05-17/05-22, Lille (FR), pp.1, 2015

Keywords:
Nanofilaments, hydrogel filaments, nanofibres, long nanoobjects deformability

9.Pierini F., Nakielski P., Pawłowska S., Zembrzycki K., Kowalewski T.A., Hydrogel nanofilaments via core-shell electrospinning, NanoItaly, Nanotechnology meeting forum for research and market, 2015-09-21/09-24, Roma (IT), pp.1, 2015
Pierini F., Nakielski P., Pawłowska S., Zembrzycki K., Kowalewski T.A., Hydrogel nanofilaments via core-shell electrospinning, NanoItaly, Nanotechnology meeting forum for research and market, 2015-09-21/09-24, Roma (IT), pp.1, 2015

Abstract:
Controlled drug delivery systems are used to improve the conventional administration of drugs. One of the main challenges is to synthesize materials able to find a defined target and to release drugs in a controlled manner [1]. Several research tasks have been focused on developing ideal drug delivery systems made by hydrogel due to their unique properties [2]. The present study is based on the idea that soft and flexible nanomaterials can easily travel in crowed environments of body fluids and biological tissues. Modification of their mechanical properties obtained by changing of the cross-linker amount may give us the possibility to tune the material rigidity according to desired application. Here, we describe a novel method based on coaxial electrospinning for obtaining highly flexible hydrogel nanofilaments able to transport and release dedicated molecules. Two different types of hydrogels (poly(N,Nisopropyl acrylamide) and polyacrylamide) with three polymer/cross-linker ratios were produced and deeply studied. The nanofilaments morphology was characterized and the release of bovine serum albumin as a function of time was quantified. Mechanical properties of highly deformable hydrogel nanofilaments were evaluated by bending dynamics and Brownian motion observation techniques. The calculated mechanical properties were compared with data obtained by nanoindention. The results highlight the crucial role of morphology and stiffness on mobility of nanofilaments colloid systems. The information gained are fundamental to design nanoobjects with well-defined chemical and physical behaviour.

Keywords:
Nanofilaments, electrospinning, core-shell method, hydrogel

10.Kowalewski T.A., Nakielski P., Pierini F., Zembrzycki K., Pawłowska S., Nanoscale challenges of fluid mechanics, PCM-CMM-2015, 3rd Polish Congress of Mechanics and 21st Computer Methods in Mechanics, 2015-09-08/09-11, Gdańsk (PL), pp.11-16, 2015
Kowalewski T.A., Nakielski P., Pierini F., Zembrzycki K., Pawłowska S., Nanoscale challenges of fluid mechanics, PCM-CMM-2015, 3rd Polish Congress of Mechanics and 21st Computer Methods in Mechanics, 2015-09-08/09-11, Gdańsk (PL), pp.11-16, 2015

Abstract:
In this talk we would like to tackle general question of contemporary fluid dynamics, how far its assumption of a continuous, smooth medium remains useful when size and time scales start to approach molecular ones. The question is not trivial and seems to depend on several additional factors usually minored. For example, when full Navier-Stokes equations are replaced by their linear approximation we are loosing basic characteristics of convective motion, and still we use such approach. Once our fluid becomes granular matter with its own internal properties, proper interpretation of flow interactions with other molecular structures probably needs deeper physics. But still we try to convert such problem to the classical macro/micro scale description. Hence a general question arises, how small does a fluid have to be before it is not a fluid anymore?

Keywords:
microfluidics, nanofluids, Brownian motion, nanofilaments

11.Nakielski P., Kowalczyk T., Kowalewski T.A., Modelowanie procesu uwalniania leków z materiałów opartych na nanowłóknach, 53 Sympozjon „Modelowanie w mechanice”, 2014-02-22/02-26, Ustroń (PL), pp.112-113, 2014
Nakielski P., Kowalczyk T., Kowalewski T.A., Modelowanie procesu uwalniania leków z materiałów opartych na nanowłóknach, 53 Sympozjon „Modelowanie w mechanice”, 2014-02-22/02-26, Ustroń (PL), pp.112-113, 2014

Keywords:
nanomaty, modelowanie uwalniania leku

12.Nakielski P., Kowalczyk T., Kowalewski T.A., Evaluation of drug release from electrospun nanofibers by modification of material morphology, EYEC, 3rd European Young Engineers Conference, 2014-04-29/04-30, Warszawa (PL), pp.220-221, 2014
Nakielski P., Kowalczyk T., Kowalewski T.A., Evaluation of drug release from electrospun nanofibers by modification of material morphology, EYEC, 3rd European Young Engineers Conference, 2014-04-29/04-30, Warszawa (PL), pp.220-221, 2014

Keywords:
drug delivery, electrospinning, mathematical modeling, nanofibres

13.Nakielski P., Kowalczyk T., Kowalewski T.A., Zastosowanie materiałów z nanowłókien w inżynierii regeneracyjnej, I Konferencja Młodych Naukowców „Biotechnologia w produkcji zwierzęcej” SGGW, 2014-04-24/04-25, Warszawa (PL), pp.25, 2014
Nakielski P., Kowalczyk T., Kowalewski T.A., Zastosowanie materiałów z nanowłókien w inżynierii regeneracyjnej, I Konferencja Młodych Naukowców „Biotechnologia w produkcji zwierzęcej” SGGW, 2014-04-24/04-25, Warszawa (PL), pp.25, 2014

Keywords:
elektroprzędzenie, nanowłókna, uwalnianie leków, TBI

14.Zembrzycki K., Pierini F., Kowalewski T.A., Optical tweezers to interrogate nano-objects in fluid, KKNM, 4th National Conference on Nano- and Micromechanics, 2014-07-08/07-10, Wrocław (PL), pp.25-26, 2014
Zembrzycki K., Pierini F., Kowalewski T.A., Optical tweezers to interrogate nano-objects in fluid, KKNM, 4th National Conference on Nano- and Micromechanics, 2014-07-08/07-10, Wrocław (PL), pp.25-26, 2014

Keywords:
nanomanipulation, optical trap, optical tweezers

15.Pawłowska S., Nakielski P., Hejduk P., Pierini F., Zembrzycki K., Kowalewski T.A., Brownian motion of nanofibers, KKNM, 4th National Conference on Nano- and Micromechanics, 2014-07-08/07-10, Wrocław (PL), pp.162-163, 2014
Pawłowska S., Nakielski P., Hejduk P., Pierini F., Zembrzycki K., Kowalewski T.A., Brownian motion of nanofibers, KKNM, 4th National Conference on Nano- and Micromechanics, 2014-07-08/07-10, Wrocław (PL), pp.162-163, 2014

Keywords:
electrospinning, flexible nanorods, Brownian motion

16.Chrzanowska J., Hoffman J., Kowalewski T.A., Małolepszy A., Mazurkiewicz M., Stobiński L., Szymański Z., Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes by Laser Ablation Method, KKNM, 4th National Conference on Nano- and Micromechanics, 2014-07-08/07-10, Wrocław (PL), pp.117-118, 2014
Chrzanowska J., Hoffman J., Kowalewski T.A., Małolepszy A., Mazurkiewicz M., Stobiński L., Szymański Z., Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes by Laser Ablation Method, KKNM, 4th National Conference on Nano- and Micromechanics, 2014-07-08/07-10, Wrocław (PL), pp.117-118, 2014

Keywords:
laser ablation, graphite, carbon nanotubes

17.Nakielski P., Kowalczyk T., Kowalewski T.A., Modeling drug delivery from nanofibers to brain tissue, XXI FMC, XXI Fluid Mechanics Conference, 2014-06-15/06-18, Kraków (PL), pp.24, 2014
Nakielski P., Kowalczyk T., Kowalewski T.A., Modeling drug delivery from nanofibers to brain tissue, XXI FMC, XXI Fluid Mechanics Conference, 2014-06-15/06-18, Kraków (PL), pp.24, 2014

Keywords:
brain, drug delivery, nanofibres, mathematical modelling

18.Pierini F., Hejduk P., Nakielski P., Pawłowska S., Zembrzycki K., Kowalewski T.A., Study of surface interaction forces in polystyrene colloidal nanoparticles systems, XXI FMC, XXI Fluid Mechanics Conference, 2014-06-15/06-18, Kraków (PL), pp.115, 2014
Pierini F., Hejduk P., Nakielski P., Pawłowska S., Zembrzycki K., Kowalewski T.A., Study of surface interaction forces in polystyrene colloidal nanoparticles systems, XXI FMC, XXI Fluid Mechanics Conference, 2014-06-15/06-18, Kraków (PL), pp.115, 2014

Keywords:
Nanoparticles, polystyrene beads, surface properties, atomic force microscopy, hydrodynamic properties

19.Pawłowska S., Hejduk P., Nakielski P., Pierini F., Zembrzycki K., Kowalewski T.A., Analysis of nanoparticles hydrodynamic diameters in Brownian motion, XXI FMC, XXI Fluid Mechanics Conference, 2014-06-15/06-18, Kraków (PL), pp.116, 2014
Pawłowska S., Hejduk P., Nakielski P., Pierini F., Zembrzycki K., Kowalewski T.A., Analysis of nanoparticles hydrodynamic diameters in Brownian motion, XXI FMC, XXI Fluid Mechanics Conference, 2014-06-15/06-18, Kraków (PL), pp.116, 2014

Keywords:
Nanoparticles, Brownian motion, hydrodynamic diameter

20.Korczyk P.M., Van Steijn V., Błoński S., Kowalewski T.A., Garstecki P., Mechanism of generation of droplets in a T-junction for low capillary numbers, XXI FMC, XXI Fluid Mechanics Conference, 2014-06-15/06-18, Kraków (PL), pp.117, 2014
Korczyk P.M., Van Steijn V., Błoński S., Kowalewski T.A., Garstecki P., Mechanism of generation of droplets in a T-junction for low capillary numbers, XXI FMC, XXI Fluid Mechanics Conference, 2014-06-15/06-18, Kraków (PL), pp.117, 2014

Keywords:
microfluidics, lab on a chip, droplets, T-junction

21.Zembrzycki K., Błoński S., Kowalewski T.A., Analysis of wall effect on the process of diffusion of nanopartices in a microchannel, ICTAM XXIII, 23rd International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2012-08-19/08-24, Beijing (CN), pp.CD-ROM FM10-007, 2012
22.Nakielski P., Kowalczyk T., Kowalewski T.A., Experimental study of drug release system based on electrospun nanofibres, ICTAM XXIII, 23rd International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2012-08-19/08-24, Beijing (CN), pp.CD-ROM FS10-007, 2012
Nakielski P., Kowalczyk T., Kowalewski T.A., Experimental study of drug release system based on electrospun nanofibres, ICTAM XXIII, 23rd International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2012-08-19/08-24, Beijing (CN), pp.CD-ROM FS10-007, 2012

Abstract:
The paper contains our attempts to estimate diffusion parameters of nanofibers actually applied as protective mats for neurosurgery. Measurements of concentration profiles of fluorophore released from stained nanofibres are performed. The two release systems are investigated: solid nanofibres and core-shell nanofibres with targeted drug simulator encapsulated inside nanofibres. The gathered information allows us to estimate parameters necessary for controlling drug release profiles.

Keywords:
Nanofibers, Electrospinning, Drug Delivery Systems

23.Nakielski P., Kowalczyk T., Kowalewski T.A., Experimental study of drug release system based on electrospun nanofibers, III National Conference of Nano and Micromechanics, 2012-07-04/07-06, Warszawa (PL), pp.149-150, 2012
Nakielski P., Kowalczyk T., Kowalewski T.A., Experimental study of drug release system based on electrospun nanofibers, III National Conference of Nano and Micromechanics, 2012-07-04/07-06, Warszawa (PL), pp.149-150, 2012

Abstract:
Nanofibers produced by electrospinning of biologically active substances became attractive material for encapsulating living cells, bacteria, and drugs for targeted therapy. Here, we aim to use nanofiber matrices as neurosurgery protective membranes and drug carriers. Proper administration of drugs requires precise control of the diffusion process during the time of release of days or even weeks. Construction of such system is a tedious experimental task. To avoid hundreds of tests it is aimed to build a numerical model including essential information about composition, process conditions, and fibers geometry necessary to construct suitable polymer matrices for dedicated drug delivery systems.

Keywords:
drug delivery, electrospinning, nanofibers

24.Kowalczyk T., Nakielski P., Kowalewski T.A., Application of nanofibers as Drug Delivery Systems, III National Conference of Nano and Micromechanics, 2012-07-04/07-06, Warszawa (PL), pp.39-40, 2012
Kowalczyk T., Nakielski P., Kowalewski T.A., Application of nanofibers as Drug Delivery Systems, III National Conference of Nano and Micromechanics, 2012-07-04/07-06, Warszawa (PL), pp.39-40, 2012

Abstract:
This paper describes the results of our preliminary studies on Drug Delivery Systems. Two distinct types of drugs are being investigated: lipophylic (soluble in organic solvents) and hydrophylic (soluble in water). Direct measurements of drugs and dye release from nanofibers were done for application in an animat model - rat.

Keywords:
Electrospinnig, Nanofibers, Drug Delivery Systems

25.Zembrzycki K., Błoński S., Kowalewski T.A., Analysis of wall effect on the process of diffusion of nanopartices in a microchannel, III National Conference of Nano and Micromechanics, 2012-07-04/07-06, Warszawa (PL), pp.83-84, 2012
26.Kowalewski T.A., Validation Problems in Computational Fluid Mechanics, CMM 2011, 19th International Conference on Computer Methods in Mechanics, 2011-05-09/05-12, Warszawa (PL), pp.303-1-2, 2011

Patenty
Numer/data zgłoszenia patentowego
Ogłoszenie o zgłoszeniu patentowym
Twórca / twórcy
Tytuł
Kraj i Nazwa uprawnionego z patentu
Numer patentu
Ogłoszenie o udzieleniu patentu
pdf
404667
2013-07-12
BUP 2/2015
2015-01-19
Andrychowski J., Frontczak-Baniewicz M.M., Czernicki Z.M., Gołąbek-Sulejczak D.A., Kowalczyk T., Kowalewski T.A., Nakielski P.
Zastosowanie opatrunków z nanowłókien polimerowych w zapobieganiu pourazowym zmianom w mózgu
PL, Warszawski Uniwersytet Medyczny, Instytut Medycyny Doświadczalnej i Klinicznej PAN, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN, PL
-
-
-
395894
2011-08-08
-
-
Andrychowski J., Frontczak-Baniewicz M.M., Czernicki Z.M., Gołąbek-Sulejczak D.A., Kowalczyk T., Kowalewski T.A.
Zastosowanie siatek izolacyjnych wytwarzanych z nanowłókien polimerowych do zapobiegania bliznowaceniu po zabiegu neurochirurgicznym
PL, Warszawski Uniwersytet Medyczny, Instytut Medycyny Doświadczalnej i Klinicznej PAN, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN
-
-
-
390140
2010-01-07
BUP 15/11
2011-07-18
Kowalewski T.A., Lamparska D., Zembrzycki K., Kowalczyk T.,
Sposób wytwarzania mat z nanowłókien
PL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN
222733
WUP 08/16
2016-08-31
197202
2003-09-11
BUP 06/05
2005-03-21
Łaszkiewicz B., Kowalewski T.A., Kulpiński P., Niekraszewicz B., Czarnecki P., Rubacha M., Pęczek B., Jedrzejczak J.
Sposób wytwarzania nanowłókien
PL, Politechnika Łódzka
197202
WUP 03/08
2008-03-31