Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki
Polskiej Akademii Nauk


M.H. Richter

Ostatnie publikacje
1.  Florek E., Witkowska M., Szukalska M., Richter M., Trzeciak T., Miechowicz I., Marszałek A., Piekoszewski W., Wyrwa Z., Giersig M., Oxidative Stress in Long-Term Exposure to Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Male Rats, Antioxidants, ISSN: 2076-3921, DOI: 10.3390/antiox12020464, Vol.12, No.464, pp.1-25, 2023


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Open AccessArticle
Oxidative Stress in Long-Term Exposure to Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Male Rats
by Ewa Florek
1,* [ORCID] , Marta Witkowska
2,3, Marta Szukalska
1 [ORCID] , Magdalena Richter
4 [ORCID] , Tomasz Trzeciak
4, Izabela Miechowicz
5 [ORCID] , Andrzej Marszałek
6 [ORCID] , Wojciech Piekoszewski
7 [ORCID] , Zuzanna Wyrwa
1 and Michael Giersig
Laboratory of Environmental Research, Department of Toxicology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-631 Poznan, Poland
Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, 61-614 Poznan, Poland
Centre for Advanced Technologies, Adam Mickiewicz University, 61-614 Poznan, Poland
Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 61-545 Poznan, Poland
Department of Computer Science and Statistics, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-806 Poznan, Poland
Oncologic Pathology and Prophylaxis, Greater Poland Cancer Centre, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 61-866 Poznan, Poland
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, 30-387 Krakow, Poland
Department of Theory of Continuous Media and Nanostructures, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2023, 12(2), 464;
Received: 13 December 2022 / Revised: 7 February 2023 / Accepted: 10 February 2023 / Published: 12 February 2023
Download Review Reports Versions Notes
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) serve as nanoparticles due to their size, and for that reason, when in contact with the biological system, they can have toxic effects. One of the main mechanisms responsible for nanotoxicity is oxidative stress resulting from the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, oxidative stress biomarkers are important tools for assessing MWCNTs toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidative stress of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in male rats. Our animal model studies of MWCNTs (diameter ~15–30 nm, length ~15–20 μm) include measurement of oxidative stress parameters in the body fluid and tissues of animals after long-term exposure. Rattus Norvegicus/Wistar male rats were administrated a single injection to the knee joint at three concentrations: 0.03 mg/mL, 0.25 mg/mL, and 0.5 mg/mL. The rats were euthanized 12 and 18 months post-exposure by drawing blood from the heart, and their liver and kidney tissues were removed. To evaluate toxicity, the enzymatic activity of total protein (TP), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione S–transferase (GST), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), nitric oxide (NO), and catalase (CAT) was measured and histopathological examination was conducted. Results in rat livers showed that TEAC level was decreased in rats receiving nanotubes at higher concentrations. Results in kidneys report that the level of NO showed higher concentration after long exposure, and results in animal serums showed lower levels of GSH in rats exposed to nanotubes at higher concentrations. The 18-month exposure also resulted in a statistically significant increase in GST activity in the group of rats exposed to nanotubes at higher concentrations compared to animals receiving MWCNTs at lower concentrations and compared to the control group. Therefore, an analysis of oxidative stress parameters can be a key indicator of the toxic potential of multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

Słowa kluczowe:
multi-walled carbon nanotubes,oxidative stress parameters,rats,long-term toxicity

Afiliacje autorów:
Florek E. - Poznan University of Medical Sciences (PL)
Witkowska M. - inna afiliacja
Szukalska M. - inna afiliacja
Richter M. - inna afiliacja
Trzeciak T. - Poznan University of Medical Sciences (PL)
Miechowicz I. - inna afiliacja
Marszałek A. - Nicolaus Copernicus University (PL)
Piekoszewski W. - inna afiliacja
Wyrwa Z. - inna afiliacja
Giersig M. - IPPT PAN
2.  Szymański T., Mieloch A.A., Richter M., Trzeciak T., Florek E., Rybka J.D., Giersig M., Utilization of carbon nanotubes in manufacturing of 3D cartilage and bone scaffolds, Materials, ISSN: 1996-1944, DOI: 10.3390/ma13184039, Vol.13, No.18, pp.4039-1-25, 2020

Cartilage and bone injuries are prevalent ailments, affecting the quality of life of injured patients. Current methods of treatment are often imperfect and pose the risk of complications in the long term. Therefore, tissue engineering is a rapidly developing branch of science, which aims at discovering effective ways of replacing or repairing damaged tissues with the use of scaffolds. However, both cartilage and bone owe their exceptional mechanical properties to their complex ultrastructure, which is very diffcult to reproduce artificially. To address this issue, nanotechnology was employed. One of the most promising nanomaterials in this respect is carbon nanotubes, due to their exceptional physico-chemical properties, which are similar to collagens—the main component of the extracellular matrix of these tissues. This review covers the important aspects of 3D scaffold development and sums up the existing research tackling the challenges of scaffold design. Moreover, carbon nanotubes-reinforced bone and cartilage scaffolds manufactured using the 3D bioprinting technique will be discussed as a novel tool that could facilitate the achievement of more biomimetic structures.

Słowa kluczowe:
tissue engineering, biomaterials, cartilage, bone, carbon nanotubes, scaffolds, bioprinting

Afiliacje autorów:
Szymański T. - Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (PL)
Mieloch A.A. - inna afiliacja
Richter M. - inna afiliacja
Trzeciak T. - Poznan University of Medical Sciences (PL)
Florek E. - Poznan University of Medical Sciences (PL)
Rybka J.D. - inna afiliacja
Giersig M. - IPPT PAN
3.  Brinkert K., Akay Ö., Richter M.H., Liedtke J., Fountaine K.T., Lewerenz H-J., Giersig M., Experimental methods for efficient solar hydrogen production in microgravity environment, Journal of Visualized Experiments, ISSN: 1940-087X, DOI: 10.3791/59122, Vol.154, pp.e59122-1-9, 2019

Long-term space flights and cis-lunar research platforms require a sustainable and light life-support hardware which can be reliably employed outside the Earth's atmosphere. So-called 'solar fuel' devices, currently developed for terrestrial applications in the quest for realizing a sustainable energy economy on Earth, provide promising alternative systems to existing air-revitalization units employed on the International Space Station (ISS) through photoelectrochemical water-splitting and hydrogen production. One obstacle for water (photo-) electrolysis in reduced gravity environments is the absence of buoyancy and the consequential, hindered gas bubble release from the electrode surface. This causes the formation of gas bubble froth layers in proximity to the electrode surface, leading to an increase in ohmic resistance and cell-efficiency loss due to reduced mass transfer of substrates and products to and from the electrode. Recently, we have demonstrated efficient solar hydrogen production in microgravity environment, using an integrated semiconductor-electrocatalyst system with p-type indium phosphide as the light-absorber and a rhodium electrocatalyst. By nanostructuring the electrocatalyst using shadow nanosphere lithography and thereby creating catalytic 'hot spots' on the photoelectrode surface, we could overcome gas bubble coalescence and mass transfer limitations and demonstrated efficient hydrogen production at high current densities in reduced gravitation. Here, the experimental details are described for the preparations of these nanostructured devices and further on, the procedure for their testing in microgravity environment, realized at the Bremen Drop Tower during 9.3 s of free fall.

Słowa kluczowe:
chemistry, issue 154, solar fuels, hydrogen, microgravity, photoelectrocatalysis, drop tower, shadow nanosphere lithography, semiconductor-electrocatalyst systems

Afiliacje autorów:
Brinkert K. - University of Warwick (GB)
Akay Ö. - inna afiliacja
Richter M.H. - inna afiliacja
Liedtke J. - inna afiliacja
Fountaine K.T. - inna afiliacja
Lewerenz H-J. - inna afiliacja
Giersig M. - inna afiliacja

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