dr hab. inż. Zbigniew Ranachowski

Zakład Mechaniki Doświadczalnej (ZMD)
Pracownia Badań Nieniszczących (PBN)
stanowisko: profesor nadzwyczajny
telefon: (+48) 22 826 12 81 wew.: 163
pokój: 532
e-mail: zranach
strona www: http://bluebox.ippt.pan.pl/~zranach/

Doktorat
1991Wyznaczanie naprężeń krytycznych w betonie przy pomocy zautomatyzowanych pomiarów emisji akustycznej  (PWr)
promotor -- prof. dr hab. Zbigniew Święcki, PWr
1230 
Habilitacja
1998-06-22Metody pomiaru i analiza sygnału emisji akustycznej 
Promotor prac doktorskich
1.2014-03-11Mazuruk Paweł  
(AM)
Diagnostyka zasobnikowych układów paliwowych na podstawie fazowości procesu wtrysku 
2.2001-06-28Marczak Miłosz  
(WITPiS)
Emisja akustyczna procesu tribologicznego 
3.1999-06-25Pogan Krzysztof  Analiza emisji akustycznej w procesie destrukcji betonów poddanych obróbce termicznej 

Ostatnie publikacje
1.Łazarska M., Woźniak T.Z., Ranachowski Z., Trafarski A., Domek G., Analysis of acoustic emission signals at austempering of steels using neural networks, METALS AND MATERIALS INTERNATIONAL, ISSN: 1598-9623, DOI: 10.1007/s12540-017-6347-z, pp.1-8, 2017
Łazarska M., Woźniak T.Z., Ranachowski Z., Trafarski A., Domek G., Analysis of acoustic emission signals at austempering of steels using neural networks, METALS AND MATERIALS INTERNATIONAL, ISSN: 1598-9623, DOI: 10.1007/s12540-017-6347-z, pp.1-8, 2017

Abstract:
Bearing steel 100CrMnSi6-4 and tool steel C105U were used to carry out this research with the steels being austempered to obtain a martensitic-bainitic structure. During the process quite a large number of acoustic emissions (AE) were observed. These signals were then analysed using neural networks resulting in the identification of three groups of events of: high, medium and low energy and in addition their spectral characteristics were plotted. The results were presented in the form of diagrams of AE incidence as a function of time. It was demonstrated that complex transformations of austenite into martensite and bainite occurred when austempering bearing steel at 160 °C and tool steel at 130 °C respectively. The selected temperatures of isothermal quenching of the tested steels were within the area near to MS temperature, which affected the complex course of phase transition. The high activity of AE is a typical occurrence for martensitic transformation and this is the transformation mechanism that induces the generation of AE signals of higher energy in the first stage of transition. In the second stage of transformation, the initially nucleated martensite accelerates the occurrence of the next bainitic transformation.

Keywords:
microstructure, phase transformation, dislocation, ultrasonics, alloys

30p.
2.Łazarska M., Woźniak T.Z., Ranachowski Z., Ranachowski P., Trafarski A., The application of acoustic emission and artificial neural networks in an analysis of kinetics in the phase transformation of tool steel during austempering, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.1515/amm-2017-0089, Vol.62, No.2, pp.603-609, 2017
Łazarska M., Woźniak T.Z., Ranachowski Z., Ranachowski P., Trafarski A., The application of acoustic emission and artificial neural networks in an analysis of kinetics in the phase transformation of tool steel during austempering, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.1515/amm-2017-0089, Vol.62, No.2, pp.603-609, 2017

Abstract:
During the course of the study it involved tool steel C105U was used. The steel was austempered at temperatures of 130°C, 160°C and 180°C respectively. Methods of acoustic emission (AE) were used to investigate the resulting effects associated with transformations and a large number of AE events were registered. Neural networks were applied to analyse these phenomena. In the tested signal, three groups of events were identified of: high, medium and low energy. The average spectral characteristics enabled the power of the signal spectrum to be determined. After completing the process, the results were compiled in the form of diagrams of the relationship of the AE incidence frequency as a function of time. Based on the results, it was found that in the austempering of tool steel, in the first stage of transformation midrib morphology is formed. Midrib is a twinned thin plate martensite. In the 2nd stage of transformation, the intensity of the generation of medium energy events indicates the occurrence of bainite initialised by martensite. The obtained graphic of AE characteristics of tool steel austempering allow conclusions to be drawn about the kinetics and the mechanism of this transformation.

Keywords:
carbon steel, austempering, lower bainite, acoustic emission (AE), neural networks

30p.
3.Żołek N., Ranachowski Z., Ranachowski P., Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka D., Kúdela Jr. S., Dvorak T., Statistical assessment of the microstructure of barite aggregate from different deposits using x-ray microtomography and optical microscopy, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.1515/amm-2017-0104, Vol.62, No.2, pp.697-702, 2017
Żołek N., Ranachowski Z., Ranachowski P., Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka D., Kúdela Jr. S., Dvorak T., Statistical assessment of the microstructure of barite aggregate from different deposits using x-ray microtomography and optical microscopy, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.1515/amm-2017-0104, Vol.62, No.2, pp.697-702, 2017

Abstract:
Two different barite ore (barium sulfate BaSO4) specimens from different localizations were tested and described in this paper. Analysis of the microstructure was performed on polished sections, and on thin sections using X-ray microtomography (micro-CT), and optical microscopy (MO). Microtomography allowed obtaining three-dimensional images of the barite aggregate specimens. In the tomograms, the spatial distribution of the other polluting phases, empty space as well as cracks, pores, and voids – that exceeded ten micrometers of diameter-were possible to visualize. Also, the micro-CT allowed distinguishing between minerals of different density, like SiO2 and BaSO4. Images obtained and analyzed on thin sections with various methods using the optical microscopy in transmitted light delivered additional information on the aggregate microstructure, i.e. allow for estimation of the different kinds of inclusions (like the different density of the minerals) in the investigated specimens. Above methods, which were used in the tests, completed each another in order to supply a set of information on inclusions’ distribution and to present the important differences of the barite aggregate specimens microstructure.

Keywords:
barite ore, barite aggregate, microstructure, optical microscopy, thin sections analysis, X-ray tomography

30p.
4.Mackiewicz M., Mikulski J.L., Wańkowicz J., Kucharski S., Ranachowski P., Ranachowski Z., Study of composite insulator sheds subjected to wheel test, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.1515/amm-2017-0101, Vol.62, No.2, pp.679-686, 2017
Mackiewicz M., Mikulski J.L., Wańkowicz J., Kucharski S., Ranachowski P., Ranachowski Z., Study of composite insulator sheds subjected to wheel test, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.1515/amm-2017-0101, Vol.62, No.2, pp.679-686, 2017

Abstract:
The paper presents investigation of the properties of the surface and the material stiffness – flexibility of series of samples taken from the sheds of the composite insulators. The insulators were previously subjected to wheel test. The wheel test and 1000 h salt fog test are regarded as alternative examination of the material resistance to the effects of electrical surface discharges. There were investigated two series of the samples of the composite insulators sheds. Examined specimens, made of HTV silicone rubber, were taken from the sheds of medium-voltage composite insulators of two different manufacturers. Insulators of both types passed the 1000 h salt fog test without reservation. Meanwhile, the wheel test can provide a basis for better distinguishing between physical properties of the tested materials. In the case of the insulators of one of the manufacturers the wheel test result was negative. Cross puncture effect of the sheds took place in several places. In addition, sheds were covered with dark coating of varying thicknesses. The results of the study indicated a significantly stronger influence of electrical and temperature factors on the sheds under investigations during the wheel test than in the case of the 1000 h salt fog test. It can be stated that these tests cannot be considered as alternative and it seems that wheel test enables better distinguishing between properties of the materials.

Keywords:
composite insulators, silicone rubber, wheel test, electrical surface discharges, tracking and erosion

30p.
5.Kúdela Jr. S., Švec P., Bajana O., Orovčík L., Ranachowski P., Ranachowski Z., Saffil alumina fibers reinforced dual-phase Mg-Li and Mg-Li-Zn alloys, KOVOVE MATERIALY-METALLIC MATERIALS, ISSN: 0023-432X, DOI: 10.4149/km 2017 3 195, Vol.55, pp.195-203, 2017
Kúdela Jr. S., Švec P., Bajana O., Orovčík L., Ranachowski P., Ranachowski Z., Saffil alumina fibers reinforced dual-phase Mg-Li and Mg-Li-Zn alloys, KOVOVE MATERIALY-METALLIC MATERIALS, ISSN: 0023-432X, DOI: 10.4149/km 2017 3 195, Vol.55, pp.195-203, 2017

Abstract:
The gas pressure infiltration technique was used to prepare Saffil alumina fibers reinforced Mg-Li and Mg-Li-Zn matrix composites with a dual-phase matrix structure. There was investigated the effect of variable Li content (6.2–10.3 wt.% Li) and Zn alloying (∼ 1.5 wt.% Zn) on the proof stress Rp0.2 of prepared composites. Rp0.2 values increased monotonously with rising fraction of Saffil fibers (5, 10 and 15 vol.%) reaching the maximum of about 250 MPa for Mg-Li matrix composites. Rp0.2 values of Mg-Li-Zn matrix composites were lower. Strengthening effect of Saffil fibers was promoted by the displacement redox reaction with Mg-Li and Mg-Li-Zn melts in which only Li significantly participated. Zn alloying retarded the displacement redox reaction. Too extensive reaction, however, resulted in the fiber damage and the drop in composite strength.

Keywords:
Mg-Li alloys, Saffil fibers, metal matrix composites, short-fiber strengthening, reactive wetting, displacement reactions

20p.
6.Pawełek A., Ozgowicz W., Ranachowski Z., Kúdela S., Piątkowski A., Kúdela S.Jr., Ranachowski P., Behaviour of Acoustic Emission in Deformation and Microcracking Processes of Mg Alloys Matrix Composites Subjected to Compression Tests, ARCHIVES OF CURRENT RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL, ISSN: 2454-7077, DOI: 10.9734/ACRI/2017/34598, Vol.8, No.2, pp.1-13, 2017
Pawełek A., Ozgowicz W., Ranachowski Z., Kúdela S., Piątkowski A., Kúdela S.Jr., Ranachowski P., Behaviour of Acoustic Emission in Deformation and Microcracking Processes of Mg Alloys Matrix Composites Subjected to Compression Tests, ARCHIVES OF CURRENT RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL, ISSN: 2454-7077, DOI: 10.9734/ACRI/2017/34598, Vol.8, No.2, pp.1-13, 2017

Abstract:
Research results on both mechanical and acoustic emission (AE) behavior of Mg-Li and Mg-Al alloys matrix composites (AMC) reinforced with ceramic δ-Al2O3 or carbon fibers subjected to the channel-die compression at room and elevated temperatures are presented in this paper. The AE measurements at room temperature showed that, the effect of anisotropy of the fibres distribution (random planar distribution) with respect to the compression axis appeared in the most investigated composites, whereas the AE activity at 140°C revealed a two- range character and the rate of AE events at 140°C was higher than at room temperature. These effects are discussed in terms of both the differences in thermal expansion between the fibres and the matrix as well as the weakening of the coherency between the fibres and the matrix leading to stronger debonding effects at 140°C than at room temperature. The spectral analysis of AE signals was performed with the Windowed Fourier Transform method, which served to plot the spectral density of AE signal as a function of frequency. The alominous and corundum ceramics types were also investigated in order to illustrate the enhanced AE, which was related to the different crack paths in the final stages of the sample degradation. The results were also discussed on the basis of SEM images, including the in-situ observations of microcracking as well as the dislocation strain mechanisms and microcracking ones during the channel-die compression of the Mg-Li-Al AMC.

Keywords:
composites, fibres microcracking, acoustic emission, strain mechanisms, dislocations

7.Schabowicz K., Ranachowski Z., Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka D., Radzik Ł., Kúdela Jr. S., Dvorak T., Application of X-ray microtomography to quality assessment of fibre cement boards, CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS, ISSN: 0950-0618, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.02.035, Vol.110, pp.182-188, 2016
Schabowicz K., Ranachowski Z., Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka D., Radzik Ł., Kúdela Jr. S., Dvorak T., Application of X-ray microtomography to quality assessment of fibre cement boards, CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS, ISSN: 0950-0618, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.02.035, Vol.110, pp.182-188, 2016

Abstract:
In this paper a method of X-ray microtomography (micro-CT) was employed for a direct insight into a microstructure of fibre cement boards of different quality. Four specimens were subjects of examination. Two parameters were determined to characterize the level of compaction of fibres in concrete matrix: mean-square displacement of migrating virtual particles after 500,000 of time steps and a diffusive tortuosity. The results of the investigation had revealed that fibre cement boards differing in density produce different images after processing with micro-CT method. The effect of microstructure tightening due to saturation using dying agent was also detectable.

Keywords:
Fibre cement boards, Delamination of fibres, Computational modelling, X-ray microtomography

40p.
8.Ozgowicz W., Grzegorczyk B., Pawełek A., Wajda W., Skuza W., Piątkowski A., Ranachowski Z., An analysis of the Portevin- Le Chatelier effect and cracking of CuSn6P alloy at elevated temperature of deformation applying the acoustic emission method, ENGINEERING FRACTURE MECHANICS, ISSN: 0013-7944, DOI: 10.1016/j.engfracmech.2016.04.036, Vol.167, pp.112-122, 2016
Ozgowicz W., Grzegorczyk B., Pawełek A., Wajda W., Skuza W., Piątkowski A., Ranachowski Z., An analysis of the Portevin- Le Chatelier effect and cracking of CuSn6P alloy at elevated temperature of deformation applying the acoustic emission method, ENGINEERING FRACTURE MECHANICS, ISSN: 0013-7944, DOI: 10.1016/j.engfracmech.2016.04.036, Vol.167, pp.112-122, 2016

Abstract:
The paper concerns the application of the acoustic emission (AE) method for the determination of the mechanical properties of continuously cast industrial tin bronze CuSn6P, which reveals tendencies to unstable plastic flow connected particularly with the Portevin–Le Chatelier (PLC) effect. The relations between the jerky flow connected with the PLC effect, AE intensity and the evolution of a fracture of the investigated alloy subjected to the tensile and compression tests have been analyzed. It has been found that the intensity of the oscillation of stresses, observed on the curves σ–ε, coincides with the effect of the instability of plastic deformation PLC type and the recorded signals of the intensity of acoustic emissions. It has also been found that the increase of the tensile temperature in the investigated alloy involves changes in the mechanism of cracking from transcrystalline ductile to brittle intercrystalline, characteristic at the temperature of minimum plasticity (DMT).

Keywords:
Copper alloy, Portevin–Le Chatelier phenomenon, Fractography, Acoustic emission, Intercrystalline fracture

35p.
9.Ranachowski P., Ranachowski Z., Jaroszewski M., Wieczorek K., Kúdela Jr. S., Mechanoacoustic Research Method of Degradation Processes in Electroceramics Materials, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON DIELECTRICS AND ELECTRICAL INSULATION, ISSN: 1070-9878, DOI: 10.1109/TDEI.2015.005568, Vol.23, No.3, pp.1251-1259, 2016
Ranachowski P., Ranachowski Z., Jaroszewski M., Wieczorek K., Kúdela Jr. S., Mechanoacoustic Research Method of Degradation Processes in Electroceramics Materials, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON DIELECTRICS AND ELECTRICAL INSULATION, ISSN: 1070-9878, DOI: 10.1109/TDEI.2015.005568, Vol.23, No.3, pp.1251-1259, 2016

Abstract:
The paper presents the concept of mechanoacoustic testing of degradation processes of ceramic materials, which is applied to diagnose high voltage insulators in operation. The method depends on the application of slowly increasing compressive loading acting on the sample, with simultaneous recording of acoustic emission (AE) descriptors. The process of loading is continued to the destruction or stopped at different stresses, and the samples are subjected to microscopic examination. Microscopic analysis of the samples enables determining the effects of stress action. The results were compared with the images of similar materials obtained from the insulators after different periods of operation. On this basis, there were distinguished consecutive stages of ageing of electrotechnical porcelain materials and corresponding effects of their structure degradation. Using slowly increasing quasi-static compressive loading in a relatively short-term mechanoacoustic test makes it possible to get results similar to those of long lasting degradation effects in operated electroinsulating objects. Using this method there is possible to describe the factors which affect short and long-term mechanical strength of the tested materials. There is also possible assessment of the validity and application of the theories explaining the strength of porcelains. There was presented research of the influence of the mullite phase on the short- and long-term mechanical strength of electrotechnical porcelain of different types.

Keywords:
Degradation, Stress, Insulators, Porcelain, Aging, Microscopy

30p.
10.Kúdela Jr. S., Švec P., Bajana O., Orovčík L., Ranachowski P., Ranachowski Z., Strengthening in dual-phase structured Mg-Li-Zn alloys, KOVOVE MATERIALY-METALLIC MATERIALS, ISSN: 0023-432X, DOI: 10.4149/km_2016_6_483, Vol.54, pp.483-489, 2016
Kúdela Jr. S., Švec P., Bajana O., Orovčík L., Ranachowski P., Ranachowski Z., Strengthening in dual-phase structured Mg-Li-Zn alloys, KOVOVE MATERIALY-METALLIC MATERIALS, ISSN: 0023-432X, DOI: 10.4149/km_2016_6_483, Vol.54, pp.483-489, 2016

Abstract:
Proof stress Rp0.2 of dual-phase α + β structured Mg-Li and Mg-Li-Zn alloys has been inspected in terms of the strengthening contributions of α- and β-phases. The alloys studied with a variable fraction of α- and β-phases have been subjected to compression straining tests, microhardness measurements and structural analysis by EDX and XRD. Alloying with 1.5 wt.% Zn results in the hardening of both α- and β-phases which however exhibit different hardening responses due to different Zn enrichment. The rule of the mixture has been used to interpret Rp0.2 values by taking into account the fraction of α- and β-phases and their strength level represented by their microhardness. Compression stress-strain curves indicate that work hardening of alloys studied depends considerably on the fraction of α-phase and is higher for Zn-containing alloys.

Keywords:
Mg-Li, Mg-Li-Zn, dual-phase alloy, solution hardening, ageing, work hardening

20p.
11.Dębowski T., Lewandowski M., Mackiewicz S., Ranachowski Z., Schabowicz K., Badania ultradźwiękowe płyt włóknisto-cementowych, PRZEGLĄD SPAWALNICTWA, ISSN: 0033-2364, Vol.88, No.10, pp.69-71, 2016
Dębowski T., Lewandowski M., Mackiewicz S., Ranachowski Z., Schabowicz K., Badania ultradźwiękowe płyt włóknisto-cementowych, PRZEGLĄD SPAWALNICTWA, ISSN: 0033-2364, Vol.88, No.10, pp.69-71, 2016

Abstract:
W artykule przedstawiona została możliwość lokalizacji delaminacji w płycie włóknisto-cementowej za pomocą specjalnie do tego celu skonstruowanego urządzenia wykorzystującego metodę ultradźwiękową i fale podłużne. Przeprowadzono badania na trzech rodzajach płyt. Stwierdzono, że proponowana metoda diagnostyczna umożliwia wykrywanie lokalnych nieciągłości, np. obszarów o obniżonej zwartości, czy delaminacji w płytach włóknisto-cementowych na obszarze średnicy wiązki metodą estymacji prędkości fali ultradźwiękowej. Zaletami metody są niewielkie wymiary urządzenia i krótki czas badania

Keywords:
płyty włóknisto-cementowe, badania nieniszczące, ultradźwięki

9p.
12.Jaskulski R., Glinicki M.A., Dąbrowski M., Ranachowski Z., Sobczak M., Monitorowanie parametrów termicznych procesu twardnienia betonów osłonowych, Journal of Civil Engineering, Environment and Architecture, ISSN: 2300-5130, DOI: 10.7862/rb.2016.14, Vol.XXXIII, No.63 (1/I/2016), pp.123-132, 2016
Jaskulski R., Glinicki M.A., Dąbrowski M., Ranachowski Z., Sobczak M., Monitorowanie parametrów termicznych procesu twardnienia betonów osłonowych, Journal of Civil Engineering, Environment and Architecture, ISSN: 2300-5130, DOI: 10.7862/rb.2016.14, Vol.XXXIII, No.63 (1/I/2016), pp.123-132, 2016

Abstract:
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań parametrów termicznych procesu twardnienia mieszanek betonowych, z których dwie wykonano z wykorzystaniem kruszyw stosowanych w produkcji betonów osłonowych (kruszywo magnetytowe oraz serpentynitowe), a trzecią, referencyjną, z wykorzystaniem kruszywa amfibolitowego. Na podstawie analizy dokonanych pomiarów temperatury wyznaczono parametry procesu twardnienia betonu (m.in. maksymalny przyrost temperatury, maksymalny gradient i in.). Jednocześnie rozwiązując numerycznie tzw. zagadnie-nie odwrotne wyznaczono parametry cieplne betonu w trakcie pierwszych 72 godzin twardnienia. Tą samą metodą wyznaczono również wartości funkcji źródła ciepła, a następnie na jej podstawie oszacowano ilość ciepła wydzieloną w procesie hydratacji cementu. Uzyskano dobrą jakościową zgodność postaci funkcji źródła ciepła oraz wykresów zmian temperatury w mieszankach. W toku analiz uzyskanych wyników wyraźnie zaznaczył się wpływ zróżnicowania parametrów cieplnych zastosowanych kruszyw. W przypadku mieszanki z kruszywem serpentynitowym dały się także zauważyć istotne różnice w przebiegu przyrostu temperatury (opóźnienie) w stosunku do pozostałych mieszanek

Keywords:
młody beton, beton osłonowy, ciepło hydratacji, ciepło właściwe, współczynnik przewodzenia ciepła

9p.
13.Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Wajda W., Skuza W., Tarasek A., Ranachowski Z., Ranachowski P., Ozgowicz W., Kúdela Jr. S., Kúdela S., Plastic instabilities induced by the Portevin - Le Châtelier effect and fracture character of deformed Mg-Li alloys investigated using the acoustic emission method, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.1515/amm-2016-0152, Vol.61, No.2, pp.897-904, 2016
Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Wajda W., Skuza W., Tarasek A., Ranachowski Z., Ranachowski P., Ozgowicz W., Kúdela Jr. S., Kúdela S., Plastic instabilities induced by the Portevin - Le Châtelier effect and fracture character of deformed Mg-Li alloys investigated using the acoustic emission method, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.1515/amm-2016-0152, Vol.61, No.2, pp.897-904, 2016

Abstract:
The results of the investigation of both mechanical and acoustic emission (AE) behaviors of Mg4Li5Al and Mg4Li4Zn alloys subjected to compression and tensile tests at room temperature are compared with the test results obtained using the same alloys and loading scheme but at elevated temperatures. The main aim of the paper is to investigate, to determine and to explain the relation between plastic flow instabilities and the fracture characteristics. There are discussed the possible influence of the factors related with enhanced internal stresses such as: segregation of precipitates along grain boundaries, interaction of solute atoms with mobile dislocations (Cottrell atmospheres) as well as dislocation pile-ups which may lead to the microcracks formation due to the creation of very high stress concentration at grain boundaries. The results show that the plastic flow discontinuities are related to the Portevin-Le Châtelier phenomenon (PL effect) and they are correlated with the generation of characteristic AE pulse trains. The fractography of broken samples was analyzed on the basis of light (optical), TEM and SEM images.

Keywords:
lightweight alloys, Acoustic Emission, fracture, Portevin-Le Châtelier phenomenon, twinning, dislocations, shear bands

14.Ranachowski P., Ranachowski Z., Kúdela Jr. S., Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Study of factors determinant of siliceous electrical porcelain resistance to structural degradation, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.1515/amm-2016-0244, Vol.61, No.3, pp.1143-1150, 2016
Ranachowski P., Ranachowski Z., Kúdela Jr. S., Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Study of factors determinant of siliceous electrical porcelain resistance to structural degradation, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.1515/amm-2016-0244, Vol.61, No.3, pp.1143-1150, 2016

Abstract:
The subject of this study was investigation of the factors that have a decisive influence on the resistance of siliceous porcelain to degradation processes. There was tested material C 110 type, which is widely used for the production of low-voltage (LV) elements such as insulators and bushings. On the basis of mechanical-acoustic and microscopic research of small-sized samples, which were subjected to compression, there were distinguished successive stages of degradation of the material structure. In the authors’ opinion, they have a reference to the ageing process, taking place during many years of work under operating conditions. Thus, it was possible to assess the structural factors that determine the durability and reliability of LV electroinsulating elements. The results were related to electrical aluminous porcelains.

Keywords:
porcelain insulating materials, ageing processes, acoustic emission (AE), optical microscopy

15.Ozgowicz W., Grzegorczyk B., Pawełek A., Wajda W., Skuza W., Piątkowski A., Ranachowski Z., Relation between the plastic instability and fracture of tensile tested Cu-Sn alloys investigated with the application of acoustic emission technique, Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale, ISSN: 1971-8993, DOI: 10.3221/IGF-ESIS.35.02, Vol.35, pp.1-10, 2016
Ozgowicz W., Grzegorczyk B., Pawełek A., Wajda W., Skuza W., Piątkowski A., Ranachowski Z., Relation between the plastic instability and fracture of tensile tested Cu-Sn alloys investigated with the application of acoustic emission technique, Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale, ISSN: 1971-8993, DOI: 10.3221/IGF-ESIS.35.02, Vol.35, pp.1-10, 2016

Abstract:
The work concerns the application of the acoustic emission (AE) method in testing the mechanical properties of continuously cast industrial tin bronze CuSn6P, which reveals tendencies to instable plastic flow connected particularly with the Portevin-Le Chatelier (PLC) effect. The relations between the jerky flow connected with the PLC effect, AE intensity and the evolution of a fracture of the investigated alloy subjected to the tensile test at a strain rate (?? ) of about 1.2·10-3s-1 in the range of temperatures (20÷400?C) has been analyzed. It has been found that the highest intensity of the oscillation of stresses, corresponding to the instability of plastic deformation PLC occurred at 200?C, whereas the maximum of the AE activity is at about 200÷250?C. The brittle intergranular fracture starts in the range of equicohersive temperature (TE) of about 200?C. Plastic deformation of the investigated alloy in the range of the temperature of minimum plasticity, amounting to about 400?C, results in intercrystalline fractures on the entire surface of the stretched samples.

16.Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Wajda W., Skuza W., Tarasek A., Ozgowicz W., Grzegorczyk B., Ranachowski Z., Kúdela S., Kúdela Jr. S., Mechanisms of plastic instability and fracture of compressed and tensile tested Mg-Li alloys investigated using the acoustic emission method, Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale, ISSN: 1971-8993, DOI: 10.3221/IGF-ESIS.35.03, Vol.35, pp.11-20, 2016
Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Wajda W., Skuza W., Tarasek A., Ozgowicz W., Grzegorczyk B., Ranachowski Z., Kúdela S., Kúdela Jr. S., Mechanisms of plastic instability and fracture of compressed and tensile tested Mg-Li alloys investigated using the acoustic emission method, Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale, ISSN: 1971-8993, DOI: 10.3221/IGF-ESIS.35.03, Vol.35, pp.11-20, 2016

Abstract:
The results of the investigation of both mechanical and acoustic emission (AE) behaviors of Mg4Li5Al alloy subjected to compression and tensile tests at room temperature are compared with the test results obtained using the same alloy and loading scheme but at elevated temperatures. The main aim of the paper is to investigate, to determine and to explain the possible influence of factors related with enhanced internal stresses such as: segregation of precipitates along grain boundaries or solute atoms along dislocations (Cottrell atmospheres) or dislocation pile-ups at grain boundaries which create very high stress concentration leading to fracture. The results show that the plastic instabilities are related to the Portevin–Le Châtelier phenomenon (PL effect) and they are correlated with the generation of AE peaks. The fractography of breaking samples was analyzed on the basis of light (optical), TEM and SEM images.

17.Ranachowski Z., Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka D., Ranachowski P., Dąbrowski M., Kúdela Jr. S., Dvorak T., The determination of diffusive tortuosity in concrete specimens using X-ray microtomography, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.1515/amm-2015-0140, Vol.60, No.2, pp.1115-1119, 2015
Ranachowski Z., Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka D., Ranachowski P., Dąbrowski M., Kúdela Jr. S., Dvorak T., The determination of diffusive tortuosity in concrete specimens using X-ray microtomography, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.1515/amm-2015-0140, Vol.60, No.2, pp.1115-1119, 2015

Abstract:
The paper presents a method of pore connectivity analysis applied to specimens of cement based composites differing in water to cement ratio. The method employed X-ray microtomography (micro-CT). Microtomography supplied digitized three-dimensional radiographs of small concrete specimens. The data derived from the radiographs were applied as an input into the application based on the algorithm called ‘random walk simulation’. As the result a parameter called diffusive tortuosity was established and compared with estimated porosity of examined specimens.

Artykuł prezentuje metodę wyznaczania parametru charakteryzującego intensywność połączeń mikroporów w zastosowaniu do próbek kompozytów z matrycą cementową, różniących się stosunkiem wodnocementowym. Metoda bazuje na wynikach badań z zastosowaniem mikrotomografii rentgenowskiej. Analizowano zdigitizowane zestawy danych, opisujące trójwymiarową reprezentację mikrostruktury niewielkich próbek wykonanych z betonu. Przygotowane w ten sposób skany mikrostruktury zastosowano jako dane wejściowe wprowadzone do oprogramowania wykorzystujacego algorytm ‘przypadkowo migrujących cząstek wirtualnych’. W ten sposób wyznaczono parametr mikrostruktury znany jako krętość dyfuzyjna. Parametr ten porównano z porowatością obserwowaną wyznaczoną dla zbadanych próbek przy wykorzystaniu analizy jasności voxeli w analizowanych próbkach.

Keywords:
X-ray tomography, concrete microstructure, diffusive tortuosity

30p.
18.Ozgowicz W., Grzegorczyk B., Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Ranachowski Z., Influence of the strain rate on the plc effect and acoustic emission in single crystals of the CuZn30 alloy compressed at an elevated temperature, Materials and Technology, ISSN: 1580-2949, DOI: 10.17222/mit.2013.195, Vol.49, No.2, pp.197-202, 2015
Ozgowicz W., Grzegorczyk B., Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Ranachowski Z., Influence of the strain rate on the plc effect and acoustic emission in single crystals of the CuZn30 alloy compressed at an elevated temperature, Materials and Technology, ISSN: 1580-2949, DOI: 10.17222/mit.2013.195, Vol.49, No.2, pp.197-202, 2015

Abstract:
The purpose of these investigations was to determine the effect of the strain rate on the phenomenon of a heterogeneous plastic deformation of the Portevin–Le Chatelier type while testing free compression of CuZn30 single crystals with a crystallographic orientation of [139] at 300°C. Moreover, the relations between the work-hardening curve s–e displaying the PLC effect and the characteristics of the signals of the acoustic emission generated in the uniaxial-compression test were determined. It was found that the process of plastic deformation of the tested single crystals in the analyzed range of the frequencies up to 35 kHz generates differentiated sources of acoustic-energy emission, mainly the impulsive emission generated by signal events, correlated with the oscillations of the stresses on the work-hardening curves s–e. The strain rate mainly causes the changes in the intensity of the oscillation typical for the PLC effect.

Keywords:
plastic strain, Portevin–Le Chatelier effect (PLC), single crystals, copper alloys, compression test, acoustic emission (AE)

15p.
19.Ozgowicz W., Grzegorczyk B., Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Ranachowski Z., The Portevin – le Chatelier effect and acoustic emission of plastic deformation CuZn30 monocrystals, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.2478/amm-2014-0029, Vol.59, No.1, pp.183-188, 2014
Ozgowicz W., Grzegorczyk B., Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Ranachowski Z., The Portevin – le Chatelier effect and acoustic emission of plastic deformation CuZn30 monocrystals, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.2478/amm-2014-0029, Vol.59, No.1, pp.183-188, 2014

Abstract:
The paper presents the investigation of the relation between the acoustic emission (AE) and instability of plastic deformation type Portevin-Le Chatelier (PLC) of single-phase brass CuZn30 monocrystals with crystallographical orientation [1¯3 9]. The monocrystals have been investigated applying the method of free compression at a constant strain rate and the temperature within the range from 200°C to 400°C, simultaneously recording PLC phenomenon by means of acoustic emission. During hot axial compression tests the correlation between work-hardening curves σ - ε, which display PLC effect and characteristic of acoustic emission signals has been found. Moreover, it was proved that in the range of the PLC effect, the acoustic signal is an impulse a character of cyclic repeatability, distinctly correlated qualitatively with the stress oscillations on the curves σ - ε. The analysis of the obtained results leads to the conclusion that in the tested monocrystals the effect PLC is probably controlled by complex processes similar to the phenomenon of dynamic strain ageing (DSA), which are described by diffusion models.

Keywords:
plastic strain, Portevin - Le Chatelier effect (PLC), monocrystals, copper alloys, compression test, acoustic emission (AE)

25p.
20.Ranachowski Z., Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka D., Ranachowski P., Rejmund F., Dąbrowski M., Kúdela Jr. S., Dvorak T., Application of X-ray microtomography and optical microscopy to determine the microstructure of concrete penetrated by carbon dioxide, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.2478/amm-2014-0245, Vol.59, No.4, pp.1451-1457, 2014
Ranachowski Z., Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka D., Ranachowski P., Rejmund F., Dąbrowski M., Kúdela Jr. S., Dvorak T., Application of X-ray microtomography and optical microscopy to determine the microstructure of concrete penetrated by carbon dioxide, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.2478/amm-2014-0245, Vol.59, No.4, pp.1451-1457, 2014

Abstract:
In the paper two advanced methods for testing cement based composites are described and compared. These are X-ray microtomography and optical microscopy. Microtomography supplies three-dimensional images of small concrete specimens. In the tomograms all cracks, pores and other voids and inclusions, that exceed a few micrometers, are shown. Such visualisation can become a valuable tool for analysis of the basic material properties. Images obtained on thin sections and analysed with various methods on optical microscopes supply additional information on material microstructure that cannot be obtained in tomograms. For example it is relatively easy to determine zone penetrated by CO2 ingress. These two methods, presented on examples of tests, complete each another in order to supply a set of information on composition and defects of tested composite materials.

Keywords:
cement matrix composites, concrete deterioration, X-ray tomography, microscopic analysis, concrete microstructure

25p.
21.Woźniak T.Z., Ranachowski Z., Ranachowski P., Ozgowicz W., Trafarski A., The application of neural networks for studying phase transformation by the method of acoustic emission in bearing steel, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.2478/amm-2014-0288, Vol.59, No.4, pp.1705-1712, 2014
Woźniak T.Z., Ranachowski Z., Ranachowski P., Ozgowicz W., Trafarski A., The application of neural networks for studying phase transformation by the method of acoustic emission in bearing steel, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.2478/amm-2014-0288, Vol.59, No.4, pp.1705-1712, 2014

Abstract:
The research was carried out on steel 100CrMnSi6-4 under isothermal austempering resulting in forming the duplex structure: martensitic and bainitic. The kinetics of transformation was controlled by the acoustic emission method. Complex phase transformations caused by segregation and carbide banding occur at the low-temperature heat treatment of bearing steel. At the temperature close to MS, a certain temperature range occurs where an effect of the first product of prior athermal martensite on the bainitic transformation can be observed. In the registered signal about 15 million various events were registered. There were considered three types of acoustic emission events (of high, medium and low energy), with relatively wide sections and with different spectral characteristics. It was found that the method of acoustic emission complemented by the application of neural networks is a sensitive tool to identify the kinetics of bainitic transformation and to show the interaction between martensitic and bainitic transformations.

Keywords:
Bearing steel, austempering, lower bainite, acoustic emission, neural networks

25p.
22.Kúdela Jr. S., Iždinský K., Oswald S., Ranachowski P., Ranachowski Z., Kúdela S., Decomposition of silica binder during infiltration of Saffil fiber preform with Mg and Mg-Li melts, KOVOVE MATERIALY-METALLIC MATERIALS, ISSN: 0023-432X, Vol.52, No.4, pp.183-188, 2014
Kúdela Jr. S., Iždinský K., Oswald S., Ranachowski P., Ranachowski Z., Kúdela S., Decomposition of silica binder during infiltration of Saffil fiber preform with Mg and Mg-Li melts, KOVOVE MATERIALY-METALLIC MATERIALS, ISSN: 0023-432X, Vol.52, No.4, pp.183-188, 2014

Abstract:
Mg and Mg-Li matrix composites were prepared by the melt infiltration of fibrous preform consisting of Saffil alumina fibers and the silica binder. During this process there has occurred decomposition of silica binder and/or surface silica film by displacement redox reactions and the reaction products were characterized using SEM, TEM, SAED, FTIR and XPS techniques. The only reaction products found in Mg infiltrated Saffil preform were MgO and Mg2Si. In Mg-Li melt infiltrated Saffil preform there was found besides MgO and Mg 2 Si also the non- crystalline phase that appears to be the lithium silicate xLi2O ySiO2. Binary lithium silicides and ternary magnesium-lithium silicides were not detected

Keywords:
Mg-Li composites, Saffil fibers, silica binder, melt infiltration, XPS, FTI

20p.
23.Ranachowski P., Rejmund F., Ranachowski Z., Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Kúdela Jr. S., Influence of microstructure on the properties of siliceous electrical porcelain, PRZEGLĄD ELEKTROTECHNICZNY, ISSN: 0033-2097, DOI: 10.12915/pe.2014.10.28, Vol.90, No.10, pp.110-113, 2014
Ranachowski P., Rejmund F., Ranachowski Z., Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Kúdela Jr. S., Influence of microstructure on the properties of siliceous electrical porcelain, PRZEGLĄD ELEKTROTECHNICZNY, ISSN: 0033-2097, DOI: 10.12915/pe.2014.10.28, Vol.90, No.10, pp.110-113, 2014

Abstract:
The paper presents the microscopic and mechanoacoustic study of degradation processes of the porcelain material C 110 type. Small-sized samples, derived from the low voltage insulator, were subjected to a slow, quasi-static compression, with simultaneous recording of acoustic emission descriptors. There were distinguished consecutive stages of the material degradation. Obtained results were compared with the images of the microstructure of low-voltage insulator materials after many years of operation. On this basis, there were distinguished the factors determinant of the short-term strength of porcelain and its resistance to ageing processes under operating conditions.

Keywords:
electrical porcelain, microscopic analysis, acoustic emission, degradation of the porcelain

10p.
24.Ranachowski Z., Pawełek A., Drzymała P., Bonarski J., Lewandowski M., Ozgowicz W., Light alloys for application as engine parts – comparison of properties of three materials, ZESZYTY NAUKOWE / AKADEMIA MORSKA W SZCZECINIE, ISSN: 1733-8670, Vol.39, No.111, pp.128-132, 2014
Ranachowski Z., Pawełek A., Drzymała P., Bonarski J., Lewandowski M., Ozgowicz W., Light alloys for application as engine parts – comparison of properties of three materials, ZESZYTY NAUKOWE / AKADEMIA MORSKA W SZCZECINIE, ISSN: 1733-8670, Vol.39, No.111, pp.128-132, 2014

Abstract:
This paper discusses the mechanical properties, microstructure and crystallographic texture of light alloys made on the base of aluminium, magnesium and lithium. An acoustic emission (AE) technique was applied to detect the moment of twinning or slip activation during compression and channel – die tests to extend the comprehension on the nature of the plastic deformation processes occurring in the investigated alloy s

Keywords:
hcp metals, aluminium and magnesium alloys, plastic deformation, mechanical twinning, crystallographic texture, acoustic emission

5p.
25.Ranachowski P., Rejmund F., Ranachowski Z., Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Kúdela Jr. S., Evaluation of the mullite hypothesis in respect of electrotechnical porcelains, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.2478/amm-2013-0158, Vol.58, No.4, pp.1177-1181, 2013
Ranachowski P., Rejmund F., Ranachowski Z., Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Kúdela Jr. S., Evaluation of the mullite hypothesis in respect of electrotechnical porcelains, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.2478/amm-2013-0158, Vol.58, No.4, pp.1177-1181, 2013

Abstract:
The paper presents the evaluation of the mullite hypothesis explaining the strength of porcelains. There was researched the influence of the mullite phase on the short- and long-term mechanical strength of electrotechnical porcelain of different types (C 110, C 112, C 120 and C 130). The total mullite phase content, the size and distribution of precipitates and dispersed single crystals in the glassy matrix were considered. Mechanoacoustic and microscopic techniques as well as ultrasonic testing were used during the investigation. The role of the mullite phase in the increase of strength and resistance to aging processes of electrical porcelain of various types was described. Mullite hypothesis is valid in reference to siliceous (C 110), cristobalite (C 112) and aluminous C 120 type materials of a typical raw components content and phase composition. In the case of modern strengthened C 120 and C 130 type aluminous materials advantageous are only dispersed fine mullite needles. The precipitates of mullite phase, especially of bigger size, are undesirable.

Keywords:
electrotechnical porcelain, porcelain degradation, acoustic emission (AE), microscopic analysis

20p.
26.Ranachowski Z., Pawełek A., Jasieński Z., Piątkowski A., Kúdela Jr. S., Lewandowski M., Mazuruk P., Durability and wear of engine parts – new methods of testing of alloys and composites, ZESZYTY NAUKOWE / AKADEMIA MORSKA W SZCZECINIE, ISSN: 1733-8670, Vol.35, No.107, pp.125-131, 2013
Ranachowski Z., Pawełek A., Jasieński Z., Piątkowski A., Kúdela Jr. S., Lewandowski M., Mazuruk P., Durability and wear of engine parts – new methods of testing of alloys and composites, ZESZYTY NAUKOWE / AKADEMIA MORSKA W SZCZECINIE, ISSN: 1733-8670, Vol.35, No.107, pp.125-131, 2013

Abstract:
The paper deals with the problems related to the diagnostics of selected parts of modern Diesel engines. The evolution of mechanical properties of four alloys of Mg-Li-Al system and four composites made on the base of the alloys mentioned above, caused by variation of its composition was presented. The Acoustic Emission (AE) method applied to monitoring of degradation of mechanical properties of the alloys and composites was described. Moreover, the results of the investigation of failures occurring in the injectors of Common Rail Diesel engines per formed with the application of AE method were also reported.

Keywords:
Diesel engines diagnostics, light alloys and composites, Common Rail fuel system, Acoustic Emission method

5p.
27.Knor G., Glinicki M.A., Holnicki-Szulc J., Ossowski A., Ranachowski Z., Influence of calcareous fly ash on the temperature of concrete in massive elements during the first 72 hours of hardening, Roads and Bridges - Drogi i Mosty, ISSN: 1643-1618, DOI: 10.7409/rabdim.013.009, Vol.12, No.1, pp.113-126, 2013
Knor G., Glinicki M.A., Holnicki-Szulc J., Ossowski A., Ranachowski Z., Influence of calcareous fly ash on the temperature of concrete in massive elements during the first 72 hours of hardening, Roads and Bridges - Drogi i Mosty, ISSN: 1643-1618, DOI: 10.7409/rabdim.013.009, Vol.12, No.1, pp.113-126, 2013

Abstract:
As a measure to avoid thermally induced cracking in massive concrete, mineral admixtures are often added as a substitute for a certain portion of cement. This paper presents the results of testing in course of which the temperature was measured during hardening of concrete mixtures produced with addition of calcareous fly ash obtained from the Power Station in Bełchatów, Poland. The investigation covered 76 concrete mixtures produced with three different aggregates and diverse binder content. In the experimental part of the research, the thermal parameters of hardening concrete were determined with a specially developed method in which the mixture was placed in a one-dimensional mould which allowed for unrestrained flow of heat in one direction. The results of testing were used to assess the influence of the respective ingredients, in particular calcareous fly ash, on the rate of rise of the fresh concrete temperature, on the time of occurrence of the maximum temperature and on the temperature gradients. Finally, a formula for calculating the specific heat of hydration depending on the mixture composition was proposed.

Keywords:
high calcium fly ash, fresh concrete temperature, heat of hydration, massive concrete, multicomponent cement, temperature gradient

4p.
28.Glinicki M.A., Krzywobłocka-Laurów R., Ranachowski Z., Dąbrowski M., Wołowicz J., Microstructure analysis of concrete modified with addition of calcareous fly ash, Roads and Bridges - Drogi i Mosty, ISSN: 1643-1618, DOI: 10.7409/rabdim.013.013, Vol.12, No.2, pp.173-189, 2013
Glinicki M.A., Krzywobłocka-Laurów R., Ranachowski Z., Dąbrowski M., Wołowicz J., Microstructure analysis of concrete modified with addition of calcareous fly ash, Roads and Bridges - Drogi i Mosty, ISSN: 1643-1618, DOI: 10.7409/rabdim.013.013, Vol.12, No.2, pp.173-189, 2013

Abstract:
The investigation of concrete microstructure and phase composition was performed on concrete specimens produced with and without calcareous fly ash obtained from Bełchatów Power Station. The used calcareous fly ash (designated “W”) was either unprocessed or ground to assumed specific surface and added to concrete mix to substitute 30% of the binder by weight. The following testing methods were used in this research: scanning electron microscopy, differential thermal analysis (DTA) and multiple microindentation. The characteristic features of the investigated microstructures are discussed and the effect of calcareous fly ash on the content of non-evaporable water and portlandite in cement matrix is analysed. The results of microindentation and compressive strength testing were used as the basis for evaluation of the efficiency of calcareous fly ash added to concrete mix.

Keywords:
calcareous fly ash, microindentation, microstructure, non-evaporable water, phase composition, portlandite, strength

4p.
29.Pieczyska E.A., Tobushi H., Takeda K., Stróż D., Ranachowski Z., Kulasiński K., Kúdela Jr. S., Luckner J., Martensite transformation bands studied in TiNi shape memory alloy by infrared and acoustic emission techniques, KOVOVE MATERIALY-METALLIC MATERIALS, ISSN: 0023-432X, Vol.50, pp.309-318, 2012
Pieczyska E.A., Tobushi H., Takeda K., Stróż D., Ranachowski Z., Kulasiński K., Kúdela Jr. S., Luckner J., Martensite transformation bands studied in TiNi shape memory alloy by infrared and acoustic emission techniques, KOVOVE MATERIALY-METALLIC MATERIALS, ISSN: 0023-432X, Vol.50, pp.309-318, 2012

Abstract:
TiNi shape memory alloy (SMA) specimens have been subjected to tension carried out at various strain rates. The goal was to investigate a nucleation and development of the stressinduced martensitic transformation by infrared (IR) and acoustic emission (AE) techniques. Therefore, both the infrared radiation and acoustic emission data were recorded using a fast infrared camera and acoustic emission set-up, respectively. It has been shown that the initial, macroscopically homogeneous transformation initiates in the elastic stage of the deformation even before the stress-strain curve knee and formation of the localized transformation bands. It has also been found that the homogeneous transformation occurs at similar stress level for all strain rates applied, while the localized martensitic transformation depends on the strain rate. Nucleation and development of the localized transformation bands, detected by the infrared camera, were confirmed by acoustic emission technique. The differences between the IR and AE activities were recorded during the TiNi SMA loading and unloading process, manifesting different dynamics of the stress-induced martensitic forward and reverse transformation.

Keywords:
shape memory alloy, TiNi, superelasticity, martensitic transformation, tension test, acoustic emission

20p.
30.Ranachowski P., Rejmund F., Ranachowski Z., Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Kúdela Jr. S., Rola fazy mulitowej w podwyższeniu odporności elektroporcelan na procesy starzeniowe, PRZEGLĄD ELEKTROTECHNICZNY, ISSN: 0033-2097, Vol.88, No.11b, pp.162-165, 2012
Ranachowski P., Rejmund F., Ranachowski Z., Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Kúdela Jr. S., Rola fazy mulitowej w podwyższeniu odporności elektroporcelan na procesy starzeniowe, PRZEGLĄD ELEKTROTECHNICZNY, ISSN: 0033-2097, Vol.88, No.11b, pp.162-165, 2012

Abstract:
W pracy przedstawiono badania wpływu fazy mulitowej na krótko- i długotrwałą wytrzymałość mechaniczną elektroporcelan rodzaju C 110, C 112, C 120 oraz C 130. Rozpatrywana była sumaryczna zawartość fazy mulitowej, wielkość i rozłożenie jej wydzieleń oraz niezaglomeryzowanych kryształów w osnowie szklistej. W badaniach wykorzystano metodę mechanoakustyczną, techniki mikroskopowe (MO i SEM) oraz metodę ultradźwiękową. Przedstawiono rolę fazy mulitowej w podwyższeniu odporności na procesy starzeniowe porcelany elektrotechnicznej różnego rodzaju.

Keywords:
porcelana elektrotechniczna, degradacja tworzyw porcelanowych, emisja akustyczna, badania mikroskopowe

15p.
31.Ranachowski Z., Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka D., Brandt A.M., Dębowski T., Application of Acoustic Emission Method to Determine Critical Stress in Fibre Reinforced Mortar Beams, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.37, No.3, pp.261-268, 2012
Ranachowski Z., Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka D., Brandt A.M., Dębowski T., Application of Acoustic Emission Method to Determine Critical Stress in Fibre Reinforced Mortar Beams, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.37, No.3, pp.261-268, 2012

Abstract:
The objective of this investigation was to test the effectiveness of the Acoustic Emission (AE) measurements in determining the critical stresses during four-point bending of mortar beams. Within the measuring procedure the parameter σcr/σ300 was calculated and analysed. Additionally, the influence of cement replacement by high calcium fly ash (HCFA) on the process of crack healing was discussed. Mortar beams with different content of HCFA and reinforced by steel microfibres were prepared for tests. After curing in standard conditions the beams were subjected to four-point bending test in order to introduce the pre-cracking. Thereafter the beams were cured in the lime water and loaded after 56 and 112 days in the same way as for the first time. Additionally the microstructure of mortars was studied in a stereo optical microscope as well in an electron scanning microscope including the Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The results of microstructural characterization of mortar containing HCFA from lignite combustion are presented. The applied load level slightly exceeded the critical stress, producing intense crack growth processes however did not significant affected the load capacity of the beams. During the consecutive loading the decreasing tendency of σcr/σ300 ratio was noted. The obtained results confirm that the latter parameter can be applied as a measure of the composite degradation level for the elements carrying the repeated loads of amplitude close to the critical stress of the structure and also that the cement replacement with HCFA influences the process of crack healing.

Keywords:
critical stress, Acoustic Emission, microcracking, self-healing, concrete microstructure, fly ash

15p.
32.Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka D., Brandt A.M., Ranachowski Z., Self-healing of cracks in fibre reinfored mortar beams made with high calcium fly ash, CEMENT, WAPNO, BETON, ISSN: 1425-8129, Vol.XVII/LXXIX, No.1, pp.38-49, 2012
Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka D., Brandt A.M., Ranachowski Z., Self-healing of cracks in fibre reinfored mortar beams made with high calcium fly ash, CEMENT, WAPNO, BETON, ISSN: 1425-8129, Vol.XVII/LXXIX, No.1, pp.38-49, 2012

Abstract:
Mortar beams were cast with various content of high calcium fly ash as a partial replacement of Portland cement. The results of microstructural characterization of mortar containing fly ash class C (High Calcium Fly Ash – HCFA) from lignite combustion are presented. The evaluation of the microstructure was performed using SEM and optical microscopy. At the age of 28 days the beams were subjected to 4-point bending until opening of a system of microcracks and cracks. Then, the beams were cured in lime water for 56 and 112 days after precracking and again subjected to loading. The results in a form of partial self-healing were recorded with load-deflection curves and using optical methods. The results show the percentage of replacement of cement by fly ash influenced the process of crack healing.

Keywords:
Microcracking, Self-healing, Microstructure, Fly Ash

15p.
33.Woźniak T.Z., Jelenkowski J., Rozniatowski K., Ranachowski Z., The effect of microstructure on rolling contact fatigue of bearings, MATERIALS SCIENCE FORUM, ISSN: 0255-5476, Vol.726, pp.55-62, 2012
Woźniak T.Z., Jelenkowski J., Rozniatowski K., Ranachowski Z., The effect of microstructure on rolling contact fatigue of bearings, MATERIALS SCIENCE FORUM, ISSN: 0255-5476, Vol.726, pp.55-62, 2012

Abstract:
There has been proposed an innovative thermal treatment of bearing steel 100CrMnSi6-4, where the existing standard heat treatment has been replaced by austempering. The structure of low-temperature tempered martensite has been replaced by a microstructure composed of martensite and lower bainite with midrib. The kinetics of bainitic transformation and isothermal martensitic transition at selected austempering temperatures was controlled by acoustic emission. The research on contact strength was made under the conditions of rolling-sliding friction. The microstructure was revealed with the use of a light microscope and the forms of pitting wear were displayed by a scanning electron microscope. It was found that the optimum microstructure providing the best used contact strength of the tested steel is conditioned by the formation of a lower bainite with midrib at the temperatures near MS. A plausible cause of the increased resistance to pitting is bifurcation of fatigue cracks on dispersion bainitic carbides in combination with primary carbides, in bainitic-martensitic matrix.

Keywords:
Acoustic Methods, Bainite, Bearing Steels, Isothermal Heat Treatment, Midrib, Pitting, Rolling Contact Fatigue (RCF)

34.Ranachowski Z., Emisja akustyczna w diagnostyce obiektów technicznych, DROGI I MOSTY, ISSN: 1643-1618, Vol.2, pp.65-87, 2012
Ranachowski Z., Emisja akustyczna w diagnostyce obiektów technicznych, DROGI I MOSTY, ISSN: 1643-1618, Vol.2, pp.65-87, 2012

Abstract:
W artykule przedstawiono powstawanie sygnału emisji akustycznej (EA) oraz wykorzystanie tego sygnału w diagnostyce obiektów technicznych. Opisano własności sensorów EA i aparaturę do rejestracji sygnału. Przedstawiono przykładowo trzy obszary zastosowania metody EA w technice: monitorowanie stanu technicznego konstrukcji żelbetowych, zbiorników ciśnieniowych i mostów stalowych. Rejestrowanie i analizowanie sygnału EA okazało się skutecznym narzędziem, rozwijanym w wielu laboratoriach i stosowanym coraz powszechniej w diagnostyce konstrukcji.

Keywords:
badania nieniszczące, diagnostyka zbiorników ciśnieniowych,eksploatacja obiektów żelbetowych, emisja akustyczna

35.Woźniak T.Z., Rozniatowski K., Ranachowski Z., Acoustic emission in bearing steel during isothermal formation of midrib, METALS AND MATERIALS INTERNATIONAL, ISSN: 1598-9623, Vol.17, No.3, pp.365-373, 201130p.
36.Kúdela S., Pawełek A., Ranachowski Z., Piątkowski A., Kúdela Jr. S., Ranachowski P., Effect of Al alloying on the Hall-Petch strengthening and AE in compressed Mg-Li-Al alloys before and after HPT processing, KOVOVE MATERIALY-METALLIC MATERIALS, ISSN: 0023-432X, DOI: 10.4149/km_2011_4_271, Vol.49, No.4, pp.271-277, 2011
Kúdela S., Pawełek A., Ranachowski Z., Piątkowski A., Kúdela Jr. S., Ranachowski P., Effect of Al alloying on the Hall-Petch strengthening and AE in compressed Mg-Li-Al alloys before and after HPT processing, KOVOVE MATERIALY-METALLIC MATERIALS, ISSN: 0023-432X, DOI: 10.4149/km_2011_4_271, Vol.49, No.4, pp.271-277, 2011

Abstract:
The paper deals with the effect of Al content in two-phase Mg-10Li-xAl (x = 0, 1, 5) alloys on their straining behavior before and after severe plastic deformation by high pressure torsion. Both coarse-grained and ultrafine-grained alloys were compression strained in channel-die device with simultaneous acoustic emission monitoring. It has been observed that Hall-Petch strengthening in ultra-fine grained alloys superposes with the strengthening resulting from Al alloying (solution hardening, particulate strengthening). Superposition of these strengthening mechanisms becomes stronger with increase in Al content, presumably due to enhanced grain refining effect.

Keywords:
Mg-Li-Al alloys, grain refinement, high pressure torsion, acoustic emission, Hall-Petch strengthening

20p.
37.Woźniak T.Z., Rozniatowski K., Ranachowski Z., Application of acoustic emission to monitor bainitic and martensitic transformation, KOVOVE MATERIALY-METALLIC MATERIALS, ISSN: 0023-432X, Vol.49, pp.319-331, 201120p.
38.Ranachowski P., Rejmund F., Ranachowski Z., Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Mechanoacoustic and microscopic study of aluminous porcelain resistance to structural degradation, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.2478/v10172-011-0140-7, Vol.56, No.4, pp.1227-1233, 2011
Ranachowski P., Rejmund F., Ranachowski Z., Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Mechanoacoustic and microscopic study of aluminous porcelain resistance to structural degradation, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, DOI: 10.2478/v10172-011-0140-7, Vol.56, No.4, pp.1227-1233, 2011

Abstract:
The paper presents mechanoacoustic and microscopic testing of degradation processes of modern C 120 electrotechnical porcelain of domestic medium voltage line insulator. Samples of small dimensions, cut off from the rod of insulator, were subjected to compressive loading, with recording of acoustic emission descriptors. Microscopic analysis enabled determining the advancement of degradation effects. Three stages of the structure degradation were distinguished. The effectiveness of dispersive and fibrous reinforcement of modern aluminous porcelain C 120 type has been described. Structural strengthening by corundum grains and mullite needle shaped crystals improves mechanical parameters and distinguishes this material from typical aluminosilicate ceramics. The presented results enable drawing up the conclusions concerning the resistance of investigated material to the ageing degradation process development during long term operation.

Keywords:
aluminous porcelain, structural degradation, acoustic emission (AE), microscopic analysis

20p.
39.Ranachowski P., Rejmund F., Ranachowski Z., Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Aluminous porcelain degradation study using mechanoacoustic and microscopic methods, ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, ISSN: 0004-0746, DOI: 10.2478/v10171-011-0011-x, Vol.60, No.2, pp.109-128, 2011
Ranachowski P., Rejmund F., Ranachowski Z., Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Aluminous porcelain degradation study using mechanoacoustic and microscopic methods, ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, ISSN: 0004-0746, DOI: 10.2478/v10171-011-0011-x, Vol.60, No.2, pp.109-128, 2011

Abstract:
This experimental paper comprises the results of acoustic emission (AE), microscopic and ultrasonic measurements of samples subjected to slowly increasing compressive stress. On the basis of conducted measurements the successive stages of the material structural degradation have been recognized. The objects of study were samples made of C 120 aluminous porcelain. The investigated material has found at present the application in the fabrication of technical elements like overhead power line insulators. In the case of such objects, not only high mechanical strength, but especially elevated durability as well as operational reliability are required. The expected "life time" of net insulators during exploitation is about 40 years. The analysis of obtained mechanoacoustic dependences pointed out a complex mechanism of degradation of the material. Microscopic investigation of samples, which were stressed to different levels of load, enabled to specify the development of gradual growth of microcracks and successive crushing out of elements of the structure. These processes appear to be similar to the ageing processes occurring in the material during long period of exploitation under a working load. Three stages of the structure degradation were distinguished. The preliminary and subcritical ones show low or moderate intensity of AE signals and considerable variety for the particular samples. The critical stage directly precedes the destructtion of samples. Its range is relatively narrow and reveals the AE activity of high energy. The effectiveness of dispersive and fibrous reinforcement of modern aluminous porcelain C 120 type has been described. Structural strengthening by corundum grains and mullite needle shaped crystals improves mechanical parameters and distinguishes this material from typical aluminosilicate ceramics. The presented results enable drawing up the conclusions concerning the resistance of investigated material to the ageing degradation process development during long term operation.

Keywords:
aluminous porcelain, ceramic insulators, insulator testing, acoustic emission, microscopic analysis, structural degradation

6p.
40.Ranachowski P., Rejmund F., Ranachowski Z., Jaroszewski M., Pospieszna J., Wieczorek K., Acoustic investigations of long-rod insulators and their material properties, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON DIELECTRICS AND ELECTRICAL INSULATION, ISSN: 1070-9878, Vol.17, No.1, pp.81-88, 2010
Ranachowski P., Rejmund F., Ranachowski Z., Jaroszewski M., Pospieszna J., Wieczorek K., Acoustic investigations of long-rod insulators and their material properties, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON DIELECTRICS AND ELECTRICAL INSULATION, ISSN: 1070-9878, Vol.17, No.1, pp.81-88, 2010

Abstract:
The paper presents a nondestructive ultrasonic method of investigating long-rod insulators used on overhead power lines and in substations. A correlation between the degree of degradation of porcelain C 120 and the ultrasonic wave propagation and attenuation parameters was established. The ultrasonic method was used to analyze the quality of groups of line and post insulators after many years of service. Also a new mechanoacoustic method of investigating the stages in the degradation of insulator porcelain was applied. As a result of the investigations carried out on samples of porcelain C 130 the successive stages in the degradation of ceramic insulators during their service life were determined.

Keywords:
Ceramic insulators, insulator testing, acoustic measurements, ultrasonic applications, acoustic emission

27p.
41.Ranachowski P., Rejmund F., Ranachowski Z., Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Foundations of mechanoacoustic method of material degradation research, PRZEGLĄD ELEKTROTECHNICZNY, ISSN: 0033-2097, Vol.R 86, No.5, pp.186-198, 2010
Ranachowski P., Rejmund F., Ranachowski Z., Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Foundations of mechanoacoustic method of material degradation research, PRZEGLĄD ELEKTROTECHNICZNY, ISSN: 0033-2097, Vol.R 86, No.5, pp.186-198, 2010

Abstract:
The paper presents the concept of mechanoacoustic testing of degradation processes of ceramic electrotechnical materials. Samples of small dimensions were subjected to slowly increasing compressive loading with simultaneous recording of acoustic emission descriptors. The process was continued to the destruction or it was stopped at various stages of degradation of the material structure. Microscopic analysis of samples enabled determining the effects of stress action.

Keywords:
acoustic emission (AE), material degradation, electrotechnical ceramics

9p.
42.Ranachowski P., Rejmund F., Ranachowski Z., Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Experimental evaluation of resistance to degradation of modern C 120 type porcelain, PRZEGLĄD ELEKTROTECHNICZNY, ISSN: 0033-2097, Vol.86, No.11b, pp.126-129, 20109p.
43.Ranachowski Z., Glinicki M.A., Nowowiejski G., Zastosowanie metody emisji akustycznej do identyfikacji składników betonu przy pomiarach mikrotwardości/Application of acoustic emission method for concrete component identification during microhardness testing, CEMENT, WAPNO, BETON, ISSN: 1425-8129, Vol.XV/LXXVII, No.4, pp.202-209, 2010
Ranachowski Z., Glinicki M.A., Nowowiejski G., Zastosowanie metody emisji akustycznej do identyfikacji składników betonu przy pomiarach mikrotwardości/Application of acoustic emission method for concrete component identification during microhardness testing, CEMENT, WAPNO, BETON, ISSN: 1425-8129, Vol.XV/LXXVII, No.4, pp.202-209, 2010

Abstract:
The objective of the presented investigation was to design the computer-aided procedure to assist the concrete component identification using microhardness testing method and the experimental verification of its efficiency by examination of concrete specimens. Two algorithms of analysis of Acoustic Emission (AE) signal evoked during microindentation were applied. AE signal processing was made by means of computer programs enabling for integrated processing of registered data. Data sets created during microindentation processes were analysed in order to distinguish indents in cement matrix, in aggregate grains and in other areas. The most efficient of the proposed selective criterions, used within a computer software based on wavelet filtering of the recorded AE signal, enabled for successive recognition of concrete components with the efficiency of 76 % within the tested population.

Keywords:
acoustic emission, microhardness, phase recognition, testing method, wavelet filtering

9p.
44.Pawełek A., Kúdela S., Piątkowski A., Jasieński Z., Ranachowski Z., Kúdela Jr. S., Mechanical and acoustic emission behavior in channel-die compressed Mg9Li alloys before and after treatment by HPT method, INŻYNIERIA MATERIAŁOWA, ISSN: 0208-6247, Vol.3, pp.579-581, 20109p.
45.Ranachowski Z., Emisja akustyczna i jej zastosowanie w technice, Nowa Elektrotechnika, No.9, pp.2-5, 2010
46.Jasieński Z., Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Ranachowski Z., Twinning and shear band formation in channel - die compressed silver single crystals identified by acoustic emission method, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, Vol.54, No.1, pp.29-33, 200920p.
47.Pawełek A., Kuśnierz J., Jasieński Z., Ranachowski Z., Bogucka J., Acoustic emission and the Portevin - Le Chatelier effect in tensile tested Al. alloys before and after processing by accumulative roll-bonding (ARB) technique, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, Vol.54, No.1, pp.83-88, 200920p.
48.Ranachowski P., Rejmund F., Ranachowski Z., Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Kúdela Jr. S., Materials degradation research on the basis of mechanoacoustic and microscopic methods, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, Vol.54, No.4, pp.824-832, 200920p.
49.Ranachowski Z., Bejger A., Application of light weight acoustic emission analyser for diagnostic of the fuel injection system of medium power marine diesel engines, POLISH JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES, ISSN: 1230-1485, Vol.18, No.2A supplement, pp.1-5, 200913p.
50.Ranachowski P., Rejmund F., Ranachowski Z., Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Comparison of acoustic emission and structure degradation in compressed porcelain and corundum materials, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.34, No.4, pp.705-722, 20099p.
51.Raunmiagi Z., Ranachowski Z., Laboratoryjna metoda oceny stanu stożkowego węzła tribologicznego rozpylaczy spalinowych silników okrętowych, MOTROL MOTORYZACJA I ENERGETYKA ROLNICTWA, ISSN: 1730-8658, Vol.11, pp.82-91, 20096p.
52.Ranachowski P., Rejmund F., Ranachowski Z., Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Research of degradation processes of insulator porcelain C 130 type, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.32, No.4S, pp.117-122, 2008
Ranachowski P., Rejmund F., Ranachowski Z., Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Research of degradation processes of insulator porcelain C 130 type, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.32, No.4S, pp.117-122, 2008

Abstract:
This paper presents the results of acoustic emission (AE) measurements of samples under compressive stress. Additional research, concerning structure and parameters of the material, was performed using microscopic and ultrasonic methods. The object of the investigation were samples of porcelain material C 130 type of domestic long-rod insulator LP 75/31W. This kind of aluminous porcelain demonstrates high mechanical and electrical strength as well as resistance to aging degradation processes. It finds wide application in modern electrotechnical engineering. The aim of this study was to recognize stages of degradation processes of the porcelain structure. The present work constitutes a continuation of the study concerning the influence of technological faults, existing in porcelain material structure, on long-term mechanical strength. These results were presented at the OSA Conference in 2006. The analysis of mechanical-acoustic characteristics pointed out diversified strength and complicated mechanism of the material degradation. The effectiveness of the dispersive and fibrous reinforcement of aluminous porcelain C 130 type was ascertained. It was stated during the microscopic investigation that the structure of the material is different from that in the case of typical aluminosilicate ceramic materials. The main reason for this effect is due to densely dispersed corundum and mullite fine crystals in glassy matrix.

Keywords:
porcelain material C 130 type, acoustic emission, compressive strength, structural degradation

53.Ranachowski Z., Ranachowski P., Rejmund F., Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Jasieński Z., The study of influence of high pressure torsion process on acoustic emission activity of compressed Mg - Li alloys, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.32, No.4S, pp.123-128, 2008
54.Zdunek A., Gancarz M., Cybulska J., Ranachowski Z., Zgórska K., Turgor and temperature effect on fracture properties of potato tuber, INTERNATIONAL AGROPHYSICS. A QUARTERLY JOURNAL ON PHYSICS IN ENVIRONMENTAL AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, ISSN: 0236-8722, Vol.22, No.1, pp.89-97, 2008
55.Ranachowski Z., Rejmund F., Ranachowski P., Mechanical-acoustic method used to estimate porcelain materials degradation, POMIARY AUTOMATYKA KONTROLA, ISSN: 0032-4140, Vol.54, No.10, pp.716-719, 2008
56.Zdunek A., Frankevych L., Konstankiewicz K., Ranachowski Z., Comparison of puncture test, acoustic emission, and spatial - temporal speckle correlation technique as methods for apple quality evaluation, ACTA AGROPHYSICA, ISSN: 1234-4125, Vol.11, No.1, pp.303-315, 2008
57.Marzec A., Lewicki P., Ranachowski Z., Influence of water activity on acoustic emission of flat extruded bread, JOURNAL OF FOOD ENGINEERING, ISSN: 0260-8774, Vol.79, No.2, pp.410-422, 2007
58.Pawełek A., Ranachowski Z., Piątkowski A., Kúdela S., Jasieński Z., Kúdela Jr. S., Acoustic emission and strain mechanisms during compression at elevated temperature of b phase containing Mg-Li-Al composites reinforced with ceramic fibres, ARCHIVES OF METALLURGY AND MATERIALS, ISSN: 1733-3490, Vol.52, No.1, pp.41-48, 2007
59.Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Kuśnierz J., Bogucka J., Jasieński Z., Ranachowski Z., Ranachowski P., Mizera J., Kúdela S., Kúdela Jr. S., Acoustic emission in compressed Mg - Li and Al. alloys processed by ECAP, HPT and ARB methods, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.32, No.4, pp.88-94, 2007
60.Pawełek A., Kuśnierz J., Bogucka J., Jasieński Z., Ranachowski Z., Ranachowski P., Rejmund F., Dębowski T., Acoustic emission and the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect in tensile tested Al processed by ARB technique, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.32, No.4, pp.955-962, 2007
Pawełek A., Kuśnierz J., Bogucka J., Jasieński Z., Ranachowski Z., Ranachowski P., Rejmund F., Dębowski T., Acoustic emission and the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect in tensile tested Al processed by ARB technique, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.32, No.4, pp.955-962, 2007

Abstract:
The paper presents the investigations of the relation between the acoustic emission (AE) and the Porte vin-Le Chatelier (PL) phenomena occurring in tensile tested two kinds of aluminium alloys: not-predeformed and predeformed earlier using the technique of accumulative rolling banding (ARB). There have been found essential correlations between AE and PL effects in ARB not-predeformed alloys. The tensile tests for ARB predeformed alloys were performed on a series of samples of various degree of work hardening and it has been observed that the correlations between the AE and PL effects are not so pronounced as in the case of ARB not-predeformed alloys. The results of AE measurements obtained using a new software allowed additionally to carry out the spectral analysis of AE signals and, in consequence, to determine the acoustic maps (acoustograms) and the spectral characteristics which are very useful in the discussion of the relations between the non-homogeneous strain mechanisms of the PL effect and the mechanisms of AE events generation. The results are discussed in the context of the existing dislocation models of the PL effect and the theoretical concepts of AE sources

Keywords:
acoustic emission (AE), Portevin-Le Chatelier (PL) effect, tensile test, dislocations, strain mechanism, nanocrystalline and/or ultra fine-grained structure, accumulative rollbonding (ARB)

61.Gondek E., Lewicki P., Ranachowski Z., Influence of water activity on the acoustic properties of breakfast cereals, JOURNAL OF TEXTURE STUDIES, ISSN: 0022-4901, Vol.37, pp.497-515, 2006
62.Woźniak T.Z., Ranachowski Z., Acoustic emission during austenite decomposition into lower bainite with midrib, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.31, No.3, pp.319-334, 2006
63.Pawełek A., Kuśnierz J., Ranachowski Z., Jasieński Z., Anisotropy of acoustic emission and-Portevin-Le Chatelier phenomena in polycrystalline aluminium alloys subjected to tensile tests, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.31, No.4, pp.75-81, 2006
64.Ranachowski Z., Piątkowski A., Pawełek A., Jasieński Z., Spectral analysis of acoustic emission signals generated by twinning and shear band formation in silver single crystals subjected to channel-die compression tests, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.31, No.4, pp.91-97, 2006
65.Guzik J., Wojtyniak M., Olszowski S., Marczak M., Ranachowski Z., Investigation of acoustic emission signal generated in the friction pair lubricated with oils containing various lubricity additives, ENGINEERING TRANSACTIONS (ROZPRAWY INŻYNIERSKIE), ISSN: 0867-888X, Vol.54, pp.159-166, 2006
66.Marzec A., Lewicki P., Ranachowski Z., Opis emisji akustycznej pieczywa chrupkiego, INŻYNIERIA ROLNICZA, ISSN: 1429-7264, Vol.3, No.78, pp.305-312, 2006
67.Fleszyński J., Ranachowski P., Ranachowski Z., Rejmund F., Ultrasonic non-destructive diagnostics of ceramics line insulators, INSIGHT, ISSN: 1354-2575, Vol.47, pp.530-535, 2005
68.Ranachowski P., Ranachowski Z., Rejmund F., Stankiewicz J., Acoustic examination of epoxy-glass insulator material, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.30, No.1, pp.121-130, 2005
Ranachowski P., Ranachowski Z., Rejmund F., Stankiewicz J., Acoustic examination of epoxy-glass insulator material, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.30, No.1, pp.121-130, 2005

Abstract:
Ultrasonic, microscopic and acoustic emission (AE) methods were applied to investigate the microstructure of composite rods, used as a carrying element of the medium voltage insulators. Such features of material structure as homogeneity level and the appearance of defects were discussed. The research was aimed at determining the influence of the technology of epoxy-glass fabrication on quality parameters of the insulator rods. The results of acoustic testing were compared with the effects of microscopic investigation.

Keywords:
composite insulator, epoxy-glass material, nondestructive ultrasonic measurements, acoustic emission

69.Ranachowski Z., Gondek E., Lewicki P., Marzec A., Investigation of acoustic properties of compressed wheat bran flakes, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.30, pp.255-266, 2005
70.Ranachowski Z., Bejger A., Fault diagnostics of the fuel injection system of a medium power maritime diesel engine with application of acoustic signal, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.30, pp.291-298, 2005
71.Ranachowski Z., Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Wavelet analysis of acoustic emission signals from composites based on Mg8Li5Al and Mg12Li3Al alloys subjected to compression tests, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, Vol.30, pp.29-32, 2005
72.Bejger A., Guzik J., Marczak M., Olszowski S., Ranachowski Z., Diagnostics of the fuel injectors of medium speed diesel engine with application of acoustic signal, THE ARCHIVES OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING - ARCHIWUM MOTORYZACJI, ISSN: 1234-754X, Vol.3, No.3, pp.199-207, 2005
73.Marzec A., Lewicki P., Ranachowski Z., Właściwości mechaniczne i akustyczne suchych produktów zbożowych, INŻYNIERIA ROLNICZA, ISSN: 1429-7264, Vol.69, pp.207-214, 2005
74.Ranachowski Z., Metody pomiaru i analiza sygnału emisji akustycznej (Praca habilitacyjna), Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.1, pp.1-113, 1997
75.Ranachowski Z., Pomiary i analiza sygnału emisji akustycznej (Praca habilitacyjna), Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.6, pp.1-86, 1996
76.Ranachowski J., Ranachowski Z., Zaboklicki A., Pomiary emisji akustycznej (EA) w trakcie laserowej obróbki ceramiki, Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.28, pp.1-12, 1994
77.Frąckiewicz H., Hoffman J., Kalita W., Królikowski J., Pilecki Sz., Ranachowski Z., Emisja akustyczna w procesie laserowego kształtowania metali, Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.24, pp.1-61, 1993
78.Bochenek W., Ranachowski Z., Kiciak J., Kukwa A., Badania usznych emisji akustycznych z zastosowaniem oryginalnej aparatury i metodyki badawczej, Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.20, pp.1-19, 1992
79.Raczkowski J., Moliński W., Ranachowski Z., Emisja akustyczna w drzewnictwie, Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.27, pp.1-58, 1992
80.Meissner M., Ranachowski Z., Generacja i propagacja wzorcowych impulsów emisji akustycznej, Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.36, pp.1-47, 1992
81.Hoła J., Ranachowski Z., Wykorzystanie metody emisji akustycznej w ocenie wpływu czynników technologicznych i eksploatacyjnych na proces niszczenia betonu, Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.37, pp.1-26, 1992
82.Hoła J., Ranachowski Z., Metoda emisji akustycznej w zastosowaniu do badania betonu, Prace IPPT - IFTR Reports, ISSN: 2299-3657, No.26, pp.1-28, 1991

Lista rozdziałów w ostatnich monografiach
1.
271
Ossowski A., Dąbrowski M., Glinicki M.A., Ranachowski Z., XIX Konferencja Popioły z Energetyki, 24-26 października 2012, rozdział: Właściwości termiczne twardniejących betonów z wieloskładnikowych cementów z dodatkiem popiołu lotnego wapiennego z Elektrowni Bełchatów, Ekotech, Szczecin, pp.69-80, 2012
2.
285
Ranachowski Z., Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka D., Dąbrowski M., Wołowicz J., Sobczak M., Dębowski T., Glinicki M.A., Proc. Int. Symp. Brittle Matrix Composites, BMC-10, October 15-17, Warsaw, rozdział: Microhardness testing procedure applied to blended cement based matrix, IFTR and Woodhead Publ., Warsaw, pp.209-222, 2012
3.
20
Nowicki A., Etienne J., Deputat J., Gubrynowicz R., Motylewski J., Ranachowski Z., Akustyka polska-wczoraj i dziś, rozdział: Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy-Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, pp.216-245, 2010
4.
145
Lewicki P.P., Marzec A., Ranachowski Z., Food properties handbook, rozdział: Acoustic properties of food, Taylor & Francis Group, Rahman M.Sh. (Ed.), pp.811-838, 2009
5.
171
Ranachowski P., Ranachowski Z., Rejmund F., Brittle Matrix Composites 9, rozdział: Mechanical - acoustic and structural study of degradation processes in corundum ceramics and aluminous porcelain, Brandt A.M., Olek J., Marshall I.H., Woodhead Pub. Ltd. Cambridge and IFTR PAS, Warsaw, pp.201-214, 2009
6.
229
Ranachowski Z., Jakość i bezpieczeństwo żywności: nowoczesne metody analityczne w zapewnianiu jakości i bezpieczeństwa żywności, rozdział: Emisja akustyczna w badaniach żywności, Wydawnictwo SGGW (Warszawa), pp.157-182, 2008
Redaktor monografii
1.
338
Kowalewski Z.L., Ranachowski Z., Widłaszewski J., 39th Solid Mechanics Conference SolMech 2014, Book of Abstracts, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research PAS, 1, pp.1-336, 2014

Prace konferencyjne
1.Glinicki M.A., Jaskulski R., Dąbrowski M., Ranachowski Z., Determination of Thermal Properties of Hardening Concrete for Massive Nuclear Shielding Structures, SCMT4, 4th International Conference on Sustainable Construction Materials and Technologies, 2016-08-07/08-11, Las Vegas (US), pp.1-9, 2016
Glinicki M.A., Jaskulski R., Dąbrowski M., Ranachowski Z., Determination of Thermal Properties of Hardening Concrete for Massive Nuclear Shielding Structures, SCMT4, 4th International Conference on Sustainable Construction Materials and Technologies, 2016-08-07/08-11, Las Vegas (US), pp.1-9, 2016

Abstract:
Nuclear reactor containments must maintain high durability since they restrict the spread of radiation and radioactive contamination to the general public, which could have significant consequences. The containment integrity and impermeability for potentially contaminated media is ensured using sophisticated structural and materials solutions including prevention of early age cracking of concrete. The results of numerical and experimental investigation on thermal behavior of early age concrete are presented. Concrete mixes were prepared with low-heat blended cements and various mineral aggregates. Special aggregates were selected for enhancing the radiation shielding capacity of concrete, including minerals of high atomic weight and of increased content of bound water. The proposed approach consisted of several stages, consisting mainly of measurements of the one-dimensional heat distribution in cylindrical concrete elements and solving the equation of one-dimensional heat transferto determine thermal properties of hardening concrete. The proposed model of temperature distribution in hardening concrete is based on the non-linear inverse heat transfer problem solution. The obtained experimental results and numerically determined material characteristics are discussed in respect to the concrete mix design.

Keywords:
durability, heat transfer, hardening concrete, inverse solution, temperature, thermal properties

2.Ranachowski Z., Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka D., Ranachowski P., Dąbrowski M., Kúdela Jr. S., Dvorak T., Analysis of pore distribution and connectivity in concrete using X-ray microtomography, BMC-11, 11th International Symposium on Brittle Matrix Composites, 2015-09-28/09-30, Warsaw (PL), pp.203-212, 2015
Ranachowski Z., Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka D., Ranachowski P., Dąbrowski M., Kúdela Jr. S., Dvorak T., Analysis of pore distribution and connectivity in concrete using X-ray microtomography, BMC-11, 11th International Symposium on Brittle Matrix Composites, 2015-09-28/09-30, Warsaw (PL), pp.203-212, 2015

Abstract:
In the paper a method of X-ray microtomography (micro-CT) was employed for a direct insight into a microstructure of concrete with a practical resolution of approx. 10 micrometers3. Two sets of specimens were subjects of examination. The spatial concentration of air pores was investigated in three concretes differing in the amount of the supplement of high calcium fly ash (HCFA). The parameter of pore connectivity called diffusive tortuosity was determined in three other concretes made of the same ingredients but differing in water to cement ratio. The quantitative results obtained with application of described procedures are applicable in material characterization.

Keywords:
X-ray microtomography, concrete, microstructure

3.Ranachowski Z., Zastosowanie emisji akustycznej w diagnostyce obiektów technicznych, XXI Seminarium NIENISZCZĄCE BADANIA MATERIAŁÓW, 2015-03-18/03-20, Zakopane (PL), pp.5-25, 2015
4.Ozgowicz W., Grzegorczyk B., Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Ranachowski Z., Acoustic Emission and the PLC Effect in Compressed CuZn Monocrystals, 58th Open Seminar on Acoustics joined with 2nd Polish-German Structured Conference on Acoustics, 2011-09-13/09-16, Jurata (PL), Vol.2, pp.159-168, 2011
5.Ranachowski Z., Emisja akustyczna w badaniach żywności, 57 Otwarte Seminarium z Akustyki, 2010-09-20/09-24, Gliwice (PL), pp.157-164, 2010
6.Pawełek A., Kúdela S., Piątkowski A., Jasieński Z., Ranachowski Z., Kúdela Jr. S., Ranachowski P., Microcracking of ceramic fibres and acoustic emission in channel-die compressed mg-Li-Al alloys matrix composites, ICSV17, 17th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, 2010-07-18/07-22, Cairo (EG), pp.47-1-8, 2010
Pawełek A., Kúdela S., Piątkowski A., Jasieński Z., Ranachowski Z., Kúdela Jr. S., Ranachowski P., Microcracking of ceramic fibres and acoustic emission in channel-die compressed mg-Li-Al alloys matrix composites, ICSV17, 17th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, 2010-07-18/07-22, Cairo (EG), pp.47-1-8, 2010

Abstract:
The object of investigation was the behaviour of acoustic emission (AE) during channel-die compression of the Mg-Li-Al alloys matrix composites (AMC) reinforced with ceramic δ-Al2O3fibres at room and at elevated temperature. The results of AE measurements at room temperature showed that in the majority of the investigated compositions the effect of anisotropy of the fibres distribution (planar random distribution) appeared with respect to the compression axis, whereas the AE activity at 1400C revealed a two-range character and the level of the rate of AE events was higher than thatat room temperature. These effects are discussed in terms of both, the differences in thermal expansion as well as weakening of the coherency between the fibres and the matrix. The results of AE measurements served to plot the spectral characteristics of the registered AE signals, i.e. the spectral density of AE signal as a function of its frequency. The spectral analysis of AE signals generated during the micro-cracking process of ceramic fibres in channel-die compressed Mg-Li-Al AMC was performed with the Windowed Fourier Transform method. The results are also discussed on the basis of optical and scanning microstructure images including these in-situobservations of microcracking fibres as well as in the context of the dislocation strain mechanisms and microcracking ones during the channel-die compression of the Mg-Li-Al AMC.

7.Ranachowski P., Rejmund F., Ranachowski Z., Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Mechanoacoustic study of ceramic electrotechnical material, 56th Open Seminar on Acoustics, 2009-09-15/09-18, Goniądz nad Biebrzą (PL), pp.99-104, 2009
8.Ranachowski P., Rejmund F., Ranachowski Z., Pawełek A., Piątkowski A., Mechanoacoustic study of ceramic electrotechnical material, 56th Open Seminar on Acoustics, 2009-09-15/09-18, Goniądz nad Biebrzą (PL), pp.99-104, 2009
9.Ranachowski P., Ranachowski Z., Rejmund F., Stankiewicz J., Wstępne badania procesu zaciskania okuć na prętach nośnych izolatorów kompozytowych z wykorzystaniem emisji akustycznej, VI Konferencja Naukowa Postępy w Elektrotechnologii, 2006/, Jamrozowa Polana (PL), pp.292-300, 2006
10.Ranachowski Z., Analiza impulsu w badaniach nieniszczących, XII Seminarium Nieniszczące Badania Materiałów, 2006-03-14/03-17, Zakopane (PL), pp.114-125, 2006

Abstrakty konferencyjne
1.Ranachowski Z., Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka D., Ranachowski P., Pawełek A., Kúdela Jr. S., Dvorak T., The analysis of pore distribution and pore connectivity in concrete samples using x-ray microtomography, SolMech 2014, 39th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2014-09-01/09-05, Zakopane (PL), pp.199-200, 2014
Ranachowski Z., Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka D., Ranachowski P., Pawełek A., Kúdela Jr. S., Dvorak T., The analysis of pore distribution and pore connectivity in concrete samples using x-ray microtomography, SolMech 2014, 39th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2014-09-01/09-05, Zakopane (PL), pp.199-200, 2014

Abstract:
The durability of concrete in outdoor structures is closely related to its resistance against the aggressive gaseous actions coming from the environment and including influence of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide. The pore system and its interconnectivity in the concrete matrix directly influence the possibility of penetration of various aggressive gaseous media into concrete structure. The X-ray microtomography (micro-CT) is a modern, non-invasive technique enabling for determination of existing pores in the microstructure of concrete matrix. In the paper the results of investigation of two different concretes by the application of micro-CT method to micro-cores are presented. The quantitative information on the parameters of the analysed microstructure can improve the methods of material characterization available up to now.

Keywords:
X-ray microtomography, concrete, microstructure

2.Drzymała P., Bonarski J., Ranachowski Z., The role of microstructure in deformation mechanisms in extruded AZ31 magnesium alloy, SolMech 2014, 39th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2014-09-01/09-05, Zakopane (PL), pp.295-296, 2014

Patenty
Numer/data zgłoszenia patentowego
Ogłoszenie o zgłoszeniu patentowym
Twórca / twórcy
Tytuł
Kraj i Nazwa uprawnionego z patentu
Numer patentu
Ogłoszenie o udzieleniu patentu
pdf
417777
2016-06-30
BUP 2/2017
2017-01-16
Dębowski T., Lewandowski M., Mackiewicz S., Ranachowski Z., Hoła J., Schabowicz K.
Sposób wykrywania delaminacji w płytach włókno-cementowych i urządzenie do wykrywania delaminacji w płytach włókno-cementowych
PL, Politechnika Wrocławska, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN
-
-
-
399026
2012-04-27
BUP 22/13
2013-10-28
Ranachowski Z., Glinicki M.A., Knor G., Dębowski T., Ossowski A.
Sposób trzydobowego pomiaru ciepła twardnienia betonów i urządzenie do trzydobowego pomiaru ciepła twardnienia betonów
PL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN
220335
WUP 10/15
2015-10-30
396560
2011-10-06
BUP 08/13
2013-04-15
Raunmiagi Z., Ranachowski Z., Meissner M.
Sposób i urządzenie do oceny stanu technicznego rozpylacza paliwa, do silnika z samoczynnym zapłonem
PL, Akademia Morska w Szczecinie
217570
WUP 07/14
2014-07-31
373636
2005-03-14
-
-
Marzec A., Lewicki P.P., Ranachowski Z., Jędrzejewski A.
Sposób pomiaru tekstury produktów zbożowych i urządzenie do stosowania tego sposobu
PL, Szkoła Główna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN, PL
-
-
-
341543
2000-07-17
-
-
Ranachowski Z., Marczak R., Marczak M., Senatorski J., Guzik J., Ludew R.
Sposób i urządzenie do identyfikacji faz i/lub stanu procesu tarcia w węźle tribologicznym
PL, Politechnika Radomska, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN, PL
-
-
-
108078
1998-04-30
-
-
Łapiński Z., Belowski A., Tefelski G., Oniszk P., Ranachowski Z., Jędrzejewski A., Ryll-Nardzewski J.
Urządzenie do pomiaru wilgotności powietrza
PL, Wojskowy Instytut Techniczny Uzbrojenia, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN, PL
59595
-
2003-03-31
266676
1987-07-06
-
1992-01-31
Ranachowski J., Adamczyk E., Ranachowski Z.
Urządzenie do badania wytrzymałości mechanicznej próbek materiałów
PL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN
155864
-
-
252929
1985-04-15
-
1990-02-13
Ranachowski J., Ranachowski Z.
Sposób i urządzenie do wykrywania naprężeń w górotworze
PL, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN
151015
-
-