Institute of Fundamental Technological Research
Polish Academy of Sciences

Latest Publications

Publications reported by three months

1. Lavigne T., Bordas S., Lengiewicz J., Identification of material parameters and traction field for soft bodies in contact, COMPUTER METHODS IN APPLIED MECHANICS AND ENGINEERING, ISSN: 0045-7825, DOI: 10.1016/j.cma.2023.115889, Vol.406, No.115889, pp.1-22, 2023nota 8285

We provide an optimization framework that is capable of identifying the material parameters and contact traction field from two measured deformed geometries of a soft body in contact. The novelty of the framework is the idea of parametrizing the missing contact traction field and incorporating it into the inverse+forward hyper-elasticity formulation. We provide the continuum- and finite element formulation of the framework, as well as the direct differentiation method of sensitivity analysis to efficiently obtain necessary gradients for the BFGS optimizer. The correctness of the formulation and the excellent performance of the framework are confirmed by a series of benchmark numerical examples.

Hyper-elasticity, Inverse form, Large strains, Contact, Calibration, Soft bodies

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2. Milczarek M., Jarząbek D., Jenczyk P., Bochenek K., Filipiak M., Novel paradigm in AFM probe fabrication: Broadened range of stiffness, materials, and tip shapes, TRIBOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, ISSN: 0301-679X, DOI: 10.1016/j.triboint.2023.108308, Vol.180, No.108308, pp.1-12, 2023nota 8298

Atomic force microscopes could be used in wide range of nanotribology experiments but probes available on the market are only made of silicon or silicon nitride with a stiffness in the range of 0.01–100 N/m, which significantly limits the possible research. We strive to solve this problem by designing all-metal probes. The proposed fabrication method is characterised by the use of a copper substrate and electrodeposition in a mould prepared by indentation and photolithography. Prototype probes fabricated with this method were made of nickel with a stiffness of 20 N/m and 2800 N/m and were used for topography and friction measurements. Both the method and all-metal probes showed flexibility and great potential, especially in the field of nano/microtribology.

Atomic force microscopy, Microfabrication, Cantilever, Metal probe, Friction, Nanotribology

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3. Chen H., Hou P., Zhou X., Black L., Adu-Amankwah S., Feng P., Cui N., Glinicki M.A., Cai Y., Zhang S., Zhao P., Li Q., Cheng X., Toward performance improvement of supersulfated cement by nano silica: Asynchronous regulation on the hydration kinetics of silicate and aluminate, CEMENT AND CONCRETE RESEARCH, ISSN: 0008-8846, DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2023.107117, Vol.167, No.107117, pp.1-11, 2023nota 8309

Supersulfated cement (SSC) is a traditional low-carbon cement, but its slow hydration and strength development has limited its practical applications. Nano silica (NS) was used to activate the hydration of SSC by taking advantage of its ability to regulate silicate and aluminate reactions. The mechanical performance of various mixes was determined, as a function of sulfation degree and NS addition, as pore structure, phase assemblage, hydration degree, and microstructure. Results showed that NS improves the hydration degree of slag, densifies the microstructure, and significantly increases both early- and late-age compressive strength. The enhancement was attributed to its effects on the hydration of slag in SSC: delaying ettringite formation, but promoting C-(A)-S-H precipitation, reducing microporosity. This study reveals the critical role of the regulation of hydration kinetics of silicate and aluminate in controlling the performance of SSC as NS does.

Supersulfated cement, Nano silica, Gypsum content, Mechanical property, Microstructure

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4. Chmielewski M., Zybała R., Strojny-Nędza A., Piątkowska A., Dobrowolski A.P., Jagiełło J., Diduszko R., Bazarnik P., Nosewicz S., Microstructural Evolution of Ni-SiC Composites Manufactured by Spark Plasma Sintering, METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, ISSN: 1073-5623, DOI: 10.1007/s11661-023-06999-w, Vol.-, No.-, pp.---, 2023nota 8316

The presented paper concerns the technological aspects of the interface evolution in the nickel-silicon carbide composite during the sintering process. The goal of our investigation was to analyse the material changes occurring due to the violent reaction between nickel and silicon carbide at elevated temperatures. The nickel matrix composite with 20 vol pct SiC particles as the reinforcing phase was fabricated by the spark plasma sintering technique. The sintering tests were conducted with variable process conditions (temperature, time, and pressure). It was revealed that the strong interaction between the individual components and the scale of the observed changes depends on the sintering parameters. To identify the microstructural evolution, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy were used. The silicon carbide decomposition process progresses with the extension of the sintering time. As the final product of the observed reaction, new phases from the Ni-Si system and free carbon were detected. The step-by-step materials evolution allowed us to reveal the course of the reaction and the creation of the new structure, especially in the reaction zone. The detailed analysis of the SiC decomposition and formation of new components was the main achievement of the presented paper.

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5. Mačiūnas D., Nosewicz S., Kačianauskas R., Boris R., Stonys R., Numerical Simulation of Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Stress in Lightweight Refractory Concrete with Cenospheres, Materials, ISSN: 1996-1944, DOI: 10.3390/ma16010190, Vol.16, No.1, pp.190--, 2023nota 8242

The main objective of this paper was to investigate the heat transfer of modified lightweight refractory concrete at the microscopic scale. In this work, such material was treated as a porous composite based on the compound of calcium aluminate cement and aluminosilicate cenospheres. The presence of air inclusions within the cenospheres was an essential factor in the reduction in thermal performance. Due to the intricacy of the subject investigated, our research employed numerical, theoretical, and experimental approaches. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging was performed to study the composite microstructure with a special focus on geometry, dimensions, and the distribution of cenospheres. Based on the experimental analysis, simplified geometrical models were generated to reproduce the main features of the composite matrix and cenospheres. A finite element framework was used to determine the effective thermal conductivity of such domains as well as the thermal stresses generated in the sample during the heat flow. A considerable difference in thermal properties was revealed by comparing the simulation results of the pure composite matrix and the samples, indicating a varying arrangement of cenosphere particles. The numerical results were complemented by a theoretical study that applied analytical models derived from the two-phase mixture theory—parallel and Landauer. A satisfactory agreement between numerical and theoretical results was achieved; however, the extension of both presented approaches is required.

thermal conductivity,heat transfer,finite element method,thermal stress,microstructure,calcium aluminate cement,cenosphere,refractory concrete

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6. Psiuk R., Mościcki T., Chrzanowska-Giżyńska J., Kurpaska , Radziejewska J., Denis P., Garbiec D., Chmielewski M., Mechanical and Thermal Properties of W-Ta-B Coatings Deposited by High-Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS), Materials, ISSN: 1996-1944, DOI: 10.3390/ma16020664, Vol.16, No.2, pp.1-12, 2023nota 8243

We present the deposition and characterization of tungsten-tantalum diboride (W,Ta)B2 coatings prepared by the high-power impulse magnetron sputtering technique. We evaluated the influence of pulse duration and substrate bias on the properties of (W,Ta)B2 films. A high hardness of up to 35 GPa measured by nanoindentation was simultaneously obtained with good elastic properties. Changing the pulse duration greatly affected the B/(W+Ta) atomic ratio, which influenced the properties of the coatings. The deposited films are thermally stable at up to 1000 ◦C in vacuum and are able to withstand oxidation at 500 ◦C.

tungsten diboride, high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), hardness, thermal stability, oxidation resistance

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7. Rezaee Hajidehi M., Tůma K., Stupkiewicz S., Indentation-induced martensitic transformation in SMAs: Insights from phase-field simulations, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL SCIENCES, ISSN: 0020-7403, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2023.108100, Vol.245, No.108100, pp.1-15, 2023nota 8244

Direct experimental characterization of indentation-induced martensitic microstructures in pseudoelastic shape memory alloys (SMAs) is not possible, and thus there is a lack of evidence and understanding regarding the microstructure pattern and related features. To fill this gap, in this work we employ the phase-field method to provide a detailed and systematic analysis of martensitic phase transformation during nanoindentation. A recently-developed finite-element-based computational model is used for this purpose, and a campaign of large-scale 3D simulations is carried out. First, the orientation-dependent indentation response in CuAlNi (a widely studied SMA) is examined. A detailed investigation of the predicted microstructures reveals several interesting features, some of them are consistent with theoretical predictions and some can be (to some extent) justified by experiments other than micro/nanoindentation. The results also highlight the key role of finite-deformation effects and elastic anisotropy of the phases on the model predictions. Next, a detailed study of indentation-induced martensitic transformation in NiTiPd (a potential low-hysteresis SMA) with varying Pd content is carried out. In terms of hysteresis, the results demonstrate the prevailing effect of the transformation volume change over phase compatibility in the conditions imposed by nanoindentation and emphasize on the dominant role of the interfacial energy at small scales. Results of such scope have not been reported so far.

Nanoindentation,Pseudoelasticity,Twinning,Microstructure formation,Phase-field method

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8. Brodecki A., Kopeć M., Kowalewski Z., Monitoring of fatigue damage development in as-received and exploited 10CrMo9-10 power engineering steel supported by Digital Image Correlation, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, ISSN: 0308-0161, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpvp.2023.104889, Vol.202, No.104889, pp.1-9, 2023nota 8245

This research aimed to compare the effect of long-time degradation of two different states of 10CrMo9-10 (10H2M) power engineering steel by using different experimental and analytical approaches. The specimens machined from the as-received steel and the same material after exploitation for 280 000 h at the temperature of 540 ◦C and the internal pressure of 2.9 MPa were subjected to fatigue loading that was simultaneously monitored by using the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique. The effect of long-time degradation on the mechanical response of 10H2M steel was studied through fractographic observations and was finally described as a function of the fatigue damage measure, φ, and the fatigue damage parameter D.

Fatigue development, Damage, 10H2M steel, Digital image correlation (DIC)

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9. Tahani M., Postek E., Motevalizadeh L., Sadowski T., Effect of Vacancy Defect Content on the Interdiffusion of Cubic and Hexagonal SiC/Al Interfaces: A Molecular Dynamics Study, Molecules, ISSN: 1420-3049, DOI: 10.3390/molecules28020744, Vol.28, pp.744-763, 2023nota 8247

The mechanical properties of ceramic–metal nanocomposites are greatly affected by the equivalent properties of the interface of materials. In this study, the effect of vacancy in SiC on the
interdiffusion of SiC/Al interfaces is investigated using the molecular dynamics method. The SiC reinforcements exist in the whisker and particulate forms. To this end, cubic and hexagonal SiC lattice polytypes with the Si- and C-terminated interfaces with Al are considered as two samples of metal matrix nanocomposites. The average main and cross-interdiffusion coefficients are determined using a single diffusion couple for each system. The interdiffusion coefficients of the defective
SiC/Al are compared with the defect-free SiC/Al system. The effects of temperature, annealing time, and vacancy on the self- and interdiffusion coefficients are investigated. It is found that the interdiffusion of Al in SiC increases with the increase in temperature, annealing time, and vacancy.

Interdiffusion,Diffusion coefficient,SiC/Al interface,Vacancy,Molecular dynamics

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10. Wang M., Du J., Li M.S., Pierini F., Li X., Yu J., Ding B., In situ forming double-crosslinked hydrogels with highly dispersed short fibers for the treatment of irregular wounds, Biomaterials Science, ISSN: 2047-4849, DOI: 10.1039/D2BM01891H, pp.1-12, 2023nota 8310

In situ forming injectable hydrogels hold great potential for the treatment of irregular wounds. However, their practical applications were hindered by long gelation time, poor mechanical performance, and a lack of a natural extracellular matrix structure. Herein, amino-modified electrospun poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (APLGA) short fibers with uniform distribution were introduced into gelatin methacrylate/oxidized dextran (GM/ODex) hydrogels. In comparison with the fiber aggregation structure in the PLGA fiber-incorporated hydrogels, the hydrogels with APLGA fibers possessed a uniform porous structure. The highly dispersed APLGA short fibers accelerated the sol–gel phase transition of the hydrogel due to the formation of dynamic Schiff-base bonds between the fibers and hydrogels. Furthermore, in combination with UV-assisted crosslinking, a rapid gelation time of 90 s was achieved for the double-crosslinked hydrogels. The addition of APLGA short fibers as fillers and the formation of the double-crosslinking network enhanced the mechanical performance of the hydrogels. Furthermore, the fiber–hydrogel composites exhibited favorable injectability, excellent biocompatibility, and improved cell infiltration. In vivo assessment indicated that the GM/ODex-APLGA hydrogels successfully filled the full-thickness defects and improved wound healing. This work demonstrates a promising solution for the treatment of irregular wounds.

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11. Jočbalis G., Kačianauskas R., Borodinas S., Rojek J., Comparative numerical study of rate-dependent continuum-based plasticity models for high-velocity impacts of copper particles against a substrate, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF IMPACT ENGINEERING, ISSN: 0734-743X, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2022.104394, Vol.172, pp.1-14, 2023nota 8315

The problem of high-rate elastic-plastic deformation of micro-sized copper particles impacting against a copper substrate was investigated by applying the continuum-based formulation and finite element thermomechanical analysis. Comparative study of selected plasticity models was performed. The aim of the paper was to study strain rate-dependant plasticity for a wide range of strain rates. The strain-rate-dependant Johnson-Cook and Cowper-Symonds models were studied by comparing displacements, velocities, strains, strain rates, stresses, contact forces, and temperatures and their contribution to material yield stress. The study shows the importance of the high-strain rate yielding model and its adequacy for experimental data. Both models complement each other and may be regarded as soft and hard bounds of the solution. A new, combined, two-function model, containing two independent functions for each of the two ranges, is suggested. The proposed model describes a low strain rate sensitivity range using the Johnson-Cook expression, while allows fitting of the model for experimental results in a high strain rate sensitivity range, using a modified Cowper-Symonds expression. This combination is capable of describing both low and high strain rate regimes, giving the minimum deviation from experimental results.

Finite element method, Thermomechanical analysis, High velocity particle impact, Continuum plasticity models, High strain-rate

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12. Abramowicz M., Osial M., Urbańska W., Walicki M., Wilczewski S., Pręgowska A., Skórczewska K., Jenczyk P., Warczak M., Pisarek M., Giersig M., Upcycling of Acid-Leaching Solutions from Li-Ion Battery Waste Treatment through the Facile Synthesis of Magnetorheological Fluid, Molecules, ISSN: 1420-3049, DOI: 10.3390/molecules28062558, Vol.28, No.6, pp.2558-1-2558-16, 2023nota 8320

The rapidly growing production and usage of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) dramatically raises the number of harmful wastes. Consequently, the LIBs waste management processes, taking into account reliability, efficiency, and sustainability criteria, became a hot issue in the context of environmental protection as well as the scarcity of metal resources. In this paper, we propose for the first time a functional material—a magnetorheological fluid (MRF) from the LIBs-based liquid waste containing heavy metal ions. At first, the spent battery waste powder was treated with acid-leaching, where the post-treatment acid-leaching solution (ALS) contained heavy metal ions including cobalt. Then, ALS was used during wet co-precipitation to obtain cobalt-doped superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and as an effect, the harmful liquid waste was purified from cobalt. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized with SEM, TEM, XPS, and magnetometry. Subsequently, superparamagnetic nanoparticles sized 15 nm average in diameter and magnetization saturation of about 91 emu g−1 doped with Co were used to prepare the MRF that increases the viscosity by about 300% in the presence of the 100 mT magnetic fields. We propose a facile and cost-effective way to utilize harmful ALS waste and use them in the preparation of superparamagnetic particles to be used in the magnetorheological fluid. This work describes for the first time the second life of the battery waste in the MRF and a facile way to remove the harmful ingredients from the solutions obtained after the acid leaching of LIBs as an effective end-of-life option for hydrometallurgical waste utilization.

environment protection SPION, battery waste, toxic waste management, direct recycling, sustainability, circular economy, critical raw materials

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13. Wiśniewski K.J., Turska E., Reduced representations of assumed fields for Hu–Washizu solid-shell element, COMPUTATIONAL MECHANICS, ISSN: 0178-7675, DOI: 10.1007/s00466-023-02275-1, Vol.180, pp.711-725, 2023nota 8322

Mixed eight-node (hexahedron) solid-shell elements based on the standard or partial version of the three-field Hu–Washizu (HW) functionals are developed for Green strain. Three reduced representations of the assumed stress/strain fields are selected. They improve effectiveness, yet retaining good accuracy and convergence properties. At the outset, the standard HW functional and the assumed stress/strain representations of the 3D solid element B8-15P (Weissman in Int J Numer Methods Eng 39:2337–2361, 1996) are used to derive a solid-shell element with 51 parameters. To eliminate locking, the ANS method is applied to the thickness strain (Betsch and Stein in Commun Numer Methods Eng 11:899–909, 1995) and to the transverse shear strain (Dvorkin and Bathe in Eng Comput 1:77–88, 1984). It is a correct element which, however, yields too large displacements for coarse meshes and trapezoidal through-thickness shapes. To improve the above formulation, the ζ-independent reduced representations of the assumed stress/ strain fields are selected and the transformations to Cartesian components are modified. The thickness strain is enhanced by the EAS method. The element with 35 parameters is derived from the standard/enhanced HW functional, but, to further reduce the assumed fields, partial/enhanced HW functionals are constructed from the 3D potential energy by applying the Lagrange multiplier method only to selected strain components. In the element with 27 parameters, this is applied to the constant in-plane strain and to the transverse shear strain while in the element with 19 parameters, to the constant in-plane strain only.Two other modifications are implemented to enhance the behavior of these elements: (A) the skew coordinates are used in the reduced representations of the in-plane stress/strain (Wisniewski and Turska in Int J Numer Methods Eng 90:506–536, 2012), and (B) the Residual Bending Flexibility correction of the transverse shear stiffness (MacNeal in Comput Struct 8(2):175–183, 1978) is adapted. Finally, the performance of the proposed solid-shell HW elements is demonstrated on several linear and non-linear examples for the linear elastic material and the hyper-elastic material. The proposed elements are compared to each other and to the best existing elements of this class.

Eight-node (hexahedron) solid-shell elements , Standard or partial Hu–Washizu functionals, Reduced representations of assumed stress/strain , RBF correction

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14. Kopeć M., Brodecki A., Kowalewski Z.L., Fatigue damage development in 10CrMo9-10 steel for power plant pipes in as-received state and after 280,000 h of exploitation, ARCHIVES OF CIVIL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, ISSN: 1644-9665, DOI: 10.1007/s43452-023-00637-3, Vol.23, No.98, pp.1-10, 2023nota 8326

This paper discusses an effect of 280,000 h of exploitation under internal pressure of 2.9 MPa and high temperature of 540 °C on the mechanical properties of 10CrMo9-10 (10H2M) power engineering steel. The mechanical response of the specimens obtained from two pipes: a new in the as-received state and exploited for a long period was assessed through the uniaxial tensile tests and subsequent fatigue tests. The long-term, high-temperature exposure of 10H2M steel resulted in the deterioration of its mechanical properties and was quantitatively described as a function of the fatigue damage measure, φ, and the fatigue damage parameter D. Finally, the proposed methodology of power exponent approximation with both damage sensitive parameters (φ, D) enabled for successful determination of the 10H2M steel fatigue life.

Fatigue,Damage development,10H2M steel,High-temperature aging

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15. Szemela K., Meissner M., Rdzanek W. P., Efficient analytical method for computing the acoustic field inside enclosures with a mixed rectangular-cylindrical geometry, APPLIED ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0003-682X, DOI: 10.1016/j.apacoust.2022.109182, Vol.202, No.109182, pp.1-12, 2023nota 8241

Enclosures with a mixed rectangular-cylindrical geometry are common in sacred, historic and modern buildings. Therefore, obtaining efficient analytical formulas for describing the sound radiation inside such structures is of practical importance. These formulas can be implemented in open-source software and can aid in the analysis of acoustic fields. In this study, the problem of sound radiation by a point source located inside a rectangular enclosure with a sound-absorbing quarter-cylindrical ceiling was analytically solved. The formulas presented in this paper can also be used to obtain the eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions. To obtain the analytical solution, two connected subregions, namely rectangular space, and quarter-cylinder, were considered, and the continuity conditions were imposed on the region’s coupling interface. The acoustic field was described using the solution for a rigid-walled room and the additional components containing the Fourier and Dini series. These components allow the solution to satisfy the impedance boundary condition and the continuity conditions. The formulas and their computer implementation were validated using the finite element method (FEM). A good agreement was achieved between results given by both methods. The numerical analysis demonstrated that the use of the formulas is less time-consuming than using FEM when the frequency is greater than 150 Hz. Moreover, compared to FEM, the analytical solution can be applied to higher frequencies for which the use of FEM requires hardware with high computing capability.

Room acoustics,Irregular enclosure,Efficient analytical solution,Acoustic pressure field,Acoustic intensity vector field,Complex eigenfrequencies

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16. Olusegun S., Osial M., Souza Taiane G., Krajewski M., Rodrigues Gabriel L.S. ., Pękała M., Krysiński P., Comparative characteristics and enhanced removal of tetracycline and ceftriaxone by Fe3 O 4 -lignin and Fe 3 O4 -carbon-based lignin: Mechanism, thermodynamic evaluation, and DFT calculation, Journal of Molecular Liquids, ISSN: 0167-7322, DOI: 10.1016/j.molliq.2022.121075, Vol.371, No.121075, pp.1-16, 2023nota 8246

In this study, eco-friendly Fe3O4-lignin (FeL) and Fe3O4-carbon-based lignin (FeCL) were synthesized, characterized, and applied for the adsorption of tetracycline (TRC) and ceftriaxone (CEF). Comparative characterization showed that the BET-specific surface area of FeCL is 27 m2/g more than that of FeL. The difference in their morphologies is insignificant, and the particle sizes range between 5 and 15 nm. There is a reduction in the oxygen content and hydroxyl group of FeCL as shown from the EDS and FTIR spectra respectively, compared with FeL. The adsorption capacity for the removal of TRC at 333 K is 156 and 148 mg g−1 by FeL and FeCL, respectively; while that of CEF are virtually the same. FeL and FeCL adsorption capacity for TRC increases with temperatures (endothermic), but decreases (exothermic) for CEF. The combination of experimental and computational approaches gave insight into the mechanisms of the adsorption process. The mechanisms of TRC and CEF adsorption by FeL and FeCL are the electrostatic attraction, hydrophobic, and π-π interaction, while only FeL shows the possibility of hydrogen bond with both TRC and CEF. The study demonstrated that the synthesized material can be reused for up to 3 cycles without an alarming loss of efficiency capacity.
Graphical abstract

Lignin,antibiotics,Adsorption mechanisms,Thermodynamics

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17. Olusegun S., Souza Taiane G., Souza Guilhermina de O., Osial M., Mohallem Nelcy D., Ciminelli Virginia S., Krysiński P., Iron-based materials for the adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of pharmaceutical drugs: A comprehensive review of the mechanism pathway, Journal of Water Process Engineering, ISSN: 2214-7144, DOI: 10.1016/j.jwpe.2022.103457, Vol.51, No.103457, pp.1-22, 2023nota 8248

Adsorption and photocatalytic degradation techniques for removing various contaminants have received broad consideration and acceptance due to their advantages over conventional wastewater treatment techniques. Iron- based materials are among several groups of adsorbents, and photocatalysts that have proven to be effective in pharmaceuticals-based pollutants removal from wastewater. Pharmaceutical drug removal is accompanied by several mechanisms, so there is a deep need for a better understanding of the complexity and development of wastewater treatment using iron-based materials. Therefore, this review examined the mechanism of adsorption
and photocatalysis degradation of pharmaceuticals in aqueous solutions by iron-based materials. The adsorption of pharmaceutical drugs was found to be influenced by changes in the solution pH. The mechanism of removal of
these contaminants by iron-based materials through adsorption occurred via electrostatic, π-π, and hydrogen bond interactions among others. In the case of photocatalysis, the first mechanism occurred through the for-
mation the hydroxyl radicals due to highly reactive species (electrons and holes) that partook in the reaction processes, while the second mechanism is related to the formation of hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, by photo-
generated electrons in the conduction band and with the well-known photo dissolution of iron oxide leading to free Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions. The overall idea of this review is to provide useful information on the mechanisms of
adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of pharmaceutical contaminants using iron-based materials. The re-view summarizes the current understanding and the advances in the pharmaceutical-bearing effluent treatment using nanostructured adsorbents and photocatalysts, including future developments for a cleaner and safer environment.

Mechanism,Iron-based materials,Pharmaceutical drugs,Adsorption,Photo(degradation)

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18. Shah S. A., Sohail M., Karperien M., Johnbosco C., Mahmood A., Kousar M., Chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose-based 3D multifunctional bioactive hydrogels loaded with nano-curcumin for synergistic diabetic wound repair, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, ISSN: 0141-8130, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.11.307, Vol.227, pp.1203-1220, 2023nota 8249

Biopolymer-based thermoresponsive injectable hydrogels with multifunctional tunable characteristics containing anti-oxidative, biocompatibility, anti-infection, tissue regeneration, and/or anti-bacterial are of abundant interest to proficiently stimulate diabetic wound regeneration and are considered as a potential candidate for diversified biomedical application but the development of such hydrogels remains a challenge. In this study, the Chitosan-CMC-g-PF127 injectable hydrogels are developed using solvent casting. The Curcumin (Cur) Chitosan-CMC-g-PF127 injectable hydrogels possess viscoelastic behavior, good swelling properties, and a controlled release profile. The degree of substitution (% DS), thermal stability, morphological behavior, and crystalline characteristics of the developed injectable hydrogels is confirmed using nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. The controlled release of cur-micelles from the hydrogel is evaluated by drug release studies and pharmacokinetic profile (PK) using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Furthermore, compared to cur micelles the Cur-laden injectable hydrogel shows a significant increase in half-life (t1/2) up to 5.92 ± 0.7 h, mean residence time (MRT) was 15.75 ± 0.76 h, and area under the first moment curve (AUMC) is 3195.62 ± 547.99 μg/mL*(h)2 which reveals the controlled release behavior. Cytocompatibility analysis of Chitosan-CMC-g-PF127 hydrogels using 3T3-L1 fibroblasts cells and in vivo toxicity by subcutaneous injection followed by histological examination confirmed good biocompatibility of Cur-micelles loaded hydrogels. The histological results revealed the promising tissue regenerative ability and shows enhancement of fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and collagen deposition, which stimulates the epidermal junction. Interestingly, the Chitosan-CMC-g-PF127 injectable hydrogels ladened Cur exhibited a swift wound repair potential by up-surging the cell migration and proliferation at the site of injury and providing a sustained drug delivery platform for hydrophobic moieties.

Biomaterials,Injectable hydrogels,Wound healing,Chitosan,Carboxymethylcellulose

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19. Działak P., Syczewski Marcin D., Błachowski A., Kornaus K., Bajda T., Zych , Osial M., Borkowski A., Surface modification of magnetic nanoparticles by bacteriophages and ionic liquids precursors, RSC Advances, ISSN: 2046-2069, DOI: 10.1039/d2ra06661k, Vol.13, pp.926-936 , 2023nota 8259

Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have recently been a point of interest for many researchers due to their properties. However, the studies on the influence of bacteriophages on the synthesis of MNPs seem to be lacking. Furthermore, bacteriophage-modified MNPs have not been combined with n-alkyl quaternary ammonium ionic liquid precursors (QAS). In this study, the aim was to assess the influence of two distinctly different bacteriophages (Escherichia phage P1 and Pseudomonas phage Φ6) on MNPs synthesis in the presence or absence of QAS. Synthesized MNPs have been characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy in terms of changes in the crystallographic structure; scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for changes in the morphology; and ζ-potential. Moreover, the sorption parameters and the loss of viability of bacteria that interacted with MNPs have been determined. The sorption of bacteria differs significantly among the tested samples. Furthermore, the viability of the bacteria adsorbed on MNPs varies in the presence of QAS, depending on the length of the n-alkyl chain. The study has revealed that MNPs can be bound with bacteriophages. Mössbauer spectroscopy has also revealed the probable influence of bacteriophages on the formation of crystals. However, these phenomena require further studies.

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20. Harsányi I., Horváth A., Kis Z., Gméling K., Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka D., Glinicki M.A., Szentmiklósi L., Assessment of neutron-induced activation of irradiated samples in a research reactor, Nuclear Engineering and Technology, ISSN: 1738-5733, DOI: 10.1016/, Vol.55, pp.1036-1044, 2023nota 8260

The combination of MCNP6 and the FISPACT codes was used to predict inventories of radioisotopes produced by neutron exposure of a sample in a research reactor. The detailed MCNP6 model of the Budapest Research Reactor and the specific irradiation geometry of the NAA channel was established, while realistic material cards were specified based on concentrations measured by PGAA and NAA, considering the precursor elements of all significant radioisotopes. The energy- and spatial distributions of the neutron field calculated by MCNP6 were transferred to FISPACT, and the resulting activities were validated against those measured using neutron-irradiated small and bulky targets. This approach is general enough to handle different target materials, shapes, and irradiation conditions. A general agreement within 10% has been achieved. Moreover, the method can also be made applicable to predict the activation properties of the near-vessel concrete of existing nuclear installations or assist in the optimal construction of new nuclear power plant units.

MCNP6,Monte Carlo simulations,FISPACT,Isotope inventory,Radioisotope production,Neutron activation analysis,Mineral aggregate,Radiation shielding concrete

pdf 8260
21. Barwińska I., Kopeć M., Kukla D., Łazińska M., Sitek R., Kowalewski Z., Effect of Aluminizing on the Fatigue and High-Temperature Corrosion Resistance of Inconel 740 Nickel Alloy, The Journal of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS), ISSN: 1047-4838, DOI: 10.1007/s11837-022-05662-w, Vol.75, No.2, pp.1-13, 2023nota 8262

The fatigue response and high-temperature corrosion resistance of Inconel 740 nickel alloy in its as-received state, and the same material with aluminized surface layer, were investigated. The aluminized layer was applied by using the chemical vapor deposition process with the participation of AlCl3 vapors under a hydrogen protective atmosphere at a temperature of 1040°C for 8 h and internal pressure of 150 hPa. The microstructure of the aluminized layer was characterized through scanning electron microscopy and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis. It was found that Inconel 740 with an aluminized surface exhibited an improved hardness and fatigue response of 100 MPa in the whole range of stress amplitudes from 350 MPa to 650 MPa. Additionally, the application of the aluminization process enhanced service life as well as the corrosion resistance of the alloy in question and effectively protected it against high-temperature corrosion.

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22. Moneta J., Staszczak G., Grzanka E., Tauzowski P., Dłużewski P., Smalc-Koziorowska J., Formation of a-type dislocations near the InGaN/GaN interface during post-growth processing of epitaxial structures, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, ISSN: 0021-8979, DOI: 10.1063/5.0128514, Vol.133, pp.045304-1-045304-12, 2023nota 8292

Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy studies often reveal a-type dislocations located either below or above the interfaces in
InGaN/GaN structures deposited along the [0001] direction. We show that these dislocations do not emerge during growth but rather are a
consequence of the stress state on lateral surfaces and mechanical processing, making them a post-growth effect. In cathodoluminescence mapping, these defects are visible in the vicinity of the edges of InGaN/GaN structures exposed by cleaving or polishing. Finite element cal-culations show the residual stress distribution in the vicinity of the InGaN/GaN interface at the free edge. The stress distribution is discussed in terms of dislocation formation and propagation. The presence of such defects at free edges of processed devices based on InGaN layers may have a significant negative impact on the device performance.

Luminescence ,Transmission electron microscopy ,Focused ion beam ,Semiconductor materials ,Epitaxy ,Crystal structure ,Crystal lattices ,Crystallographic defects,Mechanical stress,X-ray diffraction

no pdf 8292
23. Będkowski J., Pełka M., Affordable Robotic Mobile Mapping System Based on Lidar with Additional Rotating Planar Reflector, SENSORS, ISSN: 1424-8220, DOI: 10.3390/s23031551, Vol.23, No.3, pp.1-19, 2023nota 8299

This paper describes an affordable robotic mobile 3D mapping system. It is built with Livox Mid−40 lidar with a conic field of view extended by a custom rotating planar reflector. This 3D sensor is compared with the more expensive Velodyne VLP 16 lidar. It is shown that the proposed sensor reaches satisfactory accuracy and range. Furthermore, it is able to preserve the metric accuracy and non−repetitive scanning pattern of the unmodified sensor. Due to preserving the non−repetitive scan pattern, our system is capable of covering the entire field of view of 38.4 × 360 degrees, which is an added value of conducted research. We show the calibration method, mechanical design, and synchronization details that are necessary to replicate our system. This work extends the applicability of solid−state lidars since the field of view can be reshaped with minimal loss of measurement properties. The solution was part of a system that was evaluated during the 3rd European Robotics Hackathon in the Zwentendorf Nuclear Power Plant. The experimental part of the paper demonstrates that our affordable robotic mobile 3D mapping system is capable of providing 3D maps of a nuclear facility that are comparable to the more expensive solution.

automatic calibration, solid-state lidar, reshape field of view, 3D mapping, SLAM, robotic mapping

pdf 8299
24. Glinicki M.A., Bogusz K., Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka D., Dąbrowski M., ASR performance of concrete at external alkali supply – effects of aggregate mixtures and blended cement, International Journal of Pavement Engineering, ISSN: 1029-8436, DOI: 10.1080/10298436.2023.2171038, Vol.24, No.1, pp.1-13, 2023nota 8302

The long term durability of concrete pavements in wet-freeze climate is influenced by deicing salts used for winter maintenance of roads. Alkaline deicers could also be an external source of alkalis therefore their role in respect to development of deleterious alkali-silica reaction (ASR) should be considered. The performance of mineral aggregate mixtures in concrete was studied using RILEM test procedure ‘60°C concrete test with external alkali supply’. Air entrained concrete specimens were exposed to cyclic temperature changes, wetting-drying and NaCl solution immersion. Tests revealed the development of concrete expansion in time and associated changes of its elastic modulus for 31 mixtures of fine and coarse aggregate and Portland and fly ash or slag blended cements. The expansive behavior of air entrained concrete was strongly influenced by the presence of micro- and cryptocrystalline silica in aggregates. A replacement of nonreactive limestone sand by moderately reactive quartz sand resulted in a substantial enhancement of concrete expansion by a factor of three. Observed reduction of elastic modulus was correlated with more abundant presence of alkali-silica reaction products in concrete. Effects of cement type (CEM I, CEM II/A-V and CEM II/B-S) on the ASR performance of concrete with crushed coarse aggregate and quartz sand are discussed.

Air entrained concrete,alkali-silica reaction,external alkalis,NaCl solution,performance test

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25. Zembrzycki K., Pawłowska S., Pierini F., Kowalewski T.A., Brownian Motion in Optical Tweezers, a Comparison between MD Simulations and Experimental Data in the Ballistic Regime, Polymers, ISSN: 2073-4360, DOI: 10.3390/polym15030787, Vol.15, No.3, pp.787-1-13, 2023nota 8303

The four most popular water models in molecular dynamics were studied in large-scale simulations of Brownian motion of colloidal particles in optical tweezers and then compared with experimental measurements in the same time scale. We present the most direct comparison of col- loidal polystyrene particle diffusion in molecular dynamics simulations and experimental data on the same time scales in the ballistic regime. The four most popular water models, all of which take into account electrostatic interactions, are tested and compared based on yielded results and re- sources required. Three different conditions were simulated: a freely moving particle and one in a potential force field with two different strengths based on 1 pN/nm and 10 pN/nm. In all cases, the diameter of the colloidal particle was 50 nm. The acquired data were compared with experimental measurements performed using optical tweezers with position capture rates as high as 125 MHz. The experiments were performed in pure water on polystyrene particles with a 1 μm diameter in special microchannel cells.

Brownian motion,molecular dynamics,optical tweezers,ballistic regime

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26. Florek E., Witkowska M., Szukalska M., Richter M., Trzeciak T., Miechowicz I., Marszałek A., Piekoszewski W., Wyrwa Z., Giersig M., Oxidative Stress in Long-Term Exposure to Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Male Rats, Antioxidants, ISSN: 2076-3921, DOI: 10.3390/antiox12020464, Vol.12, No.464, pp.1-25, 2023nota 8308


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Open AccessArticle
Oxidative Stress in Long-Term Exposure to Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Male Rats
by Ewa Florek
1,* [ORCID] , Marta Witkowska
2,3, Marta Szukalska
1 [ORCID] , Magdalena Richter
4 [ORCID] , Tomasz Trzeciak
4, Izabela Miechowicz
5 [ORCID] , Andrzej Marszałek
6 [ORCID] , Wojciech Piekoszewski
7 [ORCID] , Zuzanna Wyrwa
1 and Michael Giersig
Laboratory of Environmental Research, Department of Toxicology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-631 Poznan, Poland
Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, 61-614 Poznan, Poland
Centre for Advanced Technologies, Adam Mickiewicz University, 61-614 Poznan, Poland
Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 61-545 Poznan, Poland
Department of Computer Science and Statistics, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-806 Poznan, Poland
Oncologic Pathology and Prophylaxis, Greater Poland Cancer Centre, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 61-866 Poznan, Poland
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, 30-387 Krakow, Poland
Department of Theory of Continuous Media and Nanostructures, Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2023, 12(2), 464;
Received: 13 December 2022 / Revised: 7 February 2023 / Accepted: 10 February 2023 / Published: 12 February 2023
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Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) serve as nanoparticles due to their size, and for that reason, when in contact with the biological system, they can have toxic effects. One of the main mechanisms responsible for nanotoxicity is oxidative stress resulting from the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, oxidative stress biomarkers are important tools for assessing MWCNTs toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidative stress of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in male rats. Our animal model studies of MWCNTs (diameter ~15–30 nm, length ~15–20 μm) include measurement of oxidative stress parameters in the body fluid and tissues of animals after long-term exposure. Rattus Norvegicus/Wistar male rats were administrated a single injection to the knee joint at three concentrations: 0.03 mg/mL, 0.25 mg/mL, and 0.5 mg/mL. The rats were euthanized 12 and 18 months post-exposure by drawing blood from the heart, and their liver and kidney tissues were removed. To evaluate toxicity, the enzymatic activity of total protein (TP), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione S–transferase (GST), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), nitric oxide (NO), and catalase (CAT) was measured and histopathological examination was conducted. Results in rat livers showed that TEAC level was decreased in rats receiving nanotubes at higher concentrations. Results in kidneys report that the level of NO showed higher concentration after long exposure, and results in animal serums showed lower levels of GSH in rats exposed to nanotubes at higher concentrations. The 18-month exposure also resulted in a statistically significant increase in GST activity in the group of rats exposed to nanotubes at higher concentrations compared to animals receiving MWCNTs at lower concentrations and compared to the control group. Therefore, an analysis of oxidative stress parameters can be a key indicator of the toxic potential of multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

multi-walled carbon nanotubes,oxidative stress parameters,rats,long-term toxicity

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27. Dagdelen S., Maćkiewicz M., Osial M., Wałęka-Bargieł E., Romański J., Krysiński P., Karbarz M., Redox-Responsive Degradable Microgel Modified with Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles Exhibiting Controlled, Hyperthermia-Enhanced Drug Release, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE, ISSN: 0022-2461, DOI: 10.1007/s10853-023-08168-1, pp.1-21, 2023pdf 8311
28. Urbanek-Świderska O., Moczulska-Heljak M., Wróbel M., Mioduszewski A., Kołbuk-Konieczny D., Advanced Graft Development Approaches for ACL Reconstruction or Regeneration, Biomedicines, ISSN: 2227-9059, DOI: 10.3390/biomedicines11020507, Vol.11, No.2, pp.507-1-26, 2023nota 8317

The Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is one of the major knee ligaments, one which is greatly exposed to injuries. According to the British National Health Society, ACL tears represent around 40% of all knee injuries. The number of ACL injuries has increased rapidly over the past ten years, especially in people from 26–30 years of age. We present a brief background in currently used ACL treatment strategies with a description of surgical reconstruction techniques. According to the well-established method, the PubMed database was then analyzed to scaffold preparation methods and materials. The number of publications and clinical trials over the last almost 30 years were analyzed to determine trends in ACL graft development. Finally, we described selected ACL scaffold development publications of engineering, medical, and business interest. The systematic PubMed database analysis indicated a high interest in collagen for the purpose of ACL graft development, an increased interest in hybrid grafts, a numerical balance in the development of biodegradable and nonbiodegradable grafts, and a low number of clinical trials. The investigation of selected publications indicated that only a few suggest a real possibility of creating healthy tissue. At the same time, many of them focus on specific details and fundamental science. Grafts exhibit a wide range of mechanical properties, mostly because of polymer types and graft morphology. Moreover, most of the research ends at the in vitro stage, using non-certificated polymers, thus requiring a long time before the medical device can be placed on the market. In addition to scientific concerns, official regulations limit the immediate introduction of artificial grafts onto the market.

ligament,biomaterial,tissue engineering,regeneration,implant,scaffold,synthetic polymer,natural polymer

pdf 8317
29. Olusegun S., Osial M., Majkowska-Pilip A., Żelechowska-Matysiak K., Nieciecka D., Krajewski M., Pękała M., Krysiński P., Synthesis and characterization of Sr2+ and Gd3+ doped magnetite nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia and drug delivery application, CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL, ISSN: 0272-8842, DOI: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2023.03.102, pp.1-10, 2023nota 8318

Commendable efforts have been gingered towards the fight against cancer. Nevertheless, it remains a major public health concern due to its predominant cause of death globally. Given this, we synthesized two different nanoparticles, Sr2+ and Gd3+ doped magnetite for magnetic hyperthermia and drug delivery application. Based on the characterization, the diffractogram shows that only one phase related to magnetite with a crystallite size of 10 nm was formed. TEM images revealed nanoparticles of spherical shapes of approximately 12 nm. There is no difference in magnetic saturation of the as-received synthesized samples (Fe3O4@Sr and Fe3O4@Gd), while the BET-specific surface area of Fe3O4@Gd is 8 m2 g−1 higher than Fe3O4@Sr. The heat generation in alternating magnetic field (the magnetic hyperthermia) of Fe3O4@Sr functionalized with citric acid and loaded with 5- fluorouracil (Fe3O4@Sr@CA@5-flu) is slower than Fe3O4@Gd@CA@5-flu. The specific absorption rate (SAR) of Fe3O4@Gd@CA@5-flu, 112.0 ± 10.4 W g−1 was found to be higher than that of Fe3O4@Sr@CA@5-flu. The thermogram shows that 11% of the drug was successfully loaded on Fe3O4@Gd@CA@5-flu. The release of the antitumor drug by the synthesized nanoparticle drug carriers for ovarian cancer (SKOV-3 cells) therapy showed that more than 50% of the cancer cell’s viability was reduced after 72 h of incubation. The synthesized nanoparticles demonstrated a promising drug carrier for the treatment of SKOV-3 cells.

pdf 8318
30. Alaei A., Hejazi M., Vintzilaiou E., Miltiadou-Fezans A., Skłodowski M., Dynamic identification of brick masonry semi-circular arches due to temperature and moisture, Structures, ISSN: 2352-0124, Vol.50, pp.148-160, 2023nota 8324

This paper presents the effects of changes in temperature and moisture content on the dynamic properties of semi-circular arches made of clay brick and gypsum mortar constructed and tested in the laboratory. First, the mechanical properties of the materials used were determined by experimental tests. Operational Modal Analysis was then performed for each condition to measure natural frequencies, mode shapes, and modal damping ratios. An empirical equation for estimating the natural frequencies of the studied arch at different material moisture contents was proposed using the obtained results from experimental tests. Finally, the Finite Element Model Updating Method (FEMU) was applied to calibrate some of the material mechanical properties in modelled arches. In contrast to the effect of moisture, temperature changes showed a difficulty to interpret effect on the dynamic properties of the arch. On the other hand, Poisson's ratio did not affect the dynamic behaviour of the specimen.

Operational Modal Analysis, Brick Masonry Semi-Circular Arch, Temperature, Moisture, Dynamic Parameters

pdf 8324
31. Krajewski M., Witowski A., Liou S., Maj M., Tokarczyk M., Wasik D., Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) films filled in iron nanoparticles for infrared shielding applications, Macromolecular Rapid Communications, ISSN: 1022-1336, DOI: 10.1002/marc.202300038, No.2300038, pp.1-7, 2023nota 8325

In order to use the infrared (IR) radiation shielding materials, they should take a form of thin film coatings deposited on glass/polymer substrates or be used as fillers of glass/polymer. The first approach usually suffers from several
technological problems. Therefore, the second strategy gains more and more attention. Taking into account this trend, this work presents the usage of iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) embedded into the poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) films as the shielding material in near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) region. The performed
investigations show that the transmittance of copolymer films decreases with
increasing content of the Fe NPs inside them. It is found that the average fade of IR transmittance for 1, 2.5, 5, 10, and 50 mg of Fe NPs is about 13%, 24%, 31%, 77%, and 98%, respectively. Moreover, it is observed that the PVDF-HFP films filled in the Fe NPs almost does not reflect the NIR and MIR radiation. Hence, the IR shielding properties of the PVDF-HFP films can be effectively tuned by the addition of proper amount of the Fe NPs. This, in turn, shows that the PVDF-HFP films filled in the Fe NPs constitute a great option for IR antireflective and shielding applications.

antireflective materials, copolymer films, infrared radiation shielding materials, iron nanoparticles, nanofillers

no pdf 8325
32. Osial M., Pregowska A., Warczak M., Giersig M., Magnetorheological fluids: A concise review of composition, physicochemical properties, and models, JOURNAL OF INTELLIGENT MATERIAL SYSTEMS AND STRUCTURES, ISSN: 1045-389X, DOI: 10.1177/1045389X231157357, pp.1-21, 2023nota 8327

Magnetorheological Fluids (MRF), rheology, smart materials, intelligent fluid, functional materials

pdf 8327
33. Pietrzyk P., Borowska E., Hejduk P., Camargo Cury B., Warczak M., Nguyen Thu P., Pregowska A., Gniadek M., Szczytko J., Wilczewski S., Osial M., Green composites based on volcanic red algae Cyanidiales, cellulose, and coffee waste biomass modified with magnetic nanoparticles for the removal of methylene blue, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN: 1614-7499, DOI: 10.1007/s11356-023-26425-3, pp.1-15, 2023pdf 8328
34. Garlinska M., Osial M., Proniewska K., Pregowska A., The Influence of Emerging Technologies on Distance Education, Electronics , ISSN: 2079-9292, DOI: 10.3390/electronics12071550, Vol.12, No.7, pp.1550-1-29, 2023nota 8330


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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
The Influence of Emerging Technologies on Distance Education
by Magdalena Garlinska
1,†, Magdalena Osial
1 [ORCID] , Klaudia Proniewska
2,3 [ORCID] and Agnieszka Pregowska
1,*,† [ORCID]
Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Pawinskiego 5B, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland
Center for Digital Medicine and Robotics, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kopernika 7E Str., 31-034 Krakow, Poland
Department of Bioinformatics and Telemedicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Medyczna 7 Str., 30-688 Krakow, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

These authors contributed equally to this work.
Electronics 2023, 12(7), 1550;
Received: 17 February 2023 / Revised: 22 March 2023 / Accepted: 23 March 2023 / Published: 25 March 2023
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Computer Science & Engineering)
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Versions Notes

Recently, during the COVID-19 pandemic, distance education became mainstream. Many students were not prepared for this situation—they lacked equipment or were not even connected to the Internet. Schools and government institutions had to react quickly to allow students to learn remotely. They had to provide students with equipment (e.g., computers, tablets, and goggles) but also provide them with access to the Internet and other necessary tools. On the other hand, teachers were trying to adopt new technologies in the teaching process to enable more interactivity, mitigate feelings of isolation and disconnection, and enhance student engagement. New technologies, including Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR), Mixed Reality (MR), Extended Reality (XR, so-called Metaverse), Big Data, Blockchain, and Free Space Optics (FSO) changed learning, teaching, and assessing. Despite that, some tools were implemented fast, and the COVID-19 pandemic was the trigger for this process; most of these technologies will be used further, even in classroom teaching in both schools and universities. This paper presents a concise review of the emerging technologies applied in distance education. The main emphasis was placed on their influence on the efficiency of the learning process and their psychological impact on users. It turned out that both students and teachers were satisfied with remote learning, while in the case of undergraduate children and high-school students, parents very often expressed their dissatisfaction. The limitation of the availability of remote learning is related to access to stable Internet and computer equipment, which turned out to be a rarity. In the current social context, the obtained results provided valuable insights into factors affecting the acceptance and emerging technologies applied in distance education. Finally, this paper suggests a research direction for the development of effective remote learning techniques.

distance education, artificial intelligence (AI), virtual reality, augmented reality, mixed reality, free space optics (FSO), blockchain, big data

pdf 8330
35. Dolega-Dolegowski D., Dolega-Dolegowska M., Pręgowska A., Malinowski K., Proniewska K., The Application of Mixed Reality in Root Canal Treatment, Applied Sciences, ISSN: 2076-3417, DOI: 10.3390/app13074078, Vol.13(7), No.4078, pp.1-18, 2023nota 8331

The priority of modern dentistry is to keep patients’ teeth for as long as possible. Tooth extraction is a procedure performed as a last resort when conservative methods and endodontic surgery procedures have not brought the expected results. As a consequence, the number of patients in dental offices, who require first and repeated endodontic treatment, is increasing. Thus, the development of new technologies in the medical industry, including microscopy, computer tomography (CT), as well as diode and neodymium-YAG-erbium lasers, enables dentists to increase the percentage of successful treatments. Moreover, mixed reality (MR) is a very new technology, in which the 3D view can help plan or simulate various types of tasks before they will be carried out in real life. In dentistry, 3D holography can be applied to display CT data to plan endodontic treatment. The most important element in effective root canal treatment is the precise imaging of the root canal. The CT scans allow dentists to view the anatomy of the patient’s tooth with much higher precision and understanding than using 2D radiography (RTG-radiographic photo) pictures. Recently, the development of new 3D technologies allows dentists to obtain even more data from existing CT scans. In this paper, the CT scan data were applied to generate patient teeth in 3D and simulate the view of the root canal’s anatomy in MR devices, i.e., Microsoft HoloLens 2. Using DICOM RAW data from the CT exam, we generated a 3D model of the jaw with a tooth. In the next step, the crown of the tooth was removed in a similar way to how a dentist would do this using a dental handpiece. Furthermore, all root canals were cleaned of everything inside. This way we achieved empty tunnels, namely root canals. Finally, we added appropriate lighting, similar to the type of lighting that dentists use. The proposed approach enables to display of the root canals in the same way as during the endodontic procedure using a microscope. It allows for the visualization of the root canal and changing its direction, in which dimensional accuracy is crucial. It turns out that mixed reality can be considered a complementary method to the traditional approach, which reduces the amount of time for the root canal treatment procedure by up to 72.25%, depending on the complexity of the case, and increases its effectiveness. Thus, the mixed reality-based system can be considered an effective tool for planning dental treatment.

3D holography,root canal treatment,tooth,augmented reality,mixed reality

pdf 8331
36. Ostrowski M., Błachowski B., Wójcik B., Żarski M., Tauzowski P., Jankowski , A framework for computer vision-based health monitoring of a truss structure subjected to unknown excitations, Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, ISSN: 1993-503X, DOI: 10.1007/s11803-023-2154-3, pp.1-17, 2023nota 8261

Computer vision (CV) methods for measurement of structural vibration are less expensive, and their application is more straightforward than methods based on sensors that measure physical quantities at particular points of a structure. However, CV methods produce significantly more measurement errors. Thus, computer vision-based structural health monitoring (CVSHM) requires appropriate methods of damage assessment that are robust with respect to highly contaminated measurement data. In this paper a complete CVSHM framework is proposed, and three damage assessment methods are tested. The first is the augmented inverse estimate (AIE), proposed by Peng et al. in 2021. This method is designed to work with highly contaminated measurement data, but it fails with a large noise provided by CV measurement. The second method, as proposed in this paper, is based on the AIE, but it introduces a weighting matrix that enhances the conditioning of the problem. The third method, also proposed in this paper, introduces additional constraints in the optimization process; these constraints ensure that the stiff ness of structural elements can only decrease. Both proposed methods perform better than the original AIE. The latter of the two proposed methods gives the best results, and it is robust with respect to the selected coefficients, as required by the algorithm.

computer vision,structural health monitoring,physics-based graphical models,augmented inverse estimate,model updating,non-negative least square method

pdf 8261
37. Ostrowski M., Jedlińska A., Popławski B., Błachowski B., Mikułowski G., Pisarski D., Jankowski , Sliding Mode Control for Semi-Active Damping of Vibrations Using On/Off Viscous Structural Nodes, Buildings, ISSN: 2075-5309, DOI: 10.3390/buildings13020348, Vol.13, No.2, pp.1-16, 2023nota 8269

Structural vibrations have adverse effects and can lead to catastrophic failures. Among various methods for mitigation of vibrations, the semi-active control approaches have the advantage of not requiring a large external power supply. In this paper, we propose and test a sliding mode control method for the semi-active mitigation of vibrations in frame structures. The control forces are generated in a purely dissipative manner by means of on/off type actuators that take the form of controllable structural nodes. These nodes are essentially lockable hinges, modeled as viscous dampers, which are capable of the on/off control of the transmission of bending moments between the adjacent beams. The control aim is formulated in terms of the displacement of a selected degree of freedom. A numerically effective model of such a node is developed, and the proposed control method is verified in a numerical experiment of a four-story shear structure subjected to repeated random seismic excitations. In terms of the root-mean-square displacement, the control reduced the response by 48.4-78.4% on average, depending on the number and placement of the applied actuators. The peak mean amplitude at the first mode of natural vibrations was reduced by as much as 70.6-96.5%. Such efficiency levels confirm that the proposed control method can effectively mitigate vibrations in frame structures.

semi-active control,sliding mode control,structural control,controllable nodes,on/off nodes,damping of vibrations

pdf 8269
38. Quadretti D., Marinelli M., Salatelli E., Pierini F., Zanelli A., Lanzi M., Effects of Water/Alcohol Soluble Cationic Polythiophenes as Cathode Interlayers for Eco-Friendly Solar Cells, Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, ISSN: 1022-1352, DOI: 10.1002/macp.202200422, pp.2200422-1-14, 2023nota 8297

Three new ionic polythiophene derivatives, soluble in polar solvents, are synthesized with good yields using simple, low-cost, and straightforward procedures. They are investigated as interfacial cationic conjugated
polyelectrolyte (CPE) layers for halogen-free bulk heterojunction polymeric solar cells, based on a water-soluble electron-donor polymer
(poly[3-(6-diethanolaminohexyl)thiophene]) and a water-soluble electron-acceptor fullerene derivative (malonodiserinolamide fullerene). The simple insertion of the CPE interlayer between the active layer and the aluminum cathode dramatically increases the power conversion efficiency of the final device up to nearly 5%, resulting from a decrease of the electrode work function, improved electron extraction, and optimization of the morphology of the layers. The obtained results demonstrate that the incorporation of CPE layer is a powerful and convenient methodology for the
development of highly efficient and eco-friendly processable polymeric solar cells.

conjugated polyelectrolyte,electron transport layers,polythiophene

pdf 8297
39. Krajewski M., Kaczmarek A., Tokarczyk M., Lewińska S., Włoczewski M., Bochenek K., Jarząbek D., Mościcki T., Hoffman J., Ślawska-Waniewska A., Laser-Assisted Growth of Fe3O4 Nanoparticle Films on Silicon Substrate in Open Air, physica status solidi (a), ISSN: 1862-6319, DOI: 10.1002/pssa.202200786, No.2200786, pp.1-5, 2023nota 8300

This work presents a growth of Fe3O4 nanoparticle films on silicon substrate. The iron oxide is deposited applying a pulsed laser deposition technique. The process is performed in open air in the absence and presence of external magnetic field. In fact, the morphologies of the obtained Fe3O4–Si samples are similar. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles are spherical with average diameters of 30 nm and are densely agglomerated on the Si substrate. The Fe3O4–Si material prepared in the absence of magnetic field has revealed more intense signals during X-ray diffraction and Raman measurements. The magnetic investigations indicate that the Fe3O4 nanoparticles are significantly coupled with the Si substrate and do not exhibit superparamagnetic behavior. Moreover, the Verwey transition is 98 K for both investigated Fe3O4–Si samples.

Fe3O4 nanoparticles,magnetic materials,pulsed laser deposition

no pdf 8300
40. Sønstevold L., Czerkies M.K., Escobedo-Cousin E., Błoński S., Vereshchagina E., Application of Polymethylpentene, an Oxygen Permeable Thermoplastic, for Long-Term on-a-Chip Cell Culture and Organ-on-a-Chip Devices, Micromachines, ISSN: 2072-666X, DOI: 10.3390/mi14030532, Vol.14, No.3, pp.532-1-18, 2023nota 8314

The applicability of a gas-permeable, thermoplastic material polymethylpentene (PMP) was investigated, experimentally and analytically, for organ-on-a-chip (OoC) and long-term on-a-chip cell cultivation applications. Using a sealed culture chamber device fitted with oxygen sensors, we tested and compared PMP to commonly used glass and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). We show that PMP and PDMS have comparable performance for oxygen supply during 4 days culture of epithelial (A549) cells with oxygen concentration stabilizing at 16%, compared with glass control where it decreases to 3%. For the first time, transmission light images of cells growing on PMP were obtained, demonstrating that the optical properties of PMP are suitable for non-fluorescent, live cell imaging. Following the combined transmission light imaging and calcein-AM staining, cell adherence, proliferation, morphology, and viability of A549 cells were shown to be similar on PMP and glass coated with poly-L-lysine. In contrast to PDMS, we demonstrate that a film of PMP as thin as 0.125 mm is compatible with high-resolution confocal microscopy due to its excellent optical properties and mechanical stiffness. PMP was also found to be fully compatible with device sterilization, cell fixation, cell permeabilization and fluorescent staining. We envision this material to extend the range of possible microfluidic applications beyond the current state-of-the-art, due to its beneficial physical properties and suitability for prototyping by different methods. The integrated device and measurement methodology demonstrated in this work are transferrable to other cell-based studies and life-sciences applications.

polymethylpentene (PMP), cell culture, oxygen control, microfluidic device, organ-on-a-chip

pdf 8314
41. Alaei A., Hejazi M., Vintzileou E., Miltiadou-Fezans A., Skłodowski M., Effect of damage and repair on the dynamic properties of Persian brick masonry arches, The European Physical Journal Plus, ISSN: 2190-5444, DOI: 10.1140/epjp/s13360-023-03781-0, Vol.138, pp.231-243, 2023nota 8323

In this paper, the dynamic properties of three types of Persian brick masonry arches, semi-circular, ordinary pointed and ordinary four-centred have been studied. These arches were constructed with clay brick, and gypsum mortar in the laboratory and experimental tests were conducted. First, the mechanical properties of the used materials were determined. Then, operational modal analysis was used to measure the dynamic properties of the constructed arches. Afterwards, a horizontal displacement was applied to the arch support to create a crack. The arches were repaired then, and dynamic identification was performed for each case. Several damage detection methods were used to evaluate their ability to detect damage in brick masonry arches. Finite element model updating was used to track changes in the material properties of arches and to match numerical results with dynamic laboratory results. The study showed that damage has a significant effect on the dynamic properties of arches. Repairing the damage partially restores the dynamic parameters to the undamaged condition, but it cannot completely transform the arch into an arch without damage. Damage detection methods were able to identify the occurrence of damage to the arches, but there are limitations in the use of these methods. Diagrams were generated to estimate the static moduli of brick and of gypsum mortar from the dynamic modulus of elasticity of the assemblage of brick and gypsum mortar.

no pdf 8323
42. Deshpande S., Sosa R., Bordas S.P., Lengiewicz J.A., Convolution, aggregation and attention based deep neural networks for accelerating simulations in mechanics, Frontiers in Materials, ISSN: 2296-8016, DOI: 10.3389/fmats.2023.1128954, Vol.10, No.1128954, pp.1-12, 2023nota 8329

Deep learning surrogate models are being increasingly used in accelerating scientific simulations as a replacement for costly conventional numerical techniques. However, their use remains a significant challenge when dealing with real-world complex examples. In this work, we demonstrate three types of neural network architectures for efficient learning of highly non-linear deformations of solid bodies. The first two architectures are based on the recently proposed CNN U-NET and MAgNET (graph U-NET) frameworks which have shown promising performance for learning on mesh-based data. The third architecture is Perceiver IO, a very recent architecture that belongs to the family of attention-based neural networks–a class that has revolutionised diverse engineering fields and is still unexplored in computational mechanics. We study and compare the performance of all three networks on two benchmark examples, and show their capabilities to accurately predict the non-linear mechanical responses of soft bodies.

surrogate modeling, deep learning-artificial neural network, CNN U-NET, graph U-net, perceiver IO, finite element method

pdf 8329
43. Kopeć M., Fatigue Damage Development in 14MoV6-3 Steel for Power Plant Pipes Monitored by Digital Image Correlation, Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica, ISSN: 0894-9166, DOI: 10.1007/s10338-023-00387-y, pp.1-13, 2023nota 8334

In this paper, fatigue damage development of 14MoV6-3 (13HMF) power engineering steel was studied through different experimental and analytical approaches. The specimens machined from the as-received pipe were subjected to fatigue loading and simultaneously monitored using the digital image correlation (DIC) technique. The damage development was analysed through microstructural observations of fracture surfaces and further described as a function of the fatigue damage parameter D and the fatigue damage measure φ. The combination of such parameters’ evolution with the number of cycles to failure and the DIC technique enables a determination of separate stages of damage development. It was found that dynamics of damage could be effectively exposed within the first 100 cycles.

Fatigue development, Damage, 13HMF steel, Digital image correlation (DIC)

pdf 8334
44. Haghighat Bayan Mohammad A., Dias Yasmin J., Rinoldi C., Nakielski P., Rybak D., Truong Yen B., Yarin A., Pierini F., Near-infrared light activated core-shell electrospun nanofibers decorated with photoactive plasmonic nanoparticles for on-demand smart drug delivery applications, Journal of Polymer Science, ISSN: 2642-4169, DOI: 10.1002/pol.20220747, pp.1-13, 2023nota 8307

Over the last few years, traditional drug delivery systems (DDSs) have been transformed into smart DDSs. Recent advancements in biomedical nanotech-nology resulted in introducing stimuli-responsiveness to drug vehicles. Nano-
platforms can enhance drug release efficacy while reducing the side effects of drugs by taking advantage of the responses to specific internal or external stim-uli. In this study, we developed an electrospun nanofibrous photo-responsive DDSs. The photo-responsivity of the platform enables on-demand elevated drug release. Furthermore, it can provide a sustained release profile and pre-vent burst release and high concentrations of drugs. A coaxial electrospinning setup paired with an electrospraying technique is used to fabricate core-shell PVA-PLGA nanofibers decorated with plasmonic nanoparticles. The fabricated
nanofibers have a hydrophilic PVA and Rhodamine-B (RhB) core, while the shell is hydrophobic PLGA decorated with gold nanorods (Au NRs). The presence of plasmonic nanoparticles enables the platform to twice the amount of drug release besides exhibiting a long-term release. Investigations into the photo-responsive release mechanism demonstrate the system's potential as a “smart” drug delivery platform.

electrospun core-shell nanofibers,NIR-light activation,on-demand drug release,plasmonic nanoparticles,stimuli-responsive nanomaterials

pdf 8307
45. Antolik A., Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka D., Dziedzic K., Lisowski P., Effect of Potassium Formate on Alkali–Silica Reaction in Aggregates with Different Categories of Reactivity, Materials Proceedings, ISSN: 2673-4605, DOI: 10.3390/materproc2023013013, Vol.13, No.13, pp.1-8, 2023nota 8312

During the wintertime, concrete pavements experience harsh exposure conditions due to the presence of both the freezing–thawing and wetting–drying cycles. Airport concrete pavements are commonly de-iced using chloride-free organic salts such as potassium formate or potassium acetate. However, these materials contain alkali ions which can have harmful effects on both the cement matrix and the aggregate. Specifically, there is an increased risk of occurrence of the alkali–silica reaction (ASR). The goal of this research was to estimate the influence of potassium formate on the potential of causing alkali–silica reaction in aggregates with different categories of reactivity (R0, R1, R2). The accelerated mortar bar test and its modification (which involves replacing sodium hydroxide solution with a potassium formate solution) were used. Detailed SEM-EDS examinations were performed to confirm the presence of alkali–silica reaction and to analyze the influence of potassium formate on the microstructure of mortar.

alkali–silica reaction,potassium formate,de-icing agent,reactive aggregate

pdf 8312
46. Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka D., Jaskulski R., Dziedzic K., Antolik A., Effect of Low-Quality Calcined Clay on the Suppression of the Alkali–Silica Reaction, Materials Proceedings, ISSN: 2673-4605, DOI: 10.3390/materproc2023013015, Vol.13, No.15, pp.1-8, 2023nota 8313

This article presents the results of an experimental investigation into the mitigation of the alkali–silica reaction (ASR) resulting from using low-grade clay calcined at 850 °C. The clay used in the experiment was domestic clay with an Al2O3 content equal to 26% and a SiO2 content of 58%. The performance of calcined clay in ASR mitigation was evaluated according to ASTM C1567 using reactive aggregates. The control mortar mixture consisted of 100% Portland cement (Na2Oeq = 1.12%) binder and reactive aggregate. The test mixtures used the same reactive aggregate and binders, in which part of the cement was replaced with either 10%, 20% or 30% calcined clay. The microstructure of specimens was examined on the polished sections using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) operated in the backscattered mode (BSE). The results of expansion obtained from the mortar bars made with the reactive aggregate showed that replacing cement by calcined clay reduced their expansion, with the level of expansion decreasing with the increase in the level of cement replacement.

calcined clay, alkali–silica reaction, expansion, mitigation, microstructure

pdf 8313
47. Tahani M., Postek E., Sadowski T., Molecular dynamics simulations of the interdiffusion at α-Al2O3/AlSi12 interface, KomPlasTech 2023, XXVII Conference on Computer Methods in Materials Technology, 2023-03-05/03-08, Zakopane (PL), pp.1-4, 2023nota 8319

Metal matrix composites (MMC) are used more and more in the aerospace, automotive, and bio-
-medical industries because of their high strength-to-weight ratio, high stiffness, and outstanding wear resistance. Aluminium, titanium, and magnesium are the most preferred matrix materials, whereas alumina and silicon carbide are the most used reinforcing elements for these composites. The overall mechanical and failure properties of MMCs depend on the mechanical properties of the constituents and the nature of the interface. The characteristics of the interface must be understood because they have the potential to significantly alter the properties of MMCs. The interface between phases is a fuzzy region because of diffusion. To this end, it is necessary to look into the diffusion between the two phases as the first step for determining the cohesive zone model of the interface.
In this study, AlSi12 metal alloy as matrix material reinforced with α-Al2O3 is considered. AlSi12
is an aluminium alloy that contains 12 wt.% silicon with excellent thermal conductivity, good corrosion resistance, and low density. The composite can be used in various high-temperature applications such as furnace linings, engine parts, and aerospace components. It is worth noting that the properties and performance of the composite will depend on the processing conditions, microstructure, the proportion of the components, and the interface’s characteristics.
The investigation carried out by Milas et al. [1] regarding the diffusion of Al, O, Pt, Hf, and Y atoms
on α-Al2O3(0001) can be mentioned as an illustration of research that has been published in the literature.
To the authors’ knowledge, no studies have been done on α-Al2O3/AlSi12 diffusion couple. To this end, the self-diffusion and interdiffusion at the interface are investigated in this research by heating the system to the desired temperature. The effect of annealing temperature and annealing time are studied on the diffusion zone and interdiffusion coefficients. The thickness of the diffusion zone and the interdiffusion coefficients are found to increase as expected with increasing annealing temperature and time.

Self-diffusion, Interdiffusion, Metal-ceramic composite, Al2O3/AlSi12 interface; Molecular dynamics method

pdf 8319

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