Institute of Fundamental Technological Research
Polish Academy of Sciences

Latest Publications

Publications reported by three months

1. Darban H., Bochenek K., Węglewski W., Basista M., Experimental Determination of the Length-Scale Parameter for the Phase-Field Modeling of Macroscale Fracture in Cr–Al2O3 Composites Fabricated by Powder Metallurgy, METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, ISSN: 1073-5623, DOI: 10.1007/s11661-022-06677-3, pp.1-23, 2022nota 7742

Abstract:
A novel approach is proposed to determine a physically meaningful length-scale parameter for the phase-field modeling of macroscale fracture in metal–ceramic composites on an example of chromium–alumina composite fabricated by powder metallurgy. The approach is based on the fractography analysis by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with the aim to measure the process zone size and use that value as the length-scale parameter in the phase-field modeling. Mode I and mixed-mode I/II fracture tests are conducted on Cr–Al2O3 composites at different reinforcement volume fractions and particle sizes using single-edge notched beams under four-point bending. The fracture surfaces are analyzed in detail by SEM to determine the size of the process zone where the microscale nonlinear fracture events occur. The model adequately approximates the experimentally measured fracture toughness and the fracture loads. It is shown that the model prediction of the crack initiation direction under the mixed-mode loading is in agreement with the experiments and the generalized maximum tangential stress criterion. These outcomes justify using the process zone size as the scale parameter in the phase-field modeling of macroscale fracture in chromium–alumina and similar metal–ceramic composites.

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2. Darban H., Luciano R., Basista M., Free transverse vibrations of nanobeams with multiple cracks, International Journal of Engineering Science, ISSN: 0020-7225, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijengsci.2022.103703, Vol.177, pp.103703-1-20, 2022nota 7755

Abstract:
A nonlocal model is formulated to study the size-dependent free transverse vibrations of nanobeams with arbitrary numbers of cracks. The effect of the crack is modeled by introducing discontinuities in the slope and transverse displacement at the cracked cross-section, proportional to the bending moment and the shear force transmitted through it. The local compliance of each crack is related to its stress intensity factors assuming that the crack tip stress field is undisturbed (non-interacting cracks).The kinematic field is defined based on the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory, and the small-scale size effect is taken into account by employing the constitutive equation of the stress-driven nonlocal theory of elasticity. In this manner, the curvature at each cross-section is defined as an integral convolution in terms of the bending moments at all the cross-sections and a kernel function which depends on a material characteristic length parameter. The integral form of the nonlocal constitutive equation is elaborated and converted into a differential equation subjected to a set of mathematically consistent boundary and continuity conditions at the nanobeam’s ends and the cracked cross-sections. The equation of motion in each segment of the nanobeam between cracks is solved separately and the variationally consistent and constitutive boundary and continuity conditions are imposed to determine the natural frequencies. The model is applied to nanobeams with different boundary conditions and the natural frequencies and the mode shapes are presented at the presence of one to four cracks. The results of the model converge to the experimental results available in the literature for the local cracked beams and to the solutions of the intact nanobeams when the crack length goes to zero. The effects of the crack location, crack length, and nonlocality on the natural frequencies are investigated, also for the higher modes of vibrations. Novel findings including the amplification and shielding effects of the cracks on the natural frequencies are presented and discussed.

Keywords:
cracked nanobeam, transverse vibration, nonlocal elasticity, size effect

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3. Komorowski M., Making sense of BMP signaling complexity, Cell Systems, ISSN: 2405-4712, DOI: 10.1016/j.cels.2022.04.002, Vol.13, No.5, pp.349-351, 2022nota 7762

Abstract:
Cellular signaling systems are immensely complex. Dedicated experimental and theoretical approaches are therefore required to decipher how they function. In this issue of Cell Systems, two studies systematically interrogate the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) pathway, uncovering mechanisms and consequences of distinct responses to combinations of BMP ligands.

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4. Nosewicz S., Jurczak G., Wejrzanowski T., Ibrahim S.H., Grabias A., Węglewski W., Kaszyca K., Rojek J., Chmielewski M., Thermal conductivity analysis of porous NiAl materials manufactured by spark plasma sintering: Experimental studies and modelling, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER, ISSN: 0017-9310, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2022.123070, Vol.194, pp.123070-1-19, 2022nota 7763

Abstract:
This work presents a comprehensive analysis of heat transfer and thermal conductivity of porous materials manufactured by spark plasma sintering. Intermetallic nickel aluminide (NiAl) has been selected as the representative material. Due to the complexity of the studied material, the following investigation consists of experimental, theoretical and numerical sections. The samples were manufactured in different combinations of process parameters, namely sintering temperature, time and external pressure, and next tested using the laser flash method to determine the effective thermal conductivity. Microstructural characterisation was extensively examined by use of scanning electron microscopy and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) with a special focus on the structure of cohesive bonds (necks) formed during the sintering process. The experimental results of thermal conductivity were compared with theoretical and numerical ones. Here, a finite element framework based on micro-CT imaging was employed to analyse the macroscopic (effective thermal conductivity, geometrical and thermal tortuosity) and microscopic parameters (magnitude and deviation angle of heat fluxes, local tortuosity). The comparison of different approaches toward effective thermal conductivity evaluation revealed the necessity of consideration of additional thermal resistance related to sintered necks. As micro-CT analysis cannot determine the particle contact boundaries, a special algorithm was implemented to identify the corresponding spots in the volume of finite element samples; these are treated as the resistance phase, marked by lower thermal conductivity. Multiple simulations with varying content of the resistance phase and different values of thermal conductivity of the resistance phase have been performed, to achieve consistency with experimental data. Finally, the Landauer relation has been modified to take into account the thermal resistance of necks and their thermal conductivity, depending on sample densification. Modified theoretical and finite element models have provided updated results covering a wide range of effective thermal conductivities; thus, it was possible to reconstruct experimental results with satisfactory accuracy.

Keywords:
thermal conductivity, porous materials, spark plasma sintering, micro-computed tomography, nickel aluminide, finite element modelling, tortuosity

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5. Petryk H., Kursa M., Crystal plasticity algorithm based on the quasi-extremal energy principle, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING, ISSN: 0029-5981, DOI: 10.1002/nme.6969, Vol.123, No.14, pp.3285-3316, 2022nota 7779

Abstract:
The direct incremental energy minimization in rate-independent plasticity does not account for the skew-symmetric part of the tangent stiffness matrix. In crystal plasticity, this corresponds to neglecting the asymmetry of the matrix of interaction moduli for active slip-systems. This limitation has been overcome in the recently proposed quasi-extremal energy principle (QEP) applicable to nonpotential problems. In the present article it is shown how to extend QEP to finite increments in the backward-Euler computational scheme. A related constitutive algorithm is proposed which enables automatic selection of active slip systems using an energetic criterion, along any path of large deformation of a rate-independent single crystal with a nonsymmetric slip-system interaction matrix. Numerical examples have been calculated for a fcc single crystal subjected to simple shear or uniaxial tension. The slip system activity predicted by using the QEP algorithm has been found to be more reliable in describing the actual plastic response of metal crystals than conventional rate-dependent modeling in cases where the selection of active slip-systems is essential.

Keywords:
solids, plasticity, material stability, Lagrangian, slip-system selection, time integration, implicit

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6. Ryś M., Stupkiewicz S., Petryk H., Micropolar regularization of crystal plasticity with the gradient-enhanced incremental hardening law, International Journal of Plasticity, ISSN: 0749-6419, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijplas.2022.103355, Vol.156, pp.103355-1-20, 2022nota 7783

Abstract:
A new model of gradient crystal plasticity is developed in which the incompatibility of plastic deformation field is simultaneously included in two different ways. The first one is well known and incorporates the gradient effect of accumulated rotation of the crystallographic lattice on the kinematic hardening in the Cosserat crystal plasticity model. The second way incorporates the effect of the current incompatibility of lattice spin on the total dislocation density rate, resulting in an additional isotropic hardening term in the gradient-enhanced hardening law. The latter effect involves a natural length scale that is fully determined in terms of standard quantities of a non-gradient hardening law and evolves during plastic deformation. The relative significance of the two effects depends on the values of material parameters, which is demonstrated by the results of calculations of 1D and 3D examples for a Cu single crystal. If the second effect is predominant, then the Cosserat formulation provides only a regularization, and then the model can be used to predict size effects. This is shown by 3D simulations of the size effect in spherical indentation of a copper single crystal. Since the gradient-enhanced hardening law does not involve any adjustable parameter, the obtained agreement of the model prediction with the experimental indentation size effect on hardness can be regarded as surprisingly good.

Keywords:
gradient plasticity, crystal plasticity, Cosserat continuum, length scale, indentation size effect, 3D model

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7. Rezaee-Hajidehi M., Sadowski P., Stupkiewicz S., Deformation twinning as a displacive transformation: Finite-strain phase-field model of coupled twinning and crystal plasticity, JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICS AND PHYSICS OF SOLIDS, ISSN: 0022-5096, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmps.2022.104855, Vol.163, pp.104855-1-30, 2022nota 7736

Abstract:
A finite-strain phase-field model of coupled deformation twinning and crystal plasticity is developed in the paper. Twinning is treated as a displacive transformation characterized by a volume-preserving stretch rather than a simple shear, the latter considered in the conventional approach. It is shown that the two approaches are equivalent in the sharp-interface description, but not in the diffuse-interface description. In the proposed stretch-based kinematics, each pair of conjugate twinning systems is represented by a single twin deformation variant, and thus a single order parameter suffices to consistently describe the two conjugate twinning systems, thereby treating them equally. The model is formulated in the framework of incremental energy minimization, which, upon time discretization, leads to a quasi-optimization problem due to the specific form of the incremental potential within the diffuse interfaces. To facilitate finite-element implementation, a micromorphic formulation of the model is employed. As an application, tensile twinning in HCP magnesium alloys is examined, and a set of comprehensive 2D plane-strain problems is studied to illustrate the features of the proposed approach.

Keywords:
deformation twinning, microstructure, phase-field method, crystal plasticity, magnesium alloy

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8. Bochenek K., Węglewski W., Strojny-Nędza A., Pietrzak K., Chmielewski T., Chmielewski M., Basista M., Microstructure, Mechanical, and Wear Properties of NiCr-Re-Al2O3 Coatings Deposited by HVOF, Atmospheric Plasma Spraying, and Laser Cladding, Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, ISSN: 1059-9630, DOI: 10.1007/s11666-022-01400-5, pp.1-25, 2022nota 7743

Abstract:
Metallic coatings are often applied on steel tubes in power generation boilers to improve their performance and extend the lifetime. Besides the high-temperature corrosion and erosion protection, the coatings should manifest good adhesion and cohesion strength, and relatively low residual stresses. In this study, three processing techniques: high velocity oxygen fuel spraying (HVOF), atmospheric plasma spraying (APS), and direct laser cladding were employed to obtain novel NiCr-Re and NiCr-Re-Al2O3 coatings intended for application in combustion boilers. The main objective was to assess the suitability of these three techniques to deposit NiCr-Re and NiCr-Re-Al2O3 composite coatings on a 16Mo3 steel substrate. For this purpose, a comparative analysis of the coatings behavior in selected tests was conducted. Of the three processing techniques, thermal spraying by HVOF turned out to be the optimum choice for the studied coatings. From among several variants of the HVOF-sprayed coatings, namely NiCr+1%Re, NiCr+2%Re, NiCr+1%Re+5%Al2O3, and NiCr+1%Re+10%Al2O3 (all vol.%), the NiCr+1%Re material exhibited the lowest extent of cracking in the disk bend test, the highest tensile strength (405 MPa) in the in-plane tension test, the highest Vickers hardness (379 HV2), the lowest specific wear rate (2.23·10-4 mm3/N m), and the lowest level of average residual tensile stress (120 MPa).

Keywords:
alumina, HVOF, mechanical behavior, nickel-chromium coatings, rhenium, residual stress, wear resistance

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9. Dąbrowski M., Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka D., Bogusz K., Glinicki M.A., Influence of serpentinite aggregate on the microstructure and durability of radiation shielding concrete, CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS, ISSN: 0950-0618, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2022.127536, Vol.337, pp.127536-1-13, 2022nota 7745

Abstract:
Concrete mix design for radiation shielding is mainly based on selection of aggregate materials of specified elemental composition. Serpentinite aggregate could be a desirable component of concrete for mixed-radiation attenuation and for high temperatures, however its durability performance needs further attention. The objective of the study is to reveal the influence of serpentinite aggregate on the microstructure and transport properties of baryte-serpentinite concrete. Mix design was developed for low-heat Portland cement and slag cement by using a combination of serpentinite aggregate and baryte aggregate. The compressive strength, chloride migration coefficient, carbonation resistance were experimentally investigated. The durability tests were compared with open porosity, mercury intrusion porosimetry measurement and examination of thin section of concrete by optical microscope. The results revealed increased porosity of contact zone of serpentinite aggregate with cement matrix. Open and capillary porosity of concrete was found to increase with increase of serpentinite aggregate content. Consequently, an increase of the chloride migration coefficient up to 2.5 times, the rate of carbonation up to 4 times were observed.

Keywords:
baryte, serpentinite, carbonation, chloride ion permeability, durability, microstructure, mix design, interfacial transition zone, porosity, radiation shielding concrete

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10. Wasyłeczko M., Krysiak Z.J., Łukowska E., Gruba M., Sikorska W., Kruk A., Dulnik J., Czubak J., Chwojnowski A., Three-dimensional scaffolds for bioengineering of cartilage tissue, Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, ISSN: 0208-5216, DOI: 10.1016/j.bbe.2022.03.004, Vol.42, No.2, pp.494-511, 2022nota 7748

Abstract:
The cartilage tissue is neither supplied with blood nor innervated, so it cannot heal by itself. Thus, its reconstruction is highly challenging and requires external support. Cartilage diseases are becoming more common due to the aging population and obesity. Among young people, it is usually a post-traumatic complication. Slight cartilage damage leads to the spontaneous formation of fibrous tissue, not resistant to abrasion and stress, resulting in cartilage degradation and the progression of the disease. For these reasons, cartilage regeneration requires further research, including use of new type of biomaterials for scaffolds. This paper shows cartilage characteristics within its most frequent problems and treatment strategies, including a promising method that combines scaffolds and human cells. Structure and material requirements, manufacturing methods, and commercially available scaffolds were described. Also, the comparison of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) and polyethersulfone (PES) 3D membranes obtained by a phase inversion method using nonwovens as a pore-forming additives were reported. The scaffolds' structure and the growth ability of human chondrocytes were compared. Scaffolds' structure, cells morphology, and protein presence in the membranes were examined with a scanning electron microscope. The metabolic activity of cells was tested with the MTT assay. The structure of the scaffolds and the growth capacity of human chondrocytes were compared. Obtained results showed higher cell activity and protein content for PES scaffolds than for PLLA. The PES membrane had better mechanical properties (e.g. ripping), greater chondrocytes proliferation, and thus a better secretion of proteins which build up the cartilage structure.

Keywords:
3D-scaffolds, membrane structure, polyethersulfone, poly(L-lactide), chondrocyte culture, cartilage regeneration

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11. Śmietanka H., Ranachowski P., Ranachowski Z., Wieczorek K., Kudela Jr.S., Effects of degradation in textolite elements of damaged surge arresters, Energies, ISSN: 1996-1073, DOI: 10.3390/en15103643, Vol.15, No.10, pp.3643-1-19, 2022nota 7754

Abstract:
The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of the currents flowing through surge arresters on the internal insulating textolite structure. The samples were removed from high-voltage arresters that were taken out of service due to malfunction or failure. Discharge (short-circuit) currents of diverse intensities and durations caused degradation effects of varying degrees of advancement in the material of the tested elements. The samples were examined using microscopic methods. The use of the microanalysis technique EDS (energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) made it possible to register changes in the elemental composition of the surface layer of the textolite materials, along with the intensification of the degradation effects. It was found that the high discharge current flows were subject to melting, charring and even burning of the organic adhesive. These effects caused serious changes in the content of elements in the top layer of the textolite and were the cause of a reduction in the service life, durability and reliability of the surge arresters. It was shown that the textolite materials had insufficient resistance to the effects of the emergency operation of the arresters after moisture ingress, which was a consequence of unsealing of the housing. A solution to this problem proposed by the authors could be the use of silicone elastomer as a covering of the textolite internal structure of surge arresters.

Keywords:
surge arrester, TSE glass textolite, discharge (short circuit) current, EDS method

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12. Szczęsny G., Kopeć M., Politis D.J., Kowalewski Z.L., Łazarski A., Szolc T., A review on biomaterials for orthopaedic surgery and traumatology: from past to present, Materials, ISSN: 1996-1944, DOI: 10.3390/ma15103622, Vol.15, No.10, pp.3622-1-20, 2022nota 7757

Abstract:
The principal features essential for the success of an orthopaedic implant are its shape, dimensional accuracy, and adequate mechanical properties. Unlike other manufactured products, chemical stability and toxicity are of increased importance due to the need for biocompatibility over an implants life which could span several years. Thus, the combination of mechanical and biological properties determines the clinical usefulness of biomaterials in orthopaedic and musculoskeletal trauma surgery. Materials commonly used for these applications include stainless steel, cobalt-chromium and titanium alloys, ceramics, polyethylene, and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement. This study reviews the properties of commonly used materials and the advantages and disadvantages of each, with special emphasis on the sensitivity, toxicity, irritancy, and possible mutagenic and teratogenic capabilities. In addition, the production and final finishing processes of implants are discussed. Finally, potential directions for future implant development are discussed, with an emphasis on developing advanced personalised implants, according to a patient’s stature and physical requirements.

Keywords:
orthopaedic surgical procedures, biomaterials, implants, biocompatible materials, alloys, ceramic, polyethylene

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13. Opiela K.C., Zieliński T.G., Attenborough K., Limitations on validating slitted sound absorber designs through budget additive manufacturing, Materials & Design, ISSN: 0264-1275, DOI: 10.1016/j.matdes.2022.110703, Vol.218, pp.110703-1-17, 2022nota 7758

Abstract:
The potential usefulness of relatively simple pore microstructures such as parallel, identical, inclined slits for creating broadband sound absorption has been argued through analytical models. In principle, such microstructures could be realised through budget additive manufacturing. However, validation of the analytical predictions through normal incidence impedance tube measurements on finite layers is made difficult by the finite size of the tube. The tube walls curtail the lengths of inclined slits and, as a result, prevent penetration of sound through the layer. As well as demonstrating and modelling this effect, this paper explores two manufacturing solutions. While analytical and numerical predictions correspond well to absorption spectra measured on slits normal to the surface, discrepancies between measured and predicted sound absorption are noticed for perforated and zigzag slit configurations. For perforated microgeometries this is found to be the case with both numerical and analytical modelling based on variable length dead-end pores. Discrepancies are to be expected since the dead-end pore model does not allow for narrow pores in which viscous effects are important. For zigzag slits it is found possible to modify the permeability used in the inclined slit analytical model empirically to obtain reasonable agreement with data.

Keywords:
slitted sound absorber, additive manufacturing, microstructure-based modelling

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14. Rojek J., Kasztelan R., Tharmaraj R., Discrete element thermal conductance model for sintered particles, POWDER TECHNOLOGY, ISSN: 0032-5910, DOI: 10.1016/j.powtec.2022.117521, Vol.405, pp.117521-1-10, 2022nota 7760

Abstract:
A discrete element thermal conductance model suitable for the modelling of heat flow between sintered particles has been proposed. The model is formulated using the sintering geometry consisting of two spheres connected with a cylindrical neck. The calculation of the neck size is based on the criterion of volume conservation. Therefore the neck obtained is more accurate than that of the popular Coble's model. The thermal conductance is determined for different neck sizes by the finite element simulations of the heat flow in half of the sintering geometry. The numerical results are fitted with a linear relationship which is the basis to determine the equivalent conductance between two sintered particles. The model can be used in the pipenetwork formulation of the discrete element method for simulation of heat conduction problems in powder sintering or in sintered porous materials.

Keywords:
sintering, particles, discrete element method, thermal conductance, pipe-network model, volume conservation, heat conduction

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15. Dąbrowski M., Glinicki M.A., Kuziak J., Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka D., Dziedzic K., Effects of 2 MGy gamma irradiation on the steel corrosion in cement-based composites, CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS, ISSN: 0950-0618, DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2022.127967, Vol.342, pp.127967-1-16, 2022nota 7764

Abstract:
A viable prediction of service life of reinforced concrete structures exposed to irradiation environment is necessary to support a license extension for currently operating nuclear power plants as well as to support concrete mix optimization for new builds. An experimental study was carried out to evaluate the corrosion performance of mild steel reinforcing bars under gamma irradiation at environmental conditions favoring accelerated carbonation. in elevated temperature. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic electrochemical tests were performed to assess the corrosion rates on the rebar surfaces. Effects of irradiation were also examined in regard to capillary pore size distribution by mercury intrusion porosimetry and mesopore distribution based on nitrogen desorption data. Companion tests were performed to determine the compressive and flexural strength of mortar exposed to gamma irradiation. Relative effects of gamma irradiation are reported for mortar specimens containing fly ash or limestone powder used for partial replacement of Portland cement up to 40% by mass. Gamma irradiation dose up to 2 MGy was found to affect the properties of passive layer of steel in comparison to non-irradiated specimens. A decrease of corrosive potential and passivation potential was found. An increase of corrosion current density by an order of magnitude due to gamma irradiation was observed. Parameters of polarization curves of steel indicated unstable passive layer on steel reinforcement in irradiated mortars.

Keywords:
gamma irradiation, steel corrosion, supplementary cementitious materials, modification, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, corrosion potential, Barrett-Joyner-Halenda porosity

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16. Topolewski P., Zakrzewska K.E., Walczak J., Nienałtowski K., Müller-Newen G., Singh A., Komorowski M., Phenotypic variability, not noise, accounts for most of the cell-to-cell heterogeneity in IFN-γ and oncostatin M signaling responses, Science Signaling, ISSN: 1945-0877, DOI: 10.1126/scisignal.abd9303, Vol.15, No.721, pp.eabd9303-1-16, 2022nota 7766

Abstract:
Cellular signaling responses show substantial cell-to-cell heterogeneity, which is often ascribed to the inherent randomness of biochemical reactions, termed molecular noise, wherein high noise implies low signaling fidelity. Alternatively, heterogeneity could arise from differences in molecular content between cells, termed molecular phenotypic variability, which does not necessarily imply imprecise signaling. The contribution of these two processes to signaling heterogeneity is unclear. Here, we fused fibroblasts to produce binuclear syncytia to distinguish noise from phenotypic variability in the analysis of cytokine signaling. We reasoned that the responses of the two nuclei within one syncytium could approximate the signaling outcomes of two cells with the same molecular content, thereby disclosing noise contribution, whereas comparison of different syncytia should reveal contribution of phenotypic variability. We found that ~90% of the variance in the primary response (which was the abundance of phosphorylated, nuclear STAT) to stimulation with the cytokines interferon-γ and oncostatin M resulted from differences in the molecular content of individual cells. Thus, our data reveal that cytokine signaling in the system used here operates in a reproducible, high-fidelity manner.

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17. Liu X., Di B., Yu X., Liu H., Dhawan S., Politis D.J., Kopeć M., Wang L., Development of a Formability Prediction Model for Aluminium Sandwich Panels with Polymer Core, Materials, ISSN: 1996-1944, DOI: 10.3390/ma15124140, Vol.15, No.12, pp.4140-1-12, 2022nota 7769

Abstract:
In the present work, the compatibility relationship on the failure criteria between aluminium and polymer was established, and a mechanics-based model for a three-layered sandwich panel was developed based on the M-K model to predict its Forming Limit Diagram (FLD). A case study for a sandwich panel consisting of face layers from AA5754 aluminium alloy and a core layer from polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) was subsequently conducted, suggesting that the loading path of aluminium was linear and independent of the punch radius, while the risk for failure of PVDF increased with a decreasing radius and an increasing strain ratio. Therefore, the developed formability model would be conducive to the safety evaluation on the plastic forming and critical failure of composite sandwich panels.

Keywords:
formability, M-K model, failure criteria, composite sandwich panel

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18. Cantor D., Wojtacki K., Effects of Friction and Spacing on the Collaborative Behavior of Domino Toppling, Physical Review Applied, ISSN: 2331-7019, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.17.064021, Vol.17, pp.064021-1-6, 2022nota 7781

Abstract:
Inspired by the high-speed camera experiments of YouTuber Destin Sandlin (SmarterEveryDay) [D. Sadlin, Dominoes – hardcore mode (2021), [Online; accessed 15-Jul-2021].] on the toppling speed of dominoes over different surfaces, we performed discrete-element simulations of this process, varying the spacing between adjacent and evenly spaced blocks (dominoes). We also varied the block-block and block-surface friction coefficients over a wide range of values to have a complete picture of the behavior of these cooperative, dissipative mechanical systems. We found that a steady wavefront speed v exists for a specific interval of spacings between dominoes and coefficients of friction. Surprisingly, while v is more affected by the domino-domino friction, the domino-surface friction determines whether or not toppling anomalies can appear and stop the wave. Finally, our observations led us to propose a scaling law that is able to predict v based on the domino configuration and friction coefficients, and to correctly reproduce experimental tests.

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19. Darban H., Luciano R., Caporale A., Basista M., Modeling of buckling of nanobeams embedded in elastic medium by local-nonlocal stress-driven gradient elasticity theory, COMPOSITE STRUCTURES, ISSN: 0263-8223, DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2022.115907, Vol.297, pp.115907-1-11, 2022nota 7786

Abstract:
A novel buckling model is formulated for the Bernoulli-Euler nanobeam resting on the Pasternak elastic foundation. The formulation is based on the local-nonlocal stress-driven gradient elasticity theory. In order to incorporate the size-dependency, the strain at each point is defined as the integral convolutions in terms of the stresses and their first-order gradients in all the points, accounting also for the local contribution. The differential form of the nonlocal constitutive equation, together with a set of constitutive boundary conditions, are used to define the buckling equation in terms of transverse displacement, which is solved in closed form. Both variationally consistent and the constitutive boundary conditions are imposed to calculate the buckling loads and the corresponding mode shapes. The predictions of the present model are in agreement with the results available in the literature for the carbon nanotubes based on the molecular dynamics simulations. Insightful results are presented for the first three buckling modes of local-nonlocal nanobeams considering the gradient effects. The distinctive feature of the present model is its capability to capture both stiffening and softening behaviors at the small-scales, which result in, respectively, higher and lower buckling loads of the nanobeams with respect to those of the large-scale beams.

Keywords:
nanobeams, nonlocal elasticity, stress gradient, buckling, Pasternak foundation

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20. Dolega-Dolegowski D., Proniewska K., Dolega-Dolegowska M., Pręgowska A., Hajto-Bryk J., Trojak M., Chmiel J., Walecki P., Fudalej P.S., Application of holography and augmented reality based technology to visualize the internal structure of the dental root - a proof of concept, Head&Face Medicine, ISSN: 1746-160X, DOI: 10.1186/s13005-022-00307-4, Vol.18, pp.12-1-6, 2022nota 7735

Abstract:
Background: The Augmented Reality (AR) blends digital information with the real world. Thanks to cameras, sensors, and displays it can supplement the physical world with holographic images. Nowadays, the applications of AR range from navigated surgery to vehicle navigation. Development: The purpose of this feasibility study was to develop an AR holographic system implementing Vertucci’s classification of dental root morphology to facilitate the study of tooth anatomy. It was tailored to run on the AR HoloLens 2 (Microsoft) glasses. The 3D tooth models were created in Autodesk Maya and exported to Unity software. The holograms of dental roots can be projected in a natural setting of the dental office. The application allowed to display 3D objects in such a way that they could be rotated, zoomed in/out, and penetrated. The advantage of the proposed approach was that students could learn a 3D internal anatomy of the teeth without environmental visual restrictions. Conclusions: It is feasible to visualize internal dental root anatomy with AR holographic system. AR holograms seem to be attractive adjunct for learning of root anatomy.

Keywords:
mixed reality, augmented reality, holography, tooth, dental root, root canal, visualization

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21. Jeznach O., Kołbuk D., Marzec M., Bernasik A., Sajkiewicz P., Aminolysis as a surface functionalization method of aliphatic polyester nonwovens: impact on material properties and biological response, RSC Advances, ISSN: 2046-2069, DOI: 10.1039/D2RA00542E, Vol.12, No.18, pp.11303-11317, 2022nota 7740

Abstract:
It is reported in the literature that introducing amino groups on the surface improves cellular behaviour due to enhanced wettability and the presence of the positive charge. In this work, electrospun fibers were subjected to aminolysis under various conditions to investigate the impact of reaction parameters on the concentration of free NH2 groups, change of fiber properties, and the response of L929 cells. Three types of electrospun nonwovens obtained from poly(caprolactone) (PCL), poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLCL) 70 : 30 and poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) were investigated. For all polymers, the concentration of NH2 groups increased with the diamine concentration and time of reaction. However, it was observed that PCL fibers require much stronger conditions than PLCL and PLLA fibers to reach the same level of introduced amine groups. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results clearly demonstrate that an aminolysis reaction is not limited to the surface of the material. Gel permeation chromatography results support this conclusion indicating global molecular weight reduction. However, it is possible to reach a compromise between the concentration of introduced amine groups and the change of mechanical properties. For most of the investigated conditions, aminolysis did not significantly change the water contact angle. Despite this, the change of L929 and MG63 cell shape to being more spread confirmed the positive effect of the presence of the amine groups.

pdf 7740
22. Niemczyk-Soczyńska B., Sajkiewicz P., Gradys A., Toward a Better Understanding of the Gelation Mechanism of Methylcellulose via Systematic DSC Studies, Polymers, ISSN: 2073-4360, DOI: 10.3390/polym14091810, Vol.14, No.9, pp.1810-1-13, 2022nota 7747

Abstract:
A methylcellulose (MC) is one of the materials representatives performing unique thermal-responsive properties. While reaching a critical temperature upon heating MC undergoes a physical sol-gel transition and consequently becomes a gel. The MC has been studied for many years and researchers agree that the MC gelation is related to the lower critical solution temperature (LCST). Nevertheless, a precise description of the MC gelation mechanism remains under discussion. In this study, we explained the MC gelation mechanism through examination of a wide range of MC concentrations via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results evidenced that MC gelation is a multistep thermoreversible process, manifested by three and two endotherms depending on MC concentration. The occurrence of the three endotherms for low MC concentrations during heating has not been reported in the literature before. We justify this phenomenon by manifestation of three various transitions. The first one manifests water–water interactions, i.e., spanning water network breakdown into small water clusters. It is clearly evidenced by additional normalization to the water content. The second effect corresponds to polymer–water interactions, i.e., breakdown of water cages surrounded methoxy groups of MC. The last one is related to the polymer–polymer interactions, i.e., fibril hydrophobic domain formation. Not only did these results clarify the MC crosslinking mechanism, but also in the future will help to assess MC relevance for various potential application fields.

Keywords:
methylcellulose, thermosensitive hydrogel, crosslinking, DSC

pdf 7747
23. Żebrowski W., Wolka P., Zieliński A., Dąbrowski M., Ograniczenie korozji ASR w betonie za pomocą metakaolinu MK-40 i tradycyjnych dodatków mineralnych, Materiały Budowlane, ISSN: 0137-2971, DOI: 10.15199/33.2022.03.09, Vol.3, No.595, pp.55-58, 2022nota 7751

Abstract:
Artykuł prezentuje badania związane z ograniczeniem korozji ASR w betonie,wywołanej przez reaktywne kruszywo drobne, za pomocą dodatków mineralnych. W tym celu użyto metakaolinu MK-40, popiołu lotnego oraz żużla wielkopiecowego. Badania wykonano zgodnie z krajowymi procedurami badawczymi GDDKiA bazującymi na zmodyfikowanych metodach ASTM oraz RILEM AAR. Pozwoliły one określić procentowe ograniczenie ekspansji w przypadku poszczególnych zapraw cementowych. Na podstawie wyników badań stwierdzono, że możliwe jest ograniczenie ekspansji zaprawy z piaskami reaktywnymi przez zastosowanie wybranych dodatków mineralnych.

Keywords:
ASR, beton, żużel wielkopiecowy, popiół lotny, metakaolin

no pdf 7751
24. Kopeć M., The stress and strain distribution in X10CrMoVNb9-1 power engineering steel after long time degradation studied by the ESPI system, BULLETIN OF THE POLISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES: TECHNICAL SCIENCES, ISSN: 2300-1917, DOI: 10.24425/bpasts.2022.141181, Vol.70, No.2, pp.1-7, 2022nota 7752

Abstract:
Maintenance of assets and equipment in power plants is essential for their safety and is required to help the plant stay active. In this paper, the specimens manufactured from the pipe of X10CrMoVNb9-1 (P91) power engineering steel in the as-received state and after operating for 80 000 h at internal pressure of 8.4 MPa and temperature of 540ºC were subjected to tests using electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) under static loading up to 2.5 kN. Such a procedure enables assessment of strain and stress distribution maps to compare the material integrity in the as-received state and after exploitation in its elastic range. The conducted measurements showed no effect of long time operation on the mechanical response of P91 steel under the power installations conditions since the field strain distributions for each type of specimen were found to be similar.

Keywords:
damage, P91 steel, electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI), optical measurements

pdf 7752
25. Alvi S., Milczarek M., Jarząbek D.M., Hedman D., Kohan M.G., Levintant-Zayonts N., Vomiero A., Akhtar F., Enhanced mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of high-entropy HfMoNbTaTiVWZr thin film metallic glass and its nitrides, Advanced Engineering Materials, ISSN: 1438-1656, DOI: 10.1002/adem.202101626, pp.2101626-1-10, 2022nota 7756

Abstract:
The inception of high-entropy alloy promises to push the boundaries for new alloy design with unprecedented properties. This work reports entropy stabilisation of an octonary refractory, HfMoNbTaTiVWZr, high-entropy thin film metallic glass, and derived nitride films. The thin film metallic glass exhibited exceptional ductility of ≈60% strain without fracture and compression strength of 3 GPa in micro-compression, due to the presence of high density and strength of bonds. The thin film metallic glass shows thermal stability up to 750 °C and resistance to Ar-ion irradiation. Nitriding during film deposition of HfMoNbTaTiVWZr thin film of strong nitride forming refractory elements results in deposition of nanocrystalline nitride films with compressive strength, hardness, and thermal stability of up to 10 GPa, 18.7 GPa, and 950 °C, respectively. The high amount of lattice distortion in the nitride films leads to its insulating behaviour with electrical conductivity as low as 200 S cm−1 in the as-deposited film. The design and exceptional properties of the thin film metallic glass and derived nitride films may open up new avenues of development of bulk metallic glasses and the application of refractory-based high entropy thin films in structural and functional applications.

pdf 7756
26. Nirwan V.P., Kowalczyk T., Bar J., Buzgo M., Filová E., Fahmi A., Advances in electrospun hybrid nanofibers for biomedical applications, Nanomaterials, ISSN: 2079-4991, DOI: 10.3390/nano12111829, Vol.12, No.11, pp.1829-1-28, 2022nota 7765

Abstract:
Electrospun hybrid nanofibers, based on functional agents immobilized in polymeric matrix, possess a unique combination of collective properties. These are beneficial for a wide range of applications, which include theranostics, filtration, catalysis, and tissue engineering, among others. The combination of functional agents in a nanofiber matrix offer accessibility to multifunctional nanocompartments with significantly improved mechanical, electrical, and chemical properties, along with better biocompatibility and biodegradability. This review summarizes recent work performed for the fabrication, characterization, and optimization of different hybrid nanofibers containing varieties of functional agents, such as laser ablated inorganic nanoparticles (NPs), which include, for instance, gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and titanium nitride nanoparticles (TiNPs), perovskites, drugs, growth factors, and smart, inorganic polymers. Biocompatible and biodegradable polymers such as chitosan, cellulose, and polycaprolactone are very promising macromolecules as a nanofiber matrix for immobilizing such functional agents. The assimilation of such polymeric matrices with functional agents that possess wide varieties of characteristics require a modified approach towards electrospinning techniques such as coelectrospinning and template spinning. Additional focus within this review is devoted to the state of the art for the implementations of these approaches as viable options for the achievement of multifunctional hybrid nanofibers. Finally, recent advances and challenges, in particular, mass fabrication and prospects of hybrid nanofibers for tissue engineering and biomedical applications have been summarized.

Keywords:
hybrid nanofibers, electrospinning, nanoparticles, functional agents, tissue engineering, nanomedicine, drug delivery, bone regeneration

pdf 7765
27. Kaczmarek A., Hoffman J., The best conditions for the nucleation of carbon nanoparticles in laser-induced plasma, NANOTECHNOLOGY, ISSN: 0957-4484, DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/ac71b4, Vol.33, No.35, pp.355602-1-11, 2022nota 7768

Abstract:
Despite the existence of many more efficient methods of producing carbon nanoparticles, ablation of a carbon target by a laser pulse remains important. It enables studying the bare properties of nanoparticles, not contaminated with reagents or reaction products. The present work analyses the mechanisms of nucleation and growth of nanoparticles in carbon vapours generated during ablation of graphite with a nanosecond laser pulse. The role of both the homogeneous and the heterogeneous (ions) nucleation was investigated, defining the areas of their occurrence. It has been shown that the most favourable conditions are high pressure of the order 1 GPa and relatively low temperature of about 15 000 K. Such conditions are obtainable when ablation occurs in a liquid and the fluence of the laser pulse is low, exceeding the ablation threshold about 2.7 times only. The resulting nanoparticles are relatively homogeneous and have a diameter of approximately 2.5–5 nm.

Keywords:
laser ablation in liquids, nucleation, plasma expansion, laser produced plasma

no pdf 7768
28. Glinicki M.A., Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka D., Antolik A., Dziedzic K., Dąbrowski M., Bogusz K., Diagnosis of ASR damage in highway pavement after 15 years of service in wet-freeze climate region, Case Studies in Construction Materials, ISSN: 2214-5095, DOI: 10.1016/j.cscm.2022.e01226, Vol.17, pp.e01226-1-15, 2022nota 7774

Abstract:
Diagnostic tests were carried out on specimens drilled from a section of jointed, unreinforced highway pavement after 15 years of service. The section of highway was exposed to heavy road traffic, environmental actions of wet-freeze climate zone and associated winter maintenance including application of deicing salt. Premature pavement damage was manifested by visible cracking, mostly along transverse joints and in slab corners. Tests performed on core specimens included petrographic analysis of concrete and its components, using optical and scanning electron microscopy, also evaluation of elastic and transport properties, expansion potential, cracks and air void system. Numerous cracks in the grains of coarse quartzite aggregate were found. Reactive forms of quartz in quartzite aggregate - microcrystalline and cryptocrystalline quartz - were abundant. The gel-like products in cracks in quartzite grains and in surrounding cement paste were identified as alkali-silica reaction products. Expansion of specimens exposed to an alkali-silica reaction-promoting environment indicated the potential for further development of such reaction. Substantial cracking and reduction of modulus of elasticity was correlated with the presence of reactive quartz in quartzite aggregate. The role of additional destructive factors, such as the impact of heavy vehicles traffic and freeze-thaw aggression was indicated by greater cracks in the slow traffic lane compared than in the emergency lane, associated with local marginal air entrainment of concrete.

Keywords:
alkali-silica reaction, concrete, cracking, durability, highway pavement

pdf 7774
29. Cacko D., Lewandowski M., Shear Wave Elastography Implementation on a Portable Research Ultrasound System: Initial Results, Applied Sciences, ISSN: 2076-3417, DOI: 10.3390/app12126210, Vol.12, No.12, pp.6210-1-24, 2022nota 7778

Abstract:
Ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) has emerged as a promising technique that enables the quantitative estimation of soft tissue stiffness. However, its practical implementation is complicated and presents a number of engineering challenges, including high-energy burst transmission, high-frame rate data acquisition and high computational requirements to process huge datasets. Therefore, to date, SWE has only been available for high-end commercial systems or bulk and expensive research platforms. In this work, we present a low-cost, portable and fully configurable 256-channel research system that is able to implement various SWE techniques. We evaluated its transmit capabilities using various push beam patterns and developed algorithms for the reconstruction of tissue stiffness maps. Three different push beam generation methods were evaluated in both homogeneous and heterogeneous experiments using an industry-standard elastography phantom. The results showed that it is possible to implement the SWE modality using a portable and cost-optimized system without significant image quality losses.

Keywords:
ultrasound imaging, shear wave elastography, high-frame rate imaging, medical system design

pdf 7778
30. Ranachowski Z., Wieczorek K., Ranachowski P., Dębowski T., Monitoring of Partial Discharges in Cable Insulation and Cable Head Using Acoustic Method, ARCHIVES OF ACOUSTICS, ISSN: 0137-5075, DOI: 10.24425/aoa.2022.141654, Vol.47, No.2, pp.259-265, 2022nota 7785

Abstract:
The article presents the application of Acoustic Emission (AE) method for detection and registration of partial discharges (PD) generated in medium voltage (MV) cable isolation and MV cable head. The insulation of the high voltage cable is made of a flexible material whose properties are characterised by a high coefficient of attenuation of the acoustic signals. For this reason, the AE method has not been used so far to detect PD in energetic cables. The subjects of the research were the MV cable and the standard T-type cable head. The cable contained defects which were the source of partial discharges. In case of cable head the PD were provoked by thin grounded electrode which was introduced into connector opening. The results of AE measurements are presented in the form of spectrograms. Acoustic Emission was evoked when the applied voltage level reached the value of 7.5 kV for the cable and 4 kV for the cable head. The authors used the acoustic instrumentation of their own design intended for future field use. Obtaining successful results of partial discharges measurements using the acoustic method in the cable insulation makes an original contribution of the presented work.

Keywords:
partial discharges, medium voltage insulation, acoustic emission

pdf 7785
31. Vaitkunas T., Griskevicius P., Adumitroaie A., Peridynamic Approach to Digital Image Correlation Strain Calculation Algorithm, Applied Sciences, ISSN: 2076-3417, DOI: 10.3390/app12136550, Vol.12, No.13, pp.6550-1-21, 2022nota 7787

Abstract:
Digital image correlation is an experimental optical non-contact full field displacement and strain evaluation method based on the surface subsets tracking with photo cameras, digital images processing, and numerical computation. However, the full field of strain computation is a challenging problem, mainly because the displacement field to be differentiated is not continuous, individual subsets are tracked by the optical digital image correlation system. Moreover, the numerical differentiation can also amplify the noise of the displacement field inducing thus strain errors when the displacement data are poor. The peridynamics theory (which equations are cast in terms of spatial integrals of displacements, instead of spatial derivatives in the classical continuum mechanics) based algorithm is considered in this study and applied for the experimental digital image correlation displacement field to analyze possible peridynamic differentiation method advantages. A strains convergence analysis between the digital image correlation and peridynamic differentiation methods is done in this study. The integro-differential strain calculation as an alternative method is validated against digital image correlation and finite element simulation strain fields. It is also shown that the digital image correlation, a noisy displacement field, still provides an accurate and low level noise strain evaluation based on the proposed method.

Keywords:
strain field, digital image correlation, peridynamics, differentiation, peridynamic differential operator

pdf 7787
32. Darban H., Luciano R., Basista M., Calibration of the length scale parameter for the stress-driven nonlocal elasticity model from quasi-static and dynamic experiments, MECHANICS OF ADVANCED MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, ISSN: 1537-6494, DOI: 10.1080/15376494.2022.2077488, pp.1-7, 2022nota 7761

Abstract:
The available experimental results in the literature on the quasi-static bending and free flexural vibration of microcantilevers and nanocantilevers are used to calibrate the length scale parameter of the stress-driven nonlocal elasticity model. The Bernoulli–Euler theory is used to define the kinematic field. The closed form solution derived for the bending problem is used to calibrate the length scale parameter by fitting the load–displacement curves to the experimental results. For the vibration problem, the calibration is done using the least-squares curve fitting method for the natural frequencies. The stress-driven nonlocal theory can adequately capture the size-dependent experimental results.

Keywords:
nonlocal elasticity, stress-driven, experiment, length scale, calibration, MEMS, NEMS

no pdf 7761
33. Szczęsny G., Kopeć M., Szolc T., Kowalewski Z.L., Małdyk P., Deformation of the Titanium Plate Stabilizing the Lateral Ankle Fracture Due to Its Overloading in Case of the Young, Obese Patient: Case Report Including the Biomechanical Analysis, Diagnostics, ISSN: 2075-4418, DOI: 10.3390/diagnostics12061479, Vol.12, No.6, pp.1479-1-10, 2022nota 7777

Abstract:
The number of overweight and obese patients in developed countries is gradually increasing. It was reported that 1287 (64%) out of 2007 adults operated on in 2017 had a body mass index (BMI) greater than 25 kg/m2, and 26.4% even greater than 30, while the BMI of the most obese patient was as high as 57.6 kg/m2. Such distressing statistics raised an issue related to the inadequate durability of implants used for the fixation of bone fractures. Implants for the lower-extremity fractures may not be durable enough to fit the requirements of overweight and obese patients. This case report presents the history of a 23-year-old obese male with a BMI of 38.7, who bent the angularly stabile titanium plate stabilizing his broken lateral ankle and torn distal tibiofibular syndesmosis. Biomechanical analysis showed that the maximal static bending moment registered during one-leg standing was equal to 1.55 Nm. This value was circa one-third of the maximally admissible bending moment for this particular plate (5.34 Nm) that could be transmitted without its plastic deformation. Since dynamic forces exceed static ones several (3–12) times during typical activities, such as walking, climbing the stairs, running, and jumping, unpredictable forces may occur and increase the risk of loosening, bending, and even breaking implants. None of these situations should have occurred for the typical patient’s body mass of 75 kg, or even for the analyzed mass of the young patient (120 kg) who tried to avoid excessive loading during his daily routine. Subsequent implant bending and destabilization of the fracture shows that for the significantly high and still growing number of obese patients, a very strict physical regime should be recommended to prevent overabundant dynamic loads. On the other hand, the geometry of implants dedicated to these patients should be reconsidered.

Keywords:
ankle injuries surgery, bone plate, obesity, postoperative complications, implant failure

pdf 7777
34. Vaitkunas T., Griskevivius P., Adumitroaie A., Peridynamic material model calibration based on digital image correlation experimental measurements, MECHANICS OF ADVANCED MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, ISSN: 1537-6494, DOI: 10.1080/15376494.2022.2089934, pp.1-14, 2022nota 7780

Abstract:
The non-local theory of peridynamics, based on integral equation of motion, offers a computation alternative for materials with discontinuities. In this study, the peridynamic material model parameters are calibrated using full field Digital Image Correlation measurements applied to simple tensile test experiments, circumventing thus the need for more challenging test setups/methods for the determination of the peridynamic material parameters (especially the critical stretch failure parameter). A two stage algorithm in the optimization software LS-Opt together with a MATLAB stage for performing the peridynamic simulation and an Excel stage for defining the outputs of the simulation are implemented to minimize the differences between the peridynamic model and experimental results. The material model parameters determined based on the simple test setup and the calibration procedure proposed here can then be used for modeling more challenging geometries and load cases in peridynamics.

Keywords:
peridynamics, failure parameters, discontinuous field, digital image correlation, model calibration, LS-Opt

no pdf 7780
35. Dąbrowska A., Urbańska W., Warczak M., Osial M., Battery Powder as a Source of Novel Graphene Nanocarbons, PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI B-BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, ISSN: 0370-1972, DOI: 10.1002/pssb.202100588, pp.2100588-1-9, 2022nota 7791

Abstract:
Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) waste is classified as a dangerous one. Fortunately, LIBs can be recycled and are already a valuable source of metals. This work is focused on the properties of the spent LIBs powder, which is a postproduct of the proposed organic leaching process and is presented as a source of nanocarbons with a unique structure. Furthermore, attention is paid to revealing the properties of the carbon component that can find a second life in other applications like photocatalysis or sorbents. Raman spectroscopy is used for the characterization of graphitic carbon. Scanning electron microscopy images are numerically quantitatively analyzed to provide additional parameters (for instance, the total length of edges) about the structure of materials, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) further check their composition.

pdf 7791
36. Syvorotka I.I., Sugak D., Yakhnevych U., Buryy O., Włodarczyk D., Pieniążek A., Zhydachevskyy Y., Levintant-Zayonts N., Savytskyy H., Bonchyk O., Ubizskii S., Suchocki A., Investigation of the interface of Y3Fe5O12/Gd3Ga5O12 structure obtained by the liquid phase epitaxy, Crystal Research and Technology, ISSN: 1521-4079, DOI: 10.1002/crat.202100180, No.2100180, pp.1-10, 2022nota 7737

Abstract:
The changes in the optical, structural, mechanical properties, and chemical composition of Y3Fe5O12/Gd3Ga5O12 (YIG/GGG) single crystal structures grown by liquid phase epitaxy, particularly at the interface between the film (Y3Fe5O12) and the substrate (Gd3Ga5O12), are studied. Different complementary techniques, including optical microscopy, local spectrophotometry, electron probe microanalysis, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and nanohardness analysis are used. The main finding of the study is an experimental approach, in which the probe of the measuring device (light beam, electron beam, nanoindenter) is directed to the surface of the studied sample in a direction perpendicular to the direction of structure growth, and the surface is scanned along this direction. It allows to obtain the profiles of changes in refractive properties, nanohardness, optical absorption, chemical composition, and intensity of phonon spectrum bands at the transition from the GGG to YIG. It is established that the lengths of the scanning intervals, at which the changes of various properties of a specimen occur, differ significantly. The obtained results are affected by the size of the probes and by the sensitivities of both the particular measuring method and the particular physical property of the material to changes in the chemical composition and crystalline structure of the sample.

Keywords:
electron probe microanalysis, gadolinium gallium garnet, interface, nanohardness, Raman scattering, spectrophotometry, yttrium iron garnet

no pdf 7737
37. Byra M., Dobruch-Sobczak K., Piotrzkowska-Wróblewska H., Klimonda Z., Litniewski J., Explaining a deep learning based breast ultrasound image classifier with saliency maps, Journal of Ultrasonography, ISSN: 2084-8404, DOI: 10.15557/JoU.2022.0013, Vol.22, pp.e70-e75, 2022nota 7759

Abstract:
Aim of the study: Deep neural networks have achieved good performance in breast mass classification in ultrasound imaging. However, their usage in clinical practice is still lim¬ited due to the lack of explainability of decisions conducted by the networks. In this study, to address the explainability problem, we generated saliency maps indicating ultrasound image regions important for the network’s classification decisions. Material and methods: Ultrasound images were collected from 272 breast masses, including 123 malignant and 149 benign. Transfer learning was applied to develop a deep network for breast mass clas¬sification. Next, the class activation mapping technique was used to generate saliency maps for each image. Breast mass images were divided into three regions: the breast mass region, the peritumoral region surrounding the breast mass, and the region below the breast mass. The pointing game metric was used to quantitatively assess the overlap between the saliency maps and the three selected US image regions. Results: Deep learning classifier achieved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, accuracy, sensitivity, and specific¬ity of 0.887, 0.835, 0.801, and 0.868, respectively. In the case of the correctly classified test US images, analysis of the saliency maps revealed that the decisions of the network could be associated with the three selected regions in 71% of cases. Conclusions: Our study is an important step toward better understanding of deep learning models developed for breast mass diagnosis. We demonstrated that the decisions made by the network can be related to the appearance of certain tissue regions in breast mass US images.

Keywords:
deep learning, breast mass diagnosis, attention maps, explainability

pdf 7759
38. Piotrzkowska-Wróblewska H., Dobruch-Sobczak K., Litniewski J., Quantitative ultrasonography as a tool for the evaluation of breast tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, Journal of Ultrasonography, ISSN: 2084-8404, DOI: 10.15557/JoU.2022.0015, Vol.22, pp.e86-e92, 2022nota 7773

Abstract:
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is increasingly becoming the first treatment step in breast cancer. Despite the enormous advantages of this therapy, it is a method characterized by a high level of toxicity and thus carries a huge burden for the patient. Therefore, it is highly desirable to begin monitoring the patient’s response to treatment at an earlier stage. Currently, apart from traditional imaging methods, a completely new technique (in the context of monitoring the outcomes of chemotherapy), called quantitative ultrasound, is gaining popularity. It is a method based on the exact same ultrasound echoes as in traditional ultrasound imaging. The innovative approach of the method is that these echoes are not used for visualization but to characterize the condition of the tissue by parameterizing it with the aid of ultrasound biomarkers. The biomarkers make it possible to assess the state of the tissue at the microscopic level, and thus evaluate changes occurring in the tissue under the influence of treatment at a very early treatment stage. The present paper aims to familiarize the reader with the physical foundations of this method as well as present the latest results of related research.

Keywords:
quantitative ultrasound; breast cancer; neoadjuvant chemotherapy

pdf 7773
39. Osial M., Pręgowska A., Wilczewski S., Urbańska W., Giersig M., Waste Management for Green Concrete Solutions: A Concise Critical Review, Recycling, ISSN: 2313-4321, DOI: 10.3390/recycling7030037, Vol.7, No.3, pp.37-1-23, 2022nota 7788

Abstract:
Reinforced concrete based on ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is one of the most commonly used materials in modern buildings. Due to the global growth of the building industry, concrete components have been partially or completely replaced with waste materials that can be used as binders or aggregates. Besides the ecological aspects, modern architecture widely needs materials to make the concrete durable, resisting large loads and various detrimental forces in the environment. This opens the possibilities of managing waste materials and applying them in practice. This paper presents a concise review of the green solutions for ecofriendly materials in the building industry that deal with the practical application of materials commonly treated as waste. The main emphasis was placed on their influence on the properties of the building material, optimal composition of mixtures, and discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each of the “green” additives. It turned out that some solutions are far from being ecofriendly materials, as they leech and release numerous harmful chemicals into the environment during their presence in concrete. Finally, the paper suggests a research direction for the development of an ecofriendly structural material for a sustainable future.

Keywords:
green concrete; waste management; waste as a cement filler; secondary raw materials; alternative cements

pdf 7788
40. Fura Ł., Żołek N., Kujawska T., Numerical simulations and experimental verification of the extent of HIFU-induced tissue necrosis, SPIE Medical Imaging, 2022, 2022-02-20/02-24, San Diego (US), DOI: 10.1117/12.2608140, No.12034, pp.1-5, 2022nota 7738

Abstract:
Local ultrasonic tissue ablation is induced by a rapid (<3s) rise in temperature in a small ellipsoidal volume (about 13mm3) inside the tissue to a cytotoxic level when exposed to a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) beam. The aim of this study was to develop a numerical tool to predict the location and extent of a necrotic lesion formed locally inside the ex vivo tissue as a result of exposure to a single or multiple HIFU beam, ensuring the efficacy and safety of destroying solid tumors. The proposed tool was based on modelling the non-linear propagation of acoustic waves and heat transfer in heterogeneous media using the k-wave toolbox. The wave propagation equations were solved for two-layer (water/tissue) media. The source of the acoustic waves was a spherical bowl-shaped transducer with a resonance frequency of 1.08 MHz. The distribution of heat sources was determined from the calculated acoustic pressure distribution in the HIFU beam. The obtained temperature distributions during heating and cooling allowed calculation of the thermal dose and prediction of the extent of the necrotic lesion. The obtained results of numerical simulations were compared with the experimental data from previous studies. The mean difference between the calculated and measured length or diameter of a single exposure induced necrotic lesion was approximately 1 mm. In the case of a necrotic lesion induced by multiple exposures, the mean difference between the measured and calculated cross-sectional area of the planned necrotic lesion covered with necrosis was approximately 11.2 %.

Keywords:
HIFU, modelling, numerical simulations, treatment planning, ex vivo experiments, necrotic lesions, thermal ablation, experimental verification

no pdf 7738
41. Kaczmarek A., Hoffman J., Study of the process of producing copper oxides nanoparticles by laser ablation in a liquid, EYEC'2022, 10th European Young Engineers Conference, 2022-04-04/04-06, Warszawa (PL), No.10.6, pp.89, 2022pdf 7739
42. Amorim E., Moreira R.A., Santos F.A.N., The Euler characteristic and topological phase transitions in complex systems, Journal of Physics: Complexity, ISSN: 2632-072X, DOI: 10.1088/2632-072X/ac664c, pp.1-27, 2022nota 7741

Abstract:
In this work, we use methods and concepts of applied algebraic topology to comprehensively explore the recent idea of topological phase transitions (TPT) in complex systems. TPTs are characterized by the emergence of nontrivial homology groups as a function of a threshold parameter. Under certain conditions, one can identify TPT's via the zeros of the Euler characteristic or by singularities of the Euler entropy. Recent works provide strong evidence that TPTs can be interpreted as a complex network's intrinsic fingerprint. This work illustrates this possibility by investigating some classic network and empirical protein interaction networks under a topological perspective. We first investigate TPT in protein-protein interaction networks (PPIN) using methods of topological data analysis for two variants of the Duplication-Divergence model, namely, the totally asymmetric model and the heterodimerization model. We compare our theoretical and computational results to experimental data freely available for gene co-expression networks (GCN) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as baker's yeast, as well as of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Supporting our theoretical expectations, we can detect topological phase transitions in both networks obtained according to different similarity measures. Later, we perform numerical simulations of TPTs in four classical network models: the Erdos-Renyi, the Watts-Strogatz model, the Random Geometric Graph, and the Barabasi-Albert. Finally, we discuss some perspectives and insights on the topic. Given the universality and wide use of those models across disciplines, our work indicates that TPT permeates a wide range of theoretical and empirical networks.

pdf 7741
43. Barwińska I., Kopeć M., Łazińska M., Brodecki A., Durejko T., Kowalewski Z.L., Zastosowanie systemu LENS w celu regeneracji elementów wykonanych ze stopu Inconel 625, Inżynieria – Spojrzenie Młodych Naukowców, 2022-04-22/04-24, Katowice - on-line (PL), pp.1-1, 2022pdf 7746
44. Kaczmarek A., Hoffman J., On the formation of carbon nanoparticles in expanding laser-induced plasma, PLASMA TECH, Plasma Processing and Technology, 2022-04-27/04-29, Barcelona (ES), pp.45, 2022nota 7749

Keywords:
nanoparticles, carbon dots, laser ablation, nucleation, ion-induced nucleation

pdf 7749
45. Psiuk R., Wiśniewska M., Garbiec D., Mościcki T., Properties of coatings and SPS sinters made of tungsten diboride alloyed with Ti, Cr, Mo, Re and Zr, PLASMA TECH, Plasma Processing and Technology, 2022-04-27/04-29, Barcelona (ES), pp.15, 2022nota 7750

Keywords:
tungsten boride, superhard materials, spark plasma sintering SPS, magnetron sputtering

pdf 7750
46. Dubey V.P., Kopeć M., Kowalewski Z.L., Yield Surface Identification of Technically Pure Titanium Alloy and Its Evolution Reflecting Deformation History Under Complex Loadings, ICMPMA, International Conference on Materials: Properties, Measurements, and Application, 2022-05-09/05-13, Kollam (IN), pp.1, 2022nota 7753

Keywords:
yield surface, pre-deformation, plastic anisotropy, cycle loading

pdf 7753
47. Marek-Urban P.H., Kuklewska A., Zaszczyńska A., Sajkiewicz P., Durka K., Materiały polimerowe zawierające kompleksy boroorganiczne do zastosowań w fotokatalizie heterofazowej, VII Ogólnopolskie Seminarium Postępy w Chemii Boru, 2022-05-03/05-05, Radziejowice (PL), pp.12, 2022pdf 7767
48. Dubey V.P., Kopeć M., Kowalewski Z.L., The Effect of Predeformation History Under Complex Loading on the Yield Surface Evolution of Titanium Alloy: An Experimental Investigation, IUTAM Symposium, IUTAM Symposium on Enhancing Material Performance by Exploiting Instabilities and Damage Evolution, 2022-06-05/06-10, Warszawa (PL), pp.1, 2022pdf 7770
49. Fura Ł., Żołek N., Kujawska T., Numerical simulations and experimental verification of the extent of HIFU-induced necrotic lesions, ISTU 2022, The 21st Annual International Symposium on Therapeutic Ultrasound, 2022-06-07/06-10, University of Toronto (CA), pp.1, 2022pdf 7772
50. Kowalewski Z.L., Kopeć M., Ustrzycka A., Advances in Experimental Mechanics Related to Novel Materials Tested under Monotonic and Cyclic Loading Conditions, EAN, 60th Annual International Conference on Experimental Stress Analysis, 2022-06-07/06-09, Praha (CZ), pp.1-13, 2022nota 7776

Abstract:
This paper presents several attempts to use novel optical techniques for damage evaluation of materials subjected to either monotonic or cyclic loading and its monitoring on specimens made of the nickel super-alloy and power engineering steel. Effectiveness in damage analysis of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) is compared.

Keywords:
fatigue, damage, optical full-field methods

pdf 7776
51. Jankowski Ł., Popławski B., Ostrowski M., Jedlińska A., Mikułowski G., Błachowski B., Pisarski D., Wiszowaty R., Mróz A., Holnicki-Szulc J., Semi-active damping of structural vibrations using controllable truss-frame nodes, 8WCSCM, 8th World Conference on Structural Control and Monitoring, 2022-06-05/06-08, Orlando, Florida (US), pp.1, 2022nota 7784

Abstract:
This contribution reviews a recently proposed semi-active control approach based on the Prestress-Accumulation Release strategy, which aims at damping of structural vibrations by promoting vibration energy transfer from lower- into higher-order modes that have significant material damping. Unlike typical semi-active control, which focuses on local dissipation in actuators, the aim is to trigger natural global damping mechanisms. The actuators are controllable truss-frame nodes: lockable hinges that can change their mode of operation from a frame node (locked hinge) into truss node (free rotation). Sudden removal of such a kinematic constraint releases the accumulated bending energy into high-frequency quickly damped local vibrations. Two formulations are reviewed: decentralized with local-only feedback, and global, which aims at a targeted energy transfer between specific modes. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness using free, forced harmonic and random vibrations.

pdf 7784
52. Hou J., Xu D., Zhang Q., Liu Y., Jankowski Ł., Extraction of Single-Mode Free Responses by the Constrained Mode Decomposition Method, EWSHM 2022, 10th European Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, 2022-07-04/07-07, Palermo (IT), DOI: 10.1007/978-3-031-07258-1_111, Vol.1, pp.1107-1115, 2022nota 7789

Abstract:
This contribution presents, discusses and illustrates the constrained mode decomposition (CMD) method. The CMD is a recently proposed method that extracts single mode components from measured multimodal free structural responses. These components can be then processed, in time domain or in frequency domain, for identification of modal parameters, and ultimately, for structural health monitoring. The aim of the CMD is thus similar to the aims of other well-known mode decomposition approaches, such as the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) or the variational mode decomposition (VMD). However, in contrast to the EMD, the CMD-processed responses retain the characteristics of the free response (satisfy the equation of motion of the same structure) and they have thus a clear, well-defined physical meaning. In comparison to the VMD, the formulation of the CMD is much simpler: the CMD combines linearly recorded structural responses in a way that simultaneously (1) amplifies the selected modal component and (2) constrains/suppresses other components. The amplification/suppression process is quantified in terms of the FRF peaks or, in case of closely spaced modes, in terms of FRF derivatives.

Keywords:
mode decomposition, frequency domain, linear combination, FRF peak, structural health monitoring, modal identification

no pdf 7789
53. Błachowski B., Ostrowski M., Żarski M., Wójcik B., Tauzowski P., Jankowski Ł., An Efficient Computer Vision-Based Method for Estimation of Dynamic Displacements in Spatial Truss Structures, EWSHM 2022, 10th European Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, 2022-07-04/07-07, Palermo (IT), DOI: 10.1007/978-3-031-07258-1_49, Vol.254, pp.474-484, 2022nota 7790

Abstract:
In the present study a comparison of frequently used computer vision (CV)-based methods for structural health monitoring of truss structures is shown. The attention is paid to template matching methods that can be classified into one of two groups: area-based and feature-based methods. Synthetic but realistic video is used in this study. Results of the comparison are reliable due to the fact that the exact displacements are known from the finite element model of the investigated structure. From the variety of tested CV methods, the Kanade–Lucas–Tomasi algorithm with FREAK-based repetitive correction outperforms the remaining tested methods in terms of the computation time with a negligibly greater estimation error.

Keywords:
computer vision, structural health monitoring, physics-based graphics models (PBGM), IC-SHM 2021, benchmark test

no pdf 7790
54. Ostrowski M., Błachowski B., Świercz A., Tauzowski P., Olaszek P., Jankowski Ł., Efficient Method for Optimal Sensor Placement in Large-scale Structures, CIMTEC 2022, 15th International Conference on Modern Materials and Technologies - 9th Forum on New Materials, 2022-06-25/06-29, Perugia (IT), pp.1, 2022nota 7792

Abstract:
In practice, the broadly used finite element (FE) models can have very large number of degrees of freedom (DOFs). A small subset of DOFs representing sensor locations that provides an extremum of a selected objective function corresponding to a metric of the expected measurement accuracy is sought. Thus, optimal sensor placement is characterized by its complex combinatorial nature and tremendous computational effort required. With the aid of convex relaxation, the proposed approach allows one to transform the original combinatorial problem into its continuous counterpart, which requires smaller computational effort – by a few orders of magnitude than famous Effective Independence method. The effectiveness of the method has been demonstrated using an example of a FE model of an existing railway bridge. First, the FE model has been calibrated with measured responses of the bridge under the moving load of a passing train. Then, sensor layout has been obtained in such a way that it optimises the estimate of modal coordinates of the mode shapes participating most significantly in the measured structural response. The authors acknowledge the support of the National Science Centre, Poland (grant agreement 2018/31/B/ST8/03152).

pdf 7792
55. Ostrowski M., Błachowski B., Żarski M., Wójcik B., Tauzowski P., Jankowski Ł., Computer vision-based vibration measurement, Modelling in Mechanics 2022, 2022-05-26/05-27, Rožnov pod Radhoštěm (CZ), pp.1-6, 2022nota 7793

Abstract:
In the present study a benchmark test of selected methods of template matching-bated methods for computer vision-based object tracking is performed. The attention is paid to compare these methods in terms of estimation of nodal displacements in a flexible truss structure, aiming at assessment of their reliability in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) applications. Thanks to the use of synthetic but realistic videos generated with the aid of physics-based graphics models (PBGM), exact displacement of tracked structural nodes are known. Therefore, reliable assessment of the accuracy of the examined methods is possible.

Keywords:
computer vision, structural health monitoring, physics-based graphics models (PBGM)

no pdf 7793

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