Institute of Fundamental Technological Research
Polish Academy of Sciences

Latest Publications

Publications reported by three months

1. Jankowski Ł., Pisarski D., Konowrocki R., Popławski B., Faraj R., Efficient real-time positioning using Bayesian analysis and magnetic anomaly field, MEASUREMENT, ISSN: 0263-2241, DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2024.114738, Vol.233, pp.114738-1-114738-13, 2024nota 8889

Despite the prevalence of well-established and explored navigation systems, alternative localization methods are currently the focus of intensive research. This interest is driven by geopolitical challenges and increasingly sophisticated applications of mobile robots and uncrewed aerial vehicles. This study investigates the problem of real-time positioning in GPS-denied environments. Based on the mapped magnetic anomaly field and using Bayesian formalism for data fusion, the localization obtained from embedded sensors is corrected to reduce cumulative errors. The proposed method has minimal computational cost and a minimal number of tunable parameters. The paper introduces it and demonstrates its effectiveness in a laboratory study. Experimental tests, using a system equipped with an Inertial Measurement Unit, demonstrated a significant reduction in localization uncertainty. The improvement was especially notable in areas with large, smooth variations in the magnetic field. Finally, the accuracy of the method is analyzed, and its performance is compared to a particle filter.

Sensor fusion, Bayesian inference, Real-time positioning, Magnetic anomaly, Intelligent navigation system

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2. Golasiński K., Maj M., Tasaki W., Pieczyska E.A., Kim H., Full-Field Deformation Study of Ti–25Nb, Ti–25Nb–0.3O and Ti–25Nb–0.7O Shape Memory Alloys During Tension Using Digital Image Correlation, METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A-PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, ISSN: 1073-5623, DOI: 10.1007/s11661-024-07414-8, pp.1-10, 2024nota 8894

A Ti–25Nb shape memory alloy (SMA) exhibits shape memory effect associated with stress-induced martensitic transformation from β to α″ phase. Addition of oxygen stabilizes the β phase and changes stress–strain response. Oxygen-added Ti–25Nb SMAs show a more distinct superelastic behavior. In this work, digital image correlation (DIC) was applied to investigate for the first time full-field deformation of Ti–25Nb, Ti–25Nb–0.3O and Ti–25Nb–0.7O (at. pct) SMAs. The specimens were subjected to loading–unloading tensile tests to study local and global mechanical characteristics related to activity of particular deformation mechanisms of the SMAs. Strain and strain rate fields were quantitatively compared at selected stages of each SMA’s deformation. It was found that the Ti–25Nb SMA exhibits a macroscopically localized Lüders-type deformation associated with the stress-induced phase transformation, whereas Ti–25Nb–0.3O and Ti–25Nb–0.7O SMAs show more discrete types of deformation related to activity of interstitial oxygen atoms. As a consequence, at particular stages of deformation, local values of strain rate of Ti–25Nb SMA were significantly higher than those of average strain rate. The results obtained in this paper provide a better understanding of the deformation mechanism in the oxygen-added Ti–25Nb based SMAs.

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3. Będkowski J., End to end navigation stack for nuclear power plant inspection with mobile robot, SoftwareX, ISSN: 2352-7110, DOI: 10.1016/j.softx.2024.101750, Vol.26, pp.101750-1-101750-11, 2024nota 8896

This paper describes a novel approach for nuclear facility inspection with novel automated 3D mapping system as an open source end to end navigation stack available at Incidents such as Fukushima, Majak or Chernobyl as well as the decommissioning and dismantling of old nuclear facilities (e.g. Sellafield, Asse or Murmansk) are showing great importance of the robotic technology. Rapid inspection requires reliable, accurate, precise and repeatable simultaneous localization and mapping. Proposed SLAM approach uses only non repetitive scanning pattern Lidar (Livox Mid360) and integrated inertial measurement unit. The novelty is based on feature less single core SLAM implementation. It fuses Normal Distributions Transform and motion model for simultaneous map building and current pose estimation. Motion model bounds an optimization result, thus it is stable and reliable. It requires less than 10 ms for pose update, trajectory tracking and emergency behavior. This method is a candidate for real time application since a calculation time is bounded and it uses only one core of Intel Celeron CPU G1840 2.8 GHz. It was tested both (i) during EnRicH 2023 — the European robotics hackathon, (ii) in laboratory conditions. This open source project provides also software of base station, thus it is first end to end solution available in literature.

Navigation, Inspection, Mobile robot, SLAM, Localization

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4. Kopeć M., Brodecki A., Kowalewski Z. L., Quantitative digital image correlation approach for the monitoring of fatigue damage development in 10CrMo9-10 steel in the as-received state and after extended service, MEASUREMENT, ISSN: 0263-2241, DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2024.114926, Vol.234, No.114926, pp.1-9, 2024nota 8905

In this paper, the quantitative Digital Image Correlation (DIC) approach was used to study the long-time degradation of two different states of 10CrMo9-10 (10H2M) power engineering steel. The specimens subjected to cyclic loading (R = 0) were monitored by using the DIC technique. The data obtained from DIC measurements were presented in form of strain distributions for specified, independent points within the strain gauge of specimens. Furthermore, the strain profiles were extracted for the particular stages of fatigue damage development (FDD). The presented methodology provides a different approach of DIC application, in which, the data could be treated more quantitative than qualitative.

Power engineering steel , Fatigue , Damage

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5. Kondra T., Ray G., Streltsov A., Coherence Manipulation in Asymmetry and Thermodynamics, PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, ISSN: 0031-9007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.132.200201, Vol.132, pp.200201-1-200201-6, 2024nota 8906

In the classical regime, thermodynamic state transformations are governed by the free energy. This is also called as the second law of thermodynamics. Previous works showed that, access to a catalytic system allows us to restore the second law in the quantum regime when we ignore coherence. However, in the quantum regime, coherence and free energy are two independent resources. Therefore, coherence places additional nontrivial restrictions on the state transformations that remain elusive. In order to close this gap, we isolate and study the nature of coherence, i.e., we assume access to a source of free energy. We show that allowing catalysis along with a source of free energy allows us to amplify any quantum coherence present in the quantum state arbitrarily. Additionally, any correlations between the system and the catalyst can be suppressed arbitrarily. Therefore, our results provide a key step in formulating a fully general law of quantum thermodynamics.

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6. Karwat P., Piotrzkowska-Wróblewska H. E., Klimonda Z., Dobruch-Sobczak K., Litniewski J., Monitoring Breast Cancer Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Using Probability Maps Derived From Quantitative Ultrasound Parametric Images, Ieee Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, ISSN: 0018-9294, DOI: 10.1109/TBME.2024.3383920, Vol.Apr, No.1, pp.1-11, 2024nota 8911

Objective: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is widely used in the treatment of breast cancer. However, to date, there are no fully reliable, non-invasive methods for monitoring NAC. In this article, we propose a new method for classifying NAC-responsive and unresponsive tumors using quantitative ultrasound. Methods: The study used ultrasound data collected from breast tumors treated with NAC. The proposed method is based on the hypothesis that areas that characterize the effect of therapy particularly well can be found. For this purpose, parametric images of texture features calculated from tumor images were converted into NAC response probability maps, and areas with a probability above 0.5 were used for classification. Results: The results obtained after the third cycle of NAC show that the classification of tumors using the traditional method (AUC = 0.81 - 0.88) can be significantly improved thanks to the proposed new approach (AUC = 0.84–0.94). This improvement is achieved over a wide range of cutoff values (0.2-0.7), and the probability maps obtained from different quantitative parameters correlate well. Conclusion: The results suggest that there are tumor areas that are particularly well suited to assessing response to NAC. Significance: The proposed approach to monitoring the effects of NAC not only leads to a better classification of responses, but also may contribute to a better understanding of the microstructure of neoplastic tumors observed in an ultrasound examination.

breast cancer, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, quantitative ultrasound, treatment monitoring.

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7. Tauzowski P., Błachowski B.D., Zawidzka E., Zawidzki M., MorphoGen: Topology optimization software for Extremely Modular Systems, SoftwareX, ISSN: 2352-7110, DOI: 10.1016/j.softx.2024.101797, Vol.27, pp.1-10, 2024nota 8954

This paper introduces MorphoGen — an integrated reliability-based topology optimization and nonlinear finite element analysis system for 2D and 3D domains. The system’s key innovation is its seamless prototyping of scientific formulations for computational problems in topology optimization. Its layered and object-oriented architecture, based on the template method design pattern, facilitates effortless modifications of algorithms and the introduction of new types of finite elements, materials, and analyses. MorphoGen also offers flexible handling of objective functions and constraints during topological optimization, enhancing its adaptability. It empowers researchers and practitioners to explore a wide range of engineering challenges, fostering a deeper understanding of complex structural behaviors and efficient design solutions. There are many topology optimization software and open source codes, especially based on the classical SIMP method. Unlike these codes our package is freely distributed among users and since it is distributed on the MIT licence, which allows for its easy modification depending on the particular needs of the users. For this purpose, we use the topology optimization algorithm proposed for the first time in our previous paper (Blachowski et al., 2020). The algorithm is based on a fully stress design-based optimality criteria and can be applied for topology optimization of either linearly elastic and elastoplastic structures. Additionally, the novelty of the proposed system is related to its ability of solving optimal topology under various constraints such as displacement, stresses and fatigue in both deterministic and probabilistic cases. Another application are modular structures, which reduce design complexity and manufacturing costs as well as rapid reconfiguration. However, in the realm of structural optimization, modular systems are more challenging due to various: modes of operation of the modules and the stresses configurations. Moreover, this area of research is dramatically less explored. Thus the effectiveness of MorphoGen for structural engineering is demonstrated with examples of topological shape optimization of two Extremely Modular Systems: a planar robotic manipulator Arm-Z and spatial free-form ramp Truss-Z.

Stress Constrained Topology Optimizatio,Extremely Modular System,Object-oriented software architecture,MATLAB-based array programming,First Order Reliability Analysis

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8. Podulka P., Macek W., Zima B., Kopeć M., Ricardo B., Achtelik H., Fracture surface topography measurements analysis of low-alloyed corrosion resistant steel after bending-torsion fatigue tests, Precision Engineering, ISSN: 1873-2372, DOI: 10.1016/j.precisioneng.2024.07.002, pp.1-34, 2024nota 8967

In this paper, an assessment of a topography measurement method for fracture surfaces of 10HNAP steel after bending-torsion fatigue tests was performed. Surface roughness was measured by using a non-contact Focus Variation Microscopy (FVM) technique in which the non-measured points (NMPs) and outliers (spikes) were removed by the application of general methods. The results revealed, that the optical measurement method introduced variations in the high-frequency errors, considered as noise within the selected bandwidth. Therefore, the minimization of the high-frequency noise (HFN) was proposed based on an extensive examination of ISO 25178 roughness parameters. Additionally, a general S-filter was applied, as recommended by international standards and commercial software. It was used to identify and remove noise from the measured data after pre-processing. Consequently, levelling and eliminating of NMPs and spikes was successfully performed. Subsequently, the results obtained by using various filters were compared to further assess the impact of different filtration bandwidths. Finally, the proposed procedure was validated by implementing different general functions, such as autocorrelation (ACF), power spectral densities (PSD), and texture direction (TD). It was concluded, that coupled characteristics, including profile and areal measurements, should be studied simultaneously since they are necessary to analyze the fracture surfaces comprehensively.

bending-torsion fatigue ,surface topography ,roughness ,non-measured points ,outliers ,high-frequency noise,measurement errors

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9. Birhanu Bayissa G., Teshome Tufa L., Nwaji Njemuwa N., Xiaojun H., Lee J., Advances in All‑Solid‑State Lithium–Sulfur Batteries for Commercialization, Nano-Micro Letters, ISSN: 2150-5551, DOI: 10.1007/s40820-024-01385-6, Vol.16, pp.2-38, 2024nota 8892

Solid-state batteries are commonly acknowledged as the forthcoming evolution
in energy storage technologies. Recent development progress for these rechargeable
batteries has notably accelerated their trajectory toward achieving commercial
feasibility. In particular, all-solid-state lithium–sulfur batteries (ASSLSBs) that rely
on lithium–sulfur reversible redox processes exhibit immense potential as an energy
storage system, surpassing conventional lithium-ion batteries. This can be attributed
predominantly to their exceptional energy density, extended operational lifespan, and
heightened safety attributes. Despite these advantages, the adoption of ASSLSBs in the
commercial sector has been sluggish. To expedite research and development in this particular
area, this article provides a thorough review of the current state of ASSLSBs. We
delve into an in-depth analysis of the rationale behind transitioning to ASSLSBs, explore
the fundamental scientific principles involved, and provide a comprehensive evaluation
of the main challenges faced by ASSLSBs. We suggest that future research in this field
should prioritize plummeting the presence of inactive substances, adopting electrodes with optimum performance, minimizing interfacial
resistance, and designing a scalable fabrication approach to facilitate the commercialization of ASSLSBs

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10. Zaszczyńska A., Gradys A.D., Ziemiecka A., Szewczyk P., Tymkiewicz R., Lewandowska-Szumieł M., Stachewicz U., Sajkiewicz P.Ł., Enhanced Electroactive Phases of Poly(vinylidene Fluoride) Fibers for Tissue Engineering Applications, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN: 1422-0067, DOI: 10.3390/ijms25094980, Vol.25, No.9, pp.4980-1-25, 2024nota 8895

Nanofibrous materials generated through electrospinning have gained significant attention in tissue regeneration, particularly in the domain of bone reconstruction. There is high interest in designing a material resembling bone tissue, and many scientists are trying to create materials applicable to bone tissue engineering with piezoelectricity similar to bone. One of the prospective candidates is highly piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), which was used for fibrous scaffold formation by electrospinning. In this study, we focused on the effect of PVDF molecular weight (180,000 g/mol and 530,000 g/mol) and process parameters, such as the rotational speed of the collector, applied voltage, and solution flow rate on the properties of the final scaffold. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy allows for determining the effect of molecular weight and processing parameters on the content of the electroactive phases. It can be concluded that the higher molecular weight of the PVDF and higher collector rotational speed increase nanofibers’ diameter, electroactive phase content, and piezoelectric coefficient. Various electrospinning parameters showed changes in electroactive phase content with the maximum at the applied voltage of 22 kV and flow rate of 0.8 mL/h. Moreover, the cytocompatibility of the scaffolds was confirmed in the culture of human adipose-derived stromal cells with known potential for osteogenic differentiation. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that PVDF scaffolds may be taken into account as a tool in bone tissue engineering and are worth further investigation.

scaffolds,polymers,piezoelectricity,bone tissue engineering,nanofibers,regenerative medicine

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11. James B., Stupkiewicz S., Indentation of a thin incompressible layer with finite friction, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOLIDS AND STRUCTURES, ISSN: 0020-7683, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2024.112868, Vol.298, pp.112868-1-8, 2024nota 8899

If a thin layer of an incompressible elastic material is pressed between two plane surfaces, the effective stiffness is very sensitive to the presence of frictional slip. This effect is investigated using a low-order polynomial representation of the through-thickness displacement profile. Results show good agreement with finite element studies and also show that the stiffness is significantly affected by that part of the layer [if any] outside the loaded region. The same result is then used in convolution to approximate the load-displacement response for a convex indenter.

Thin elastic layer,Coulomb friction,Contact mechanics

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12. Żyłka A., Dobruch-Sobczak K., Piotrzkowska-Wróblewska H. E., Jędrzejczyk M., Bakuła-Zalewska E., Góralski P., Gałczyński P., Dedecjusz M., The Utility of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) in Assessing the Risk of Malignancy in Thyroid Nodules, Cancers, ISSN: 2072-6694, DOI: 10.3390/cancers16101911, Vol.16, No.10, pp.1-23, 2024nota 8901

Ultrasonography is a basic tool used in the evaluation of thyroid nodules, but there is no single feature of this method which predicts malignancy with statistical significance. The aim of the study is to assess the usefulness of contrast enhanced-ultrasound (CEUS) in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules. The highest value of the study results from the multiparameter approach to the evaluation of thyroid lesions in the light of new diagnostics methods and assessment of the unique combinations of both B-mode and CEUS features as predictors of thyroid cancers. Moreover, several qualitative contrast features predicting benign lesions were evaluated. The preliminary results indicate that CEUS is a useful tool in assessing the risk of malignancy of thyroid lesions. The combination of the qualitative enhancement parameters and B-mode sonographic features significantly increases the method’s usefulness. Further studies should be performed to introduce CEUS patterns in the diagnostic algorithm of thyroid nodules.

thyroid cancer, cancer screening, clinical trial, contrast-enhanced ultrasound, thyroid lesion

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13. Darban H., Luciano R., Basista M. A., Modeling frequency shifts in small-scale beams with multiple eccentric masses, Thin-Walled Structures, ISSN: 0263-8231, DOI: 10.1016/j.tws.2024.112005, Vol.201, No.Part A, pp.112005-1-112005-19, 2024nota 8910

Studying the dynamics of small-scale beams with attached particles is crucial for sensing applications in various fields, such as bioscience, material science, energy storage devices, and environmental monitoring. Here, a stress-driven nonlocal model is presented for the free transverse vibration of small-scale beams carrying multiple masses taking into account the eccentricity of the masses relative to the beam axis. The results show excellent agreement with the experimental and numerical data in the literature. New insights into the frequency shifts and mode shapes of the first four vibrational modes of stress-driven nonlocal beams with up to three attached particles are presented. The study investigates the inverse problem of detecting the location and mass of an attached particle based on natural frequency shifts. The knowledge acquired from the present study provides valuable guidance for the design and analysis of ultrasensitive mechanical mass sensors.

Size effect, Mass sensor, Micro- and nanobeam, Nonlocal, Inverse problem

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14. Nthunya Lebea N., Kok Chung C., Soon Onn L., Woei Jye L., Eduardo Alberto L., Lucy Mar C., Shirazi Mohammad Mahdi A., Aamer A., Mamba Bhekie B., Osial M., Pietrzyk-Thel P., Pręgowska A., Mahlangu Oranso T., Progress in membrane distillation processes for dye wastewater treatment: A review, Chemosphere, ISSN: 0045-6535, DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2024.142347, pp.1-104, 2024nota 8912

Textile and cosmetic industries generate large amounts of dye effluents requiring treatment before discharge. This wastewater contains high levels of reactive dyes, low to none-biodegradable materials and chemical residues. Technically, dye wastewater is characterised by high chemical and biological oxygen demand. Biological, physical and pressure-driven membrane processes have been extensively used in textile wastewater treatment plants. However, these technologies are characterised by process complexity and are often costly. Also, process efficiency is not achieved in cost-effective biochemical and physical treatment processes. Membrane distillation (MD) emerged as a promising technology harnessing challenges faced by pressure-driven membrane processes. To ensure high cost-effectiveness, the MD can be operated by solar energy or low-grade waste heat. Herein, the MD purification of dye wastewater is comprehensively and yet concisely discussed. This involved research advancement in MD processes towards removal of dyes from industrial effluents. Also, challenges faced by this process with a specific focus on fouling are reviewed. Current literature mainly tested MD setups in the laboratory scale suggesting a deep need of further optimization of membrane and module designs in near future, especially for textile wastewater treatment. There is a need to deliver customized high-porosity hydrophobic membrane design with the appropriate thickness and module configuration to reduce concentration and temperature polarization. Also, energy loss should be minimized while increasing dye rejection and permeate flux. Although laboratory experiments remain pivotal in optimizing the MD process for treating dye wastewater, their time-intensive nature poses a challenge. Given the multitude of parameters involved in MD process optimization, artificial intelligence (AI) methodologies present a promising avenue for assistance. Thus, AI-driven algorithms have the potential to enhance overall process efficiency, cutting down on time, fine-tuning parameters, and driving cost reductions. However, achieving an optimal balance between efficiency enhancements and financial outlays is a complex process. Finally, this paper suggests a research direction for the development of effective synthetic and natural dye removal from industrially discharged wastewater.

Energy Consumption,Dye Effluent,Fouling,Heat and Mass Transfer,Membrane and Module Design

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15. Nwaji N., Hyojin K., Birhanu Bayissa G., Osial M., Vapaavuori J., Lee J., Giersig M., A Stable Perovskite Sensitized Photonic Crystal P, ChemSusChem, ISSN: 1864-5631, DOI: 10.1002/cssc.202400395, pp.2-9, 2024nota 8930

The slow photon effect in inverse opal photonic crystals
represents a promising approach to manipulate the interactions
between light and matter through the design of material
structures. This study introduces a novel ordered inverse opal
photonic crystal (IOPC) sensitized with perovskite quantum dots
(PQDs), demonstrating its efficacy for efficient visible-lightdriven
H2 generation via water splitting. The rational structural
design contributes to enhanced light harvesting. The sensitization
of the IOPC with PQDs improves optical response performance
and enhances photocatalytic H2 generation under visible
light irradiation compared to the IOPC alone. The designed
photoanode exhibits a photocurrent density of 3.42 mAcm

Hydrogen production, inverse opals, perovskite, quantum dots, photocatalysts, photonic crystals

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16. Nowak M., Szeptyński P., Musiał S., Maj M., Sub‑global equilibrium method for identifcation of elastic parameters based on digital image correlation results, ARCHIVES OF CIVIL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, ISSN: 1644-9665, DOI: 10.1007/s43452-024-00979-6, Vol.24, pp.169-190, 2024nota 8945

In this work, a new, simple method is presented, which enables identifcation of material properties of solids basing on the digital image correlation (DIC) measurements. It may be considered as a simplifed alternative of low computational complexity for the well-known fnite element model updating (FEMU) method and virtual felds method (VFM). The idea of the introduced sub-global equilibrium (SGE) method is to utilize the fundamental concept and defnition of internal forces and its equilibrium with appropriate set of external forces. This makes the method universal for the use in the description of a great variety of continua. The objective function is the measure of imbalance, namely the sum of squares of residua of equilibrium equations of external forces and internal forces determined for fnite-sized part of the sample. It is then minimized with the use of the Nelder–Mead downhill simplex algorithm. The efciency of the proposed SGE method is shown for two types of materials: 310 S austenitic steel and carbon-fber-reinforced polymer (CFRP). The proposed method was also verifed based on FE analysis showing error estimation.

Identifcation of material constant,Digital image correlation,Nelder–Mead downhill simplex algorithm,Finite element analysis,Optimization,Linear elasticity

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17. Fura , Tymkiewicz R., Kujawska T., Numerical studies on shortening the duration of HIFU ablation therapy and their experimental validation, Ultrasonics, ISSN: 0041-624X, DOI: 10.1016/j.ultras.2024.107371, Vol.142, No.107371, pp.1-15, 2024nota 8946

High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) is used in clinical practice for thermal ablation of malignant and benign solid tumors located in various organs. One of the reason limiting the wider use of this technology is the long treatment time resulting from i.a. the large difference between the size of the focal volume of the heating beam and the size of the tumor. Therefore, the treatment of large tumors requires scanning their volume with a sequence of single heating beams, the focus of which is moved in the focal plane along a specific trajectory with specific time and distance interval between sonications. To avoid an undesirable increase in the temperature of healthy tissues surrounding the tumor during scanning, the acoustic power and exposure time of each HIFU beam as well as the time intervals between sonications should be selected in such a way as to cover the entire volume of the tumor with necrosis as quickly as possible. This would reduce the costs of treatment. The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the hypothesis that selecting the average acoustic power and exposure time for each individual heating beam, as well as the temporal intervals between sonications, can significantly shorten treatment time. Using 3D numerical simulations, the dependence of the duration of treatment of a tumor with a diameter of 5 mm or 9 mm (requiring multiple exposure to the HIFU beam) on the sonication parameters (acoustic power, exposure time) of each single beam capable of delivering the threshold thermal dose (CEM43 = 240 min) to the treated tissue volume was examined. The treatment duration was determined as the sum of exposure times to individual beams and time intervals between sonications. The tumor was located inside the ex vivo tissue sample at a depth of 12.6 mm. The thickness of the water layer between the HIFU transducer and the tissue was 50 mm. The sonication and scanning parameters selected using the developed algorithm shortened the duration of the ablation procedure by almost 14 times for a 5-mm tumor and 20 times for a 9-mm tumor compared to the duration of the same ablation plan when a HIFU beam was used of a constant acoustic power, constant exposure time (3 s) and constant long time intervals (120 s) between sonications. Results of calculations of the location and size of the necrotic lesion formed were experimentally verified on ex vivo pork loin samples, showing good agreement between them. In this way, it was proven that the proper selection of sonication and scanning parameters for each HIFU beam allows to significantly shorten the time of HIFU therapy.

HIFU ablation planning,HIFU therapy duration shortening,Tissue ex vivo,k-wave model,Experimental verification of therapy accuracy,Numerical simulation

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18. Makowska K., Kowalewski Z.L., Analysis of the Microstructure and Hardness of Flake Graphite Cast Iron Using the Barkhausen Noise Method and Conventional Techniques, JOURNAL OF NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION, ISSN: 0195-9298, DOI: 10.1007/s10921-024-01065-w, Vol.43, No.54, pp.1-12, 2024nota 8890

The new brake disc was evaluated for microstructure and hardness by the conventional destructive tests and non-destructive Barkhausen noise method (BNM). Ten non-destructive measurements were carried out in different areas of a brake disc, which were then cut out and made into metallographic test samples. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of graphite precipitates was performed to assess their volume in material matrix, anisotropy and size. Subsequently, graphs showing the relationships between selected stereological parameters of graphite precipitates and parameters determined from the RMS envelope of Barkhausen noise were elucidated. Similar relationships between hardness and parameters coming from non-destructive tests were carried out. Magnetic parameters that specified the size of a graphite precipitate was selected. In addition, repeatability studies using BNM were carried out in the areas of the material with the smallest and largest average size of graphite precipitates. A linear relationship between amplitude of BN and length of graphite flakes was found. The paper presents the possibilities of assessing the volume and size of graphite precipitates, as well as cast iron hardness using BNM.

Flake cast iron,Barkhausen noise,Brake disc,Non-destructive testing,Hardness

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19. Haponova O., Tarelnyk V., Mościcki T. P., Tarelnyk N., Półrolniczak J., Myslyvchenko O., Adamczyk-Cieślak B., Sulej-Chojnacka J., Investigation of the Structure and Properties of MoS2 Coatings Obtained by Electrospark Alloying, Coatings, ISSN: 2079-6412, DOI: 10.3390/coatings14050563, Vol.14, No.563, pp.1-15, 2024nota 8893

Electrospark coatings alloyed with MoS2 have been studied. The coatings were obtained by the following two strategies: the first consisted of pre-applying molybdenum disulfide to the treated surface and alloying with a molybdenum electrode (Mo + MoS2 coating); the second consisted of applying a paste with a sulfur content of 33.3% to the treated surface and alloying with a molybdenum electrode (Mo + S coating). The structure, phase composition, and tribological properties of the coatings were investigated. The coatings have a complex structure consisting of an upper soft layer, a hardened white layer, a diffusion zone, and a substrate. Element analysis and cross-sectional hardness changes indicated that element diffusion occurred at the coating/substrate interface. The phase composition of the coatings is represented by BCC and FCC solid solutions on Fe, and MoS2 is also detected. In Mo + S coatings, the molybdenum disulfide on the surface is about 8%; in Mo + MoS2 coatings, it is 27%–46%. The obtained coatings show very good tribological properties compared to molybdenum ESA coatings. The frictional forces and coefficients are reduced by a factor of 10 and 40, depending on the test conditions.

electrospark alloying, coating, structure, molybdenum disulfide, tribological properties, energy conservation

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20. Kopeć M., Recent Advances in the Deposition of Aluminide Coatings on Nickel-Based Superalloys: A Synthetic Review (2019–2023), Coatings, ISSN: 2079-6412, DOI: 10.3390/coatings14050630, Vol.14, No.630, pp.1-15, 2024nota 8900

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are widely used to improve the oxidation resistance and high-temperature performance of nickel-based superalloys operating in aggressive environments. Among the TBCs, aluminide coatings (ACs) are commonly utilized to protect the structural parts of jet engines against high-temperature oxidation and corrosion. They can be deposited by differ-ent techniques, including pack cementation (PC), slurry aluminizing or chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Although the mentioned deposition techniques have been known for years, the constant developments in materials sciences and processing stimulates progress in terms of ACs. There-fore, this review paper aims to summarize recent advances in the AC field that have been report-ed between 2019 and 2023. The review focuses on recent advances involving improved corrosion resistance in salty environments as well as against high temperatures ranging between 1000 °C and 1200 °C under both continuous isothermal high-temperature exposure for up to 1000 h and cyclic oxidation resulting from AC application. Additionally, the beneficial effects of enhanced mechanical properties, including hardness, fatigue performance and wear, are discussed.

high-temperature corrosion, aggressive environment, coating deposition

pdf 8900
21. Mościcki T. P., Psiuk R., Jarząbek D. M., Ciemiorek-Bartkowska M., Kulikowski K., Jasiński J., Włoczewski M., Lewandowska-Szumieł M., Effect of titanium and deposition parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of W-Ti-B thin films deposited by High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering, SURFACE AND COATINGS TECHNOLOGY, ISSN: 0257-8972, DOI: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2024.130915, Vol.485, No.130915, pp.1-13, 2024nota 8903

Tungsten diboride alloyed with transition metals provides an opportunity to obtain exceptional mechanical, physical, and chemical properties. We report a strategy for designing and synthesizing of superhard and low-compressible ceramic thin films with increased toughness and lowered residual stresses (σ < −0.9 GPa) deposited with high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) from one target. The addition of 7–12 % titanium promotes additional strengthening mechanisms of the layers in one material, leading to the improvement of wear resistance compared to an alloyed WB2-z yet at even higher hardness 43.8 ± 2.1 GPa and nanoindentation toughness 4.9 ± 0.2 MPa√m. The compression of the micropillar shows that titanium addition changed the type of nanoindentation from cracking along the slip plane to bulging on the top of the pillar and next the crack initiation along column boundaries. The highest adhesion of the layers is obtained for addition of 7 % titanium and in all cases the wear has abrasive character. The controlled use of 200 μs pulses during synthesis with HiPIMS allows for an increase in the deposition rate and maintaining exceptional mechanical properties of the layers even at a substrate temperature of 300 °C.

Ternary transition metal diboride thin films, Mechanical properties, HiPIMS magnetron sputtering, Wear resistance and adhesion

pdf 8903
22. Halder S., Streltsov A., Banik M., Identifying the value of a random variable unambiguously: Quantum versus classical approaches , Physical Review A, ISSN: 2469-9926, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.109.052608, Vol.109, pp.052608-1-052608-11, 2024nota 8907

Quantum resources may provide an advantage over their classical counterparts. Theoretically, in certain tasks, this advantage can be very high. In this work, we construct such a task based on a game, mediated by the Referee and played between Alice and Bob. The Referee sends Alice a value of a random variable. At the same time, the Referee also sends Bob some partial information regarding that value. Here partial information can be defined in the following way. Bob gets the information of a random set that must contain the value of the variable, which is sent to Alice by the Referee, along with other value(s). Alice is not allowed to know what information is sent to Bob by the Referee. Again, Bob does not know which value of the random variable is sent to Alice. Now, the game can be won if and only if Bob can unambiguously identify the value of the variable that is sent to Alice, with some nonzero probability, no matter what information Bob receives or which value is sent to Alice. However, to help Bob, Alice sends some limited amount of information to him, based on any strategy that is fixed by Alice and Bob before the game begins. We show that if Alice sends a limited amount of classical information, then the game cannot be won, while the quantum analog of the “limited amount of classical information” is sufficient for winning the game. Thus, it establishes a quantum advantage. We further analyze several variants of the game and provide certain bounds on the success probabilities. Moreover, we establish connections between the trine ensemble, mutually unbiased bases, and the encoding-decoding strategies of those variants. We also discuss the role of quantum coherence in the present context.

pdf 8907
23. Ludovico L., Regula B., Streltsov A., No-go theorem for entanglement distillation using catalysis, Physical Review A, ISSN: 2469-9926, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.109.L050401, Vol.109, pp.L050401-1-L050401-6, 2024nota 8908

The use of ancillary quantum systems known as catalysts is known to be able to enhance the capabilities of entanglement transformations under local operations and classical communication. However, the limits of these advantages have not been determined and in particular it is not known if such assistance can overcome the known restrictions on asymptotic transformation rates—notably the existence of bound entangled (undistillable) states. Here we establish a general limitation on entanglement catalysis: we show that catalytic transformations can never allow for the distillation of entanglement from a bound entangled state with positive partial transpose, even if the catalyst may become correlated with the system of interest and even under permissive choices of free operations. This precludes the possibility that catalysis may make entanglement theory asymptotically reversible. Our methods are based on asymptotic bounds for the distillable entanglement and entanglement cost assisted by correlated catalysts.

pdf 8908
24. Jorge Luis M., Cofas Vargas L. F., Eduardo L., Jesús Antonio R., Mateo C., Patricia C., Titaux-Delgado G., Carolina Monserrath M., Andrés H., del Rio-Portilla F., García-Hernandez E., Decoding the mechanism governing the structural stability of wheat germ agglutinin and its isolated domains: A combined calorimetric, NMR, and MD simulation study, Protein Science, ISSN: 0961-8368, DOI: 10.1002/pro.5020, Vol.33, No.6, pp.e5020-1-15, 2024nota 8922

Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) demonstrates potential as an oral delivery agent owing to its selective binding to carbohydrates and its capacity to traverse biological membranes. In this study, we employed differential scanning calorimetry and molecular dynamics simulations to comprehensively characterize the thermal unfolding process of both the complete lectin and its four isolated domains. Furthermore, we present the nuclear magnetic resonance structures of three domains that were previously lacking experimental structures in their isolated forms. Our results provide a collective understanding of the energetic and structural factors governing the intricate unfolding mechanism of the complete agglutinin, shedding light on the specific role played by each domain in this process. The analysis revealed negligible interdomain cooperativity, highlighting instead significant coupling between dimer dissociation and the unfolding of the more labile domains. By comparing the dominant interactions, we rationalized the stability differences among the domains. Understanding the structural stability of WGA opens avenues for enhanced drug delivery strategies, underscoring its potential as a promising carrier throughout the gastrointestinal environment.

homodimer, hydrogen bonding, lectin, multidomain protein, structural stability, thermal unfolding

pdf 8922
25. Nisar F., Rojek J., Nosewicz S., Szczepański J., Kaszyca K., Chmielewski M., Discrete element model for effective electrical conductivity of spark plasma sintered porous materials, Computational Particle Mechanics, ISSN: 2196-4378, DOI: 10.1007/s40571-024-00773-4, pp.1-11, 2024nota 8931

This paper aims to analyse electrical conduction in partially sintered porous materials using an original resistor network model within discrete element framework. The model is based on sintering geometry, where two particles are connected via neck. Particle-to-particle conductance depends on neck size in sintered materials. Therefore, accurate evaluation of neck size is essential to determine conductance. The neck size was determined using volume preservation criterion. Additionally, grain boundary correction factor was introduced to compensate for any non-physical overlaps between particles, particularly at higher densification. Furthermore, grain boundary resistance was added to account for the porosity within necks. For numerical analysis, the DEM sample was generated using real particle size distribution, ensuring a heterogeneous and realistic microstructure characterized by a maximum-to-minimum particle diameter ratio of 15. The DEM sample was subjected to hot press simulation to obtain geometries with different porosity levels. These representative geometries were used to simulate current flow and determine effective electrical conductivity as a function of porosity. The discrete element model (DEM) was validated using experimentally measured electrical conductivities of porous NiAl samples manufactured using spark plasma sintering (SPS). The numerical results were in close agreement with the experimental results, hence proving the accuracy of the model. The model can be used for microscopic analysis and can also be coupled with sintering models to evaluate effective properties during the sintering process.

Discrete element method, Effective electrical conductivity, Porous materials, Sintering, Resistor network model

pdf 8931
26. Rezaee Hajidehi M., Modeling of localized phase transformation in pseudoelastic shape memory alloys accounting for martensite reorientation, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MECHANICS A-SOLIDS, ISSN: 0997-7538, DOI: 10.1016/j.euromechsol.2024.105376, Vol.107, pp.105376-1-19, 2024nota 8953

A reliable prediction of the pseudoelastic behavior necessitates the involvement of martensite reorientation in the model. This is important not only under non-proportional loading but in general when the phase transformation proceeds in a localized manner, which results in complex local deformation paths. In this work, an advanced model of pseudoelasticity is developed within the incremental energy minimization framework. A novel enhancement of the model over its original version lies in the formulation of a suitable rate-independent dissipation potential that incorporates the dissipation due to martensitic phase transformation and also due to martensite reorientation, thus yielding an accurate description of the inelastic transformation strain. The finite-element implementation of the model relies on the augmented Lagrangian treatment of the non-smooth incremental energy problem. Thanks to the micromorphic regularization, the related complexities are efficiently handled at the local level, leading to a robust finite-element model. Numerical studies highlight the predictive capabilities of the model. The characteristic mechanical behavior of NiTi tube under non-proportional tension– torsion and the intricate transformation evolution under pure bending are effectively captured by the model. Additionally, a detailed analysis is carried out to elucidate the important role of martensite reorientation in promoting the striations of the phase transformation front.

Shape memory alloys,Phase transformation,Martensite reorientation,Strain localization,Finite-element method

pdf 8953
27. Warczak M., Osial M., Urbańska W., Sławskowska N., Dąbrowska A., Bonarowska M., Pisarek M., Monikayev R., Giersig M., Opallo M., Insights Into the High Catalytic Activity of Li-ion Battery Waste Toward Oxygen Reduction to Hydrogen Peroxide, ChemElectroChem, ISSN: 2196-0216, DOI: 10.1002/celc.202400248, Vol.e202400248, pp.1-10, 2024no pdf 8957
28. Adamek A., Będkowski J., Kamiński P., Pasek R., Pełka M., Zawiślak J., Method for Underground Mining Shaft Sensor Data Collection, SENSORS, ISSN: 1424-8220, DOI: 10.3390/s24134119, Vol.24, No.13, pp.4119-1-4119-17, 2024nota 8959

The motivation behind this research is the lack of an underground mining shaft data set in the literature in the form of open access. For this reason, our data set can be used for many research purposes such as shaft inspection, 3D measurements, simultaneous localization and mapping, artificial intelligence, etc. The data collection method incorporates rotated Velodyne VLP-16, Velodyne Ultra Puck VLP-32c, Livox Tele-15, IMU Xsens MTi-30 and Faro Focus 3D. The ground truth data were acquired with a geodetic survey including 15 ground control points and 6 Faro Focus 3D terrestrial laser scanner stations of a total 273,784,932 of 3D measurement points. This data set provides an end-user case study of realistic applications in mobile mapping technology. The goal of this research was to fill the gap in the underground mining data set domain. The result is the first open-access data set for an underground mining shaft (shaft depth −300 m).

LiDAR, IMU, underground shaft mapping, mine mapping

no pdf 8959
29. Żyłka A., Dobrych-Sobczak K., Piotrzkowska-Wróblewska H. E., Jędrzejczyk M., Góralski P., Gałczyński J., Zalewska Elwirą B., Dedecjusz M., open access Vol 75, No 2 (2024) ORIGINAL PAPER Submitted: 2023-12-10 Accepted: 2024-01-29 Published online: 2024-04-02 View PDF Download PDF file Get Citation Ultrasound and cytopathological characteristics of thyroid tumours of uncertain malignant potential — from diagnosis to treatment, Endokrynologia Polska, ISSN: 0423-104X, DOI: 10.5603/ep.98488, Vol.75, No.2, pp.170-178, 2024nota 8902

The latest World Health Organization (WHO) classification from 2022 distinguishes the division of low-risk thyroid neoplasms such as non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP), follicular tumour of uncertain malignant potential (FT-UMP), and well-differentiated tumour of uncertain malignant potential (WDT-UMP). The final diagnosis is made postoperatively according to histopathologic results. The aim of the study was the assessment of ultrasonographic and cytopathological features of borderline lesions to predict low-risk tumours preoperatively and plan the optimal treatment for that group of patients.

Material and methods:
A total of 35 patients (30 women; 5 men), aged 20–81 years with a mean age of 49 years, were enrolled in the study. The study evaluated 35 focal lesions of the thyroid gland, classified as low-risk neoplasms according to the WHO 2022 classification: FT-UMP (n = 21), NIFTP (n = 7), and WDT-UMP (n = 7). Ultrasonographic features of nodules including contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and elastography were assessed by 2 specialists, and the risk of malignancy was evaluated according to EU-TIRADS-PL classification.

Of the 35 focal thyroid lesions, most were categorised as low or intermediate risk of malignancy according to EU-TIRADS-PL, with dominant category 3 [n = 13 (37.2%)] and category 4 [n = 15 (42.8%)]. High-risk category 5 was assessed in 7 lesions (20%). In cytopathology nodules were categorised as follows (Bethesda System TBSRTC 2023): Bethesda II (n = 4), Bethesda III (n = 2), Bethesda IV (n = 25), Bethesda V (n = 3), and Bethesda VI (n = 1). In the CEUS study, contrasting patterns dominated compared to the surrounding parenchyma, such as enhancement equal to the parenchyma (66.6%) or intense (28.5%), heterogeneous (61.9%), centripetal (42.8%), or diffuse (57.1%) with fast (33.3%) or compared to parenchyma contrast wash-in (42.8%) and its fast (33.3%) or comparable to thyroid parenchyma wash-out (52.3%).

The study indicates that lesions with uncertain malignant potential typically present features suggesting low to intermediate risk of malignancy based on EU-TIRADS-PL classification, with dominant cytopathologic Bethesda IV category. However, 20% of lesions were assessed tas EU-TIRADS-PL category 5. Low-risk tumours, including NIFTP, FT-UMP, and WDT-UMP, require careful observation and monitoring post surgical treatment due to their potential for recurrence and metastasis. The preoperatively prediction of borderline tumour may play an important role in proper treatment and follow-up.

thyroid tumour, ultrasound, thyroid cancer, contrast-enhanced-ultrasound

pdf 8902
30. Bochenek K., Arneitz S., Sommitsch C., Basista M.A., Comparison of Mechanical Properties of Bulk NiAl-Re-Al2O3 Intermetallic Material Manufactured by Laser Powder Bed Fusion and Hot Pressing, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, ISSN: 1059-9495, DOI: 10.1007/s11665-024-09657-3, pp.1-10, 2024nota 8938

The low fracture toughness of NiAl at room temperature is one of the critical issues limiting its application in aircraft engines. It has been previously shown that a small addition of rhenium and alumina significantly improves the fracture toughness of hot-pressed NiAl. In this work, NiAl with an admixture of rhenium and alumina was produced by laser powder bed fusion additive technology (LPBF). The purpose was to compare the fracture toughness, bending strength, and microhardness of the NiAl-Re-Al2O3 material produced by LPBF and hot pressing (HP). Our results show that the LPBF material has lower fracture toughness and bending strength compared to its hot-pressed equivalent. Microcracks generated by thermal stresses during the LPBF process were the primary cause of this behavior. To improve the LPBF material, a post-processing by HP was applied. However, the fracture toughness of the (LPBF + HP) material remained at 50% of the KIC of the HP material. This study supports hot pressing as a suitable processing method for NiAl with rhenium and alumina additions. However, a hybrid approach combining LPBF and HP proved to be highly effective on the raw NiAl powder, resulting in superior fracture toughness of the final material compared to that consolidated by singular HP.

NiAl intermetallic,additive manufacturing ,hot pressing ,mechanical properties

pdf 8938
31. Pręgowska A., Roszkiewicz-Walczuk A., Osial M., Giersig M., How scanning probe microscopy can be supported by artificial intelligence and quantum computing?, MICROSCOPY RESEARCH AND TECHNIQUE, ISSN: 1059-910X, DOI: 10.1002/jemt.24629, pp.1-25, 2024pdf 8950
32. Glinicki M. A., Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka D., Brandt A., Diagnostics of premature damage to surface-hardened industrial concrete floors, CEMENT, WAPNO, BETON, ISSN: 1425-8129, DOI: 10.32047/CWB.2023.28.6.4, Vol.28, No.6, pp.409-427, 2024nota 8958

The article presents the diagnostic results on surface-hardened industrial concrete floors. Selected examples of floors showcased premature damage to surface layers, characterized by intense dusting, delamination, and local spalling, while the structural system remained unaffected. Quantitative petrographic analysis of concrete was applied to core specimens from the floors, involving the examination of digital images from a polarizing optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The hardening compound and powdered specimens of the cement matrix were characterized using differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. A multiple microindentation method was employed to assess local variations in mechanical properties. Concrete cross-section analysis revealed areas with a non-uniform distribution of air voids, identified regions exhibiting increased porosity, highlighted areas of cracking in the concrete, indicated local variability in the phase composition of cement hydration products, and pointed out the presence of carbonated areas. The causes of the damage were discussed based on these findings,. The crucial role of quantitative petrographic analysis in diagnosing premature surface damage to industrial floors was demonstrated.

concrete, delamination, quantitative microscopy, porosity, industrial floors, dusting, surface hardening

no pdf 8958
33. Danila P., van D., Kuniewicz M., Dolega-Dolegowski D., Pręgowska A., Andree A., Dobrzyński H., Proniewska K., Interactive teaching of medical 3D cardiac anatomy: atrial anatomy enhanced by ECG and 3D visualization , Frontiers in Medicine, ISSN: 2296-858X, DOI: 10.3389/fmed.2024.1422017, Vol.11, No.1422017, pp.1-8, 2024nota 8963

The most commonly applied way of teaching students to convey the foundations of human anatomy and physiology involves textbooks and lectures. This way of transmitting knowledge causes difficulties for students, especially in the context of three-dimensional imaging of organ structures, and as a consequence translates into difficulties with imagining them. Even despite the rapid uptake of knowledge dissemination provided by online materials, including courses and webinars, there is a clear need for learning programs featuring first-hand immersive experiences tailored to suit individual study paces. In this paper, we present an approach to enhance a classical study program by combining multi-modality data and representing them in a Mixed Reality (MR)-based environment. The advantages of the proposed approach have been proven by the conducted investigation of the relationship between atrial anatomy, its electrophysiological characteristics, and resulting P wave morphology on the electrocardiogram (ECG). Another part of the paper focuses on the role of the sinoatrial node in ECG formation, while the MR-based visualization of combined micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) data with non-invasive CineECG imaging demonstrates the educational application of these advanced technologies for teaching cardiac anatomy and ECG correlations.

mixed reality, CineECG, micro-CT, P wave, ECG imaging

pdf 8963
34. Zawidzka E., Szklarski J. T., Kobaka J., Zawidzki M., Przykłady Małej Architektury w oparciu o System Arm-Z, POMIARY - AUTOMATYKA - ROBOTYKA. PAR, ISSN: 1427-9126, DOI: 10.14313/PAR_252/73, Vol.2, pp.73-80, 2024nota 8964

Arm-Z to koncepcja hiperredundantnego manipulatora robotycznego opartego na sekwencji szeregowo połączonych identycznych modułów. Każdy moduł ma tylko jeden stopień swobody (1-DOF) – skręt względem poprzedniego. Moduły systemu Arm-Z mogą być masowo produkowane i łatwo wymieniane w przypadku awarii. Sterowanie Arm-Z jest stosunkowo trudne, dlatego zwykle wymaga stosowania metod inteligencji obliczeniowej. W artykule przedstawiono kilka koncepcji kinetycznych obiektów małej architektury opartych na Arm-Z: spiralną kolumnę o regulowanej wysokości, system nadążania słonecznego, kinetyczną rzeźbę bioniczną i kinetyczny zraszacz/fontannę. Prezentowane koncepcje są zasadniczo nisko-technologiczne (“low-tech”). W każdym przypadku moduł bazowy jest przymocowany do podstawy (podłoża). Dla prostoty napęd jest przykładany bezpośrednio do pierwszego modułu, a następnie przenoszony za pomocą wewnętrznych przekładni na kolejne moduły. Każdy moduł jest wyposażony w zestaw cylindrycznych i stożkowych kół zębatych z zębami prostymi o profilu spiralnym (do połączeń miedzy modułami).

Arm-Z, hiperredundancja, manipulator, mała architektura, systemy modularne

pdf 8964
35. Kopeć M., Kukla D., Wyszkowski M., Kowalewski Z.L., High temperature fatigue testing of turbine blades, FATIGUE OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES, ISSN: 2300-7591, DOI: 10.2478/fas-2023-0002, Vol.15, pp.22-27, 2024nota 8891

This paper evaluates the efficacy of a patented grip for high-temperature fatigue testing by establishing the S-N curve for full-scale nickel-based turbine blades under simulated environmental conditions. Initially, a bending test assessed the stress-displacement characteristics of the component. This was followed by a series of fatigue tests at 950°C, using cyclic bending with force amplitudes from 5.2 kN to 6.6 kN and a constant frequency of 10 Hz. The setup, integrating the grip into a standard testing machine,
proved effective for high-temperature tests and successfully determined the service life of full-scale components.

fatigue,high temperature,turbine blade,full-scale fatigue test

pdf 8891
36. Nguyen Thu P., Nguyen Thi T., Pham Thi N., Do Thi H., Osial M., Minh Khoi L., Hong Nam N., Le Phuong T., Dinh Thi Mai T., Metal organic framework composite based on CuBTC/SPION for application in methylene blue adsorption, CLEAN Soil Air Water, ISSN: 1863-0669, DOI: 10.1002/clen.202300018, Vol.2300018, pp.1-17, 2024nota 8897

cationic dyes, magnetic separation, MOF, nanocomposites

no pdf 8897
37. Keigo Y., Ario I., Zawidzki M., Yuta H., Optimization Problem of the size-scale for a Foldable Chain Scissors Structure based on Stress Analysis, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, ISSN: 1742-6596, DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/2647/4/042005, Vol.2647, pp.1-9, 2024nota 8962

Emergency bridges are used to restore the lifeline of damaged bridges after disasters. However, the design specification of existing emergency bridges do not afford rapid bridging. Therefore, a trial deployable bridge (Scissors Bridge) using a scissors structure that folds compactly has been experimentally produced. But, the assembly process for the bridge has not been considered and there are no practical design examples or design methods for scissors bridges. In this paper, as for existing bridges, we established a design method of scissors bridges when considering the live load. In addition, a general-purpose member cross-sectional dimension optimization method, aimed at minimizing weight, was developed and proposed. Considering the problem of insufficient strength of the scissors bridge, the optimum reinforcing pattern and its cross-sectional dimensions were determined through two methods of reinforcement and optimization of the cross-sectional dimension of the member. Finally, a trial of practical design calculation was performed using the results of the study to determine whether a scissors bridge satisfying the standard of the Specifications for Highway Bridges can be designed.

scissors structure,deployable bridge,stress analysis

pdf 8962
38. Pręgowska A., Perkins M., Artificial intelligence in medical education: Typologies and ethical approaches, Ethics & Bioethics (in Central Europe), ISSN: 1338-5615, DOI: 10.2478/ebce-2024-0004, Vol.14, No.1-2, pp.96-113, 2024nota 8948

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has an increasing role to play in medical education and has great potential to revolutionize health professional education systems overall. However, this is accompanied by substantial questions concerning technical and ethical risks which are of particular importance because the quality of medical education has a direct effect on physical and psychological health and wellbeing. This article establishes an overarching distinction of AI across two typological dimensions, functional and humanistic. As indispensable foundations, these are then related to medical practice overall, and forms of implementation with examples are described in both general and medical education. Increasingly, the conditions for successful medical education will depend on an understanding of AI and the ethical issues surrounding its implementation, as well as the formulation of appropriate guidelines by regulatory and other authorities. Within that discussion, the limits of both narrow or Routine AI (RAI) and artificial general intelligence or Decision AI (DAI) are examined particularly in view of the ethical need for Trustworthy AI (TAI) as part of the humanistic dimension. All stakeholders, from patients to medical practitioners, managers, and institutions, need to be able to trust AI, and loss of confidence could be catastrophic in some cases.

artificial intelligence typology,artificial intelligence in medicine,ethics,bioethics,medical education,health professional education

no pdf 8948
39. Michalska M., Pietrzyk-Thel P., Sobczak K., Janssen M., Jain A., Carbon framework modification; an interesting strategy to improve the energy storage and dye adsorption, Energy Advances, ISSN: 2753-1457, DOI: 10.1039/d4ya00159a, pp.1-13, 2024nota 8898

Porous carbons find various applications, including as adsorbents for clean water production and as electrode materials in energy storage devices such as supercapacitors. While supercapacitors reach higher power densities than batteries, they are less widely used, as their energy density is lower. We present a low-temperature wet ultrasonochemical synthesis technique to modify the surface of activated carbon with 1 wt% Cu nanoparticles. We analyzed the modified carbon using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy and confirmed the composite formation by N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms at 77 K. For comparison, we did the same tests on pristine carbon. We used the modified carbon as an electrode material in a homebuilt supercapacitor filled with gel polymer electrolyte and as an absorbent of Malachite green dye. In both applications, the modified carbon performed substantially better than its pristine counterpart. The modified-carbon supercapacitor exhibited a single electrode-specific capacitance of approximately 68.9 F g1. It also demonstrated an energy density of 9.8 W h kg1 and a power density of 1.4 kW kg1. These values represent improvements over the pristine-carbon supercapacitor, with increases of 25.7 F g1 in capacitance, 3.8 W h kg1 in energy density, and 0.5 kW kg1 in power density. After 10 000 charging–discharging cycles, the capacitance of the modified-carbon supercapacitor decreased by approximately 10%, indicating good durability of the material. We found that the modified carbon’s absorbance capacity for Malachite dye is more than that of the pristine carbon; the adsorption capacity value was B153.16 mg g1 for modified carbon with pseudo-second kinetic order, in accordance with the Redlich–Peterson adsorption model.

no pdf 8898
40. Maździarz M., Suitability of the available interatomic potentials for the modeling of 2D materials, MLM4MS, Machine Learning Modalities for Materials Science, 2024-01-13/01-17, Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana Slovenia (SI), pp.1, 2024nota 8904

Most interatomic potentials, both classical and machine learning-based (MLPs), are parameterized for 3D structures. The question naturally arises whether they are suitable for modeling their 2D allotropes. In the present study, using ab initio calculations, we determined the structural and mechanical properties of 2D phases of materials such as MoS2, Si, Ge and Sn and then investigated whether the available potentials are able to reproduce these properties.

2D materials; interatomic potentials

pdf 8904
41. Kukla D., Kondej A., Jończyk S., Kopeć M., METODA PRĄDÓW WIROWYCH Z ZASTOSOWANIEM SOND WIELOCEWKOWYCH W BADANIACH OTWORÓW, XXVII Seminarium NIENISZCZĄCE BADANIA MATERIAŁÓW, 2024-05-14/05-17, Zakopane (PL), pp.5-18, 2024nota 8909

W pracy przedstawiono możliwości metody prądów wirowych z wykorzystaniem sond wielocewkowych (ECA - Eddy Current Array) do oceny stanu technicznego gładko-lufowych armat czołgowych oraz otworów rotorów pompy zębatej. Badania dotyczyły identyfikacji pęknięć oraz ubytków powłok ochronnych na powierzchni wewnętrznej otworów. Wskazano możliwości zastosowania skanera do badania powierzchni otworów i oceniono efektywność rozwiązań własnych jak i komercyjnych. Opracowane urządzenie skanujące współpracujące z elastyczną sondą wielocewkową pozwala na nieinwazyjną ocenę stanu powierzchni wewnętrznej otworów na obecność defektów i ubytków eksploatacyjnych w czasie kilku minut. Z uwagi na łatwość wykonania pomiaru oraz mobilny charakter aparatury pomiarowej możliwe jest wykonanie pomiarów w niemal dowolnych warunkach. Możliwa jest także implementacja procedur monitorujących, pozwalających na oszacowanie czasu bezpiecznej eksploatacji w oparciu o cyklicznie wykonywane badania stanu powierzchni. Przewaga opisanej metody w porównaniu do stosowanych w tym obszarze badań endoskopowych wynika z możliwości detekcji nieciągłości, w tym podpowierzchniowych, mogących mieć krytyczny wpływ na bezpieczeństwo eksploatacji. Opisano ponadto najnowsze rozwiązania w zakresie techniki ECA dotyczące sond dedykowanych do badania spoin, przekładni zębatych oraz rur z zastosowaniem zarówno sond wewnętrznych jak i systemów skanujących powierzchnie zewnętrzne rurociągów.

pdf 8909
42. Dubey V.P., Kopeć M., Kowalewski Z.L., An evolution of yield surface for Ti-Cu bimetal after plastic predeformation under complex loading, NTEM 1, Spring School for Young Researchers, New Trends in Experimental Mechanics, 2024-05-13/05-17, Zakopane (PL), pp.1-1, 2024pdf 8917
43. Wu V., Yang X., Liu H., Kopeć M., Wang L., Autonomous Robotic Tribology Testing System for Lubricated Hot Aluminum Blanks, NTEM 1, Spring School for Young Researchers, New Trends in Experimental Mechanics, 2024-05-13/05-17, Zakopane (PL), pp.1-1, 2024pdf 8918
44. Kopeć M., Kukla D., Wyszkowski M., Kowalewski Z.L., High-temperature fatigue testing of turbine blades, FAS, 17th CONFERENCE FATIGUE OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES, 2024-01-11/01-12, Warszawa (PL), pp.1-1, 2024pdf 8919

Investigating of the material properties and physical mechanisms responsible for plastic deformation caused by complex loading is crucial for bimetallic structures. These materials are a type of functionally graded multi-material structures designed to combine diverse material properties within the same framework while optimizing manufacturing costs. In the present work, the initial yield surface and its subsequent evolution were determined for a Ti-Cu bimetal based on the definition of yield stress for 0.01% plastic offset strain. The subsequent yield surfaces were determined after introducing monotonic axial tension and axial tension-cyclic torsion pre-deformation up to 1% permanent axial strain. It was found, that the determined initial yield surface was close to the Huber-Mises locus. Furthermore, subsequent yield surfaces were determined to assess a hardening/softening effect in the loading direction applied. Interestingly, only the monotonic tension caused a significant enhancement of the tensile yield strength as the monotonic tension associated with cyclic torsion caused its reduction. On the other hand, the sizes of subsequent yield surfaces reflecting pre-deformation were reduced in the axial compression direction.

pdf 8920
46. Haponova O., Tarelnyk V., Tarelnyk N., Kurp P., The Formation of C-S Coatings by Electrospark Alloying with the Use Special Process Media, Solid State Phenomena, ISSN: 1662-9779, DOI: 10.4028/p-5KfyZQ, Vol.355, pp.85-93, 2024nota 8927

The paper presents an analysis of technologies for improving the quality parameters of the surface layers of parts, which were carried out by the method of electrospark alloying (ESA) and by additional saturation of surfaces with alloying elements from special process media (STM). The technology of sulfocementation was considered. Metallographic and hardness tests after sulfocementation by ESA showed that the treated surface consists of layers: "soft", hardened and base metal. As the discharge energy increases, the thickness, microhardness and integrity of the coating increase. The presence of sulfur in STM promotes the sulfidation process. It is shown that sulfur accumulates on the surface of the metal at a depth of up to 30 μm. This zone is characterized by reduced microhardness. A strengthened layer is formed under this layer, it has an increased carbon content and high microhardness.

electro-spark alloying, special technological environment, coating, sulfocementation, microstructure, microhardness

no pdf 8927
47. Mousavisogolitappeh H., Ustrzycka A., Multi-scale simulation of crack propagation in FeNiCr alloy by using T-S law, NOMATEN, Plasma Materials Interactions & Diagnostics Symposium, 2024-05-21/05-23, Warszawa (PL), pp.1-1, 2024pdf 8929
48. Roszkiewicz-Walczuk A., Osial M., Giersig M., Hierarchical Au-CdS electrodes based on self-assembly polystyrene spheres crystals as nanocatalytic sensors for biomedical applications , AMBRA 2024, 2nd International Conference on Advanced Materials for Bio-Related Applications , 2024-05-19/05-23, Wrocław (PL), DOI: 10.24423/ambra2024, pp.56-56, 2024pdf 8939
49. Birhanu Bayissa G., Teshome Tufa L., Mahendra G., Lee Y., Fikadu Banti B., Nwaji Njoku N., You S., Lee J., Oxygen Vacancy Generation and Stabilization in Layered NiFeCo Double Hydroxide Nanosheets for a Highly Efficient Oxygen Evolution Reaction, ACS Applied Nano Materials, ISSN: 2574-0970, DOI: 10.1021/acsanm.4c01840, Vol.8, pp.A-K, 2024nota 8947

Oxygen vacancy (Vo) is ubiquitous, playing a critical role in tuning the electronic configuration and optimizing the adsorption of adsorbates in the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) process. However, fine control over the density and stabilization of Vo is a big challenge in the highly oxidizing environment of OER. Herein, we have fabricated bulk NiFeCo (layered double hydroxide) LDHs via the hydrothermal method and exfoliated them into thin sheets rich with Vo using high-energy Ar-plasma. We doped fluoride to simultaneously modulate the charge distribution of surrounding atoms and stabilize Vo by taking advantage of the extremely high electronegativity and similar ion diameter to oxygen of fluoride. The material exhibited OER activity with a low overpotential of 200 mV at 10 mA cm–2 and a Tafel slope of 34.6 mV dec–1. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations support the claim that Vo and fluoride substantially increase NiFeCo LDH OER activity by modifying the electronic structures of the catalytically active sites.

Electrocatalyst, Double layered hydroxide, oxygen evolution reaction, oxygen vacancy, stabilization

no pdf 8947
50. Ebrahimi S., Hassanizadeh P., From Interaction to Independence: zkSNARKs for Transparent and Non-Interactive Remote Attestation, NDSS, Network and Distributed System Security (NDSS) Symposium 2024, 2024-02-26/03-01, San Diego (US), DOI: 10.14722/ndss.2024.24815, pp.1-18, 2024nota 8949

Remote attestation (RA) protocols have been widely used to evaluate the integrity of software on remote devices. Currently, the state-of-the-art RA protocols lack a crucial fea- ture: transparency. This means that the details of the final attestation verification are not openly accessible or verifiable by the public. Furthermore, the interactivity of these protocols often limits attestation to trusted parties who possess privileged access to confidential device data, such as pre-shared keys and initial measurements. These constraints impede the widespread adoption of these protocols in various applications. In this paper, we introduce zRA, a non-interactive, transpar- ent, and publicly provable RA protocol based on zkSNARKs. zRA enables verification of device attestations without the need for pre-shared keys or access to confidential data, ensuring a trustless and open attestation process. This eliminates the reliance on online services or secure storage on the verifier side. Moreover, zRA does not impose any additional security assumptions beyond the fundamental cryptographic schemes and the essential trust anchor components on the prover side (i.e., ROM and MPU). The zero-knowledge attestation proofs generated by devices have constant size regardless of the network complexity and number of attestations. Moreover, these proofs do not reveal sensitive information regarding internal states of the device, allowing ver- ification by anyone in a public and auditable manner. We conduct an extensive security analysis and demonstrate scalability of zRA compared to prior work. Our analysis suggests that zRA excels especially in peer-to-peer and Pub/Sub network structures. To validate the practicality, we implement an open-source prototype of zRA using the Circom language. We show that zRA can be securely deployed on public permissionless blockchains, serving as an archival platform for attestation data to achieve resilience against DoS attacks.

pdf 8949
51. Wojtiuk E., Psiuk R., Haponova O., Mościcki T., MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF W-Ti-B CERAMICS SYNTHETIZED IN DIFFERENT DIMENSIONS SCALES, PTCer, XIV Konferencja Polskiego Towarzystwa Ceramicznego, 2024-06-13/06-16, Zakopane (PL), pp.39-39, 2024pdf 8951
52. Wu K., Kondra T., Scandolo C., Swapan R., Xiang G., Li C., Guo G., Streltsov A., Resource theory of imaginarity in distributed scenarios, communications physics, ISSN: 0886-3166, DOI: 10.1038/s42005-024-01649-y, Vol.7, No.171, pp.1-9, 2024nota 8952

The resource theory of imaginarity studies the operational value of imaginary parts in quantum states, operations, and measurements. Here we introduce and study the distillation and conversion of imaginarity in distributed scenario. This arises naturally in bipartite systems where both parties work together to generate the maximum possible imaginarity on one of the subsystems. We give exact solutions to this problem for general qubit states and pure states of arbitrary dimension. We present a scenario that demonstrates the operational advantage of imaginarity: the discrimination of quantum channels without the aid of an ancillary system. We then link this scenario to local operations and classical communications(LOCC) discrimination of bipartite states. We experimentally demonstrate the relevant assisted distillation protocol, and show the usefulness of imaginarity in the aforementioned two tasks.

pdf 8952
53. Paczesny J., Osial M., Ogromna siła nanocząstek, Academia, Magazyn Polskiej Akademii Nauk, ISSN: 1733-8662, DOI: 10.24425/academiaPAN.2024.150039, Vol.1, No.77, pp.40-41, 2024no pdf 8955
54. Paczesny J., Osial M., Antibacterial Brew: Silver’s NanoMagi, Academia, Magazyn Polskiej Akademii Nauk, ISSN: 1733-8662, DOI: 10.24425/academiaPAS.2024.150231, Vol.1, No.77, pp.40-41, 2024pdf 8956
55. Kozachinskiy A., Steifer T., Simple Online Learning with Consistent Oracle, COLT 2024, 37th Annual Conference on Learning Theory, 2024-06-30/07-03, Edmonton (CA), Vol.247, pp.1-16, 2024nota 8960

We consider online learning in the model where a learning algorithm can access the class only via the consistent oracle—an oracle, that, at any moment, can give a function from the class that agrees with all examples seen so far. This model was recently considered by Assos et al. (COLT’23). It is motivated by the fact that standard methods of online learning rely on computing the Littlestone dimension of subclasses, a computationally intractable problem. Assos et al. gave an online learning algorithm in this model that makes at most Cd mistakes on classes of Littlestone dimension d, for some absolute unspecified constant C > 0. We give a novel algorithm that makes at most O(256d) mistakes. Our proof is significantly simpler and uses only very basic properties of the Littlestone dimension. We also show that there exists no algorithm in this model that makes less than 3d mistakes. Our algorithm (as well as the algorithm of Assos et al.) solves an open problem by Hasrati and Ben-David (ALT’23). Namely, it demonstrates that every class of finite Littlestone dimension with recursively enumerable representation admits a computable online learner (that may be undefined on unrealizable samples).

Online learning, consistent oracle, Littlestone dimension

pdf 8960
56. Szklarski J., Zawidzka E., Zawidzki M., Reinforced Learning for Ground Movement of the Hyperreduntant Modular Robot, PP-RAI 2024, PP-RAI 2024: 5th Polish Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 2024-04-18/04-20, Warszawa (PL), pp.1-8, 2024nota 8966

We show that the Soft Actor-Critic Reinforced Learning algorithm is able to find efficient motion patterns for a hyper-redundant robot consisting of 6 identical modules connected in a chain like fashion. The control is done by applying relative angular velocities between the modules. Analogous system has been studied before in the context of a robotic trunk-like manipulator.

Reinforced Learning, Robotic Locomotion, Hyperreduntant Modular Manipulator, Arm-Z, Extremely Modular System

pdf 8966

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