dr inż. Grzegorz Mikułowski

Zakład Technologii Inteligentnych (ZTI)
Pracownia Inżynierii Bezpieczeństwa (PIB)
stanowisko: specjalista
telefon: (+48) 22 826 12 81 wew.: 428
pokój: 432
e-mail: gmikulow

Doktorat
2008-11-27Adaptive impact absorbers based on magnetorheological fluids 
promotor -- prof. dr hab. inż. Jan Holnicki-Szulc, IPPT PAN
619
 
Promotor prac doktorskich
1.2016-06-30
pomocniczy
Wiszowaty Rafał  Projektowanie i badanie adaptacyjnych pneumatycznych absorberów energii uderzenia1284
 

Ostatnie publikacje
1.Popławski B., Mikułowski G., Mróz A., Jankowski Ł., Decentralized semi-active damping of free structural vibrations by means of structural nodes with an on/off ability to transmit moments, MECHANICAL SYSTEMS AND SIGNAL PROCESSING, ISSN: 0888-3270, DOI: 10.1016/j.ymssp.2017.08.012, Vol.100, pp.926-939, 2018

Streszczenie:

This paper proposes, tests numerically and verifies experimentally a decentralized control algorithm with local feedback for semi-active mitigation of free vibrations in frame structures. The algorithm aims at transferring the vibration energy of low-order, lightly-damped structural modes into high-frequency modes of vibration, where it is quickly damped by natural mechanisms of material damping. Such an approach to mitigation of vibrations, known as the prestress-accumulation release (PAR) strategy, has been earlier applied only in global control schemes to the fundamental vibration mode of a cantilever beam. In contrast, the decentralization and local feedback allows the approach proposed here to be applied to more complex frame structures and vibration patterns, where the global control ceases to be intuitively obvious. The actuators (truss–frame nodes with controllable ability to transmit moments) are essentially unblockable hinges that become unblocked only for very short time periods in order to trigger local modal transfer of energy. The paper proposes a computationally simple model of the controllable nodes, specifies the control performance measure, yields basic characteristics of the optimum control, proposes the control algorithm and then tests it in numerical and experimental examples.

Słowa kluczowe:

Damping of vibrations, Smart structures, Semi-active control, Decentralized control, Truss-frame nodes

Afiliacje autorów:

Popławski B.-IPPT PAN
Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Mróz A.-IPPT PAN
Jankowski Ł.-IPPT PAN
2.Jundziłł A., Pokrywczyńska M., Adamowicz J., Kowalczyk T., Nowacki M., Bodnar M., Marszałek A., Frontczak-Baniewicz M.M., Mikułowski G., Kloskowski T., Gatherwright J., Drewa T., Vascularization Potential of Electrospun Poly(L-Lactide-co-Caprolactone) Scaffold: The Impact for Tissue Engineering, Medical Science Monitor, ISSN: 1643-3750, DOI: 10.12659/MSM.899659, Vol.23, pp.1540-1551, 2017

Streszczenie:

BACKGROUND:
Electrospun nanofibers have widespread putative applications in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. When compared to naturally occurring collagen matrices, electrospun nanofiber scaffolds have two distinct advantages: they do not induce a foreign body reaction and they are not at risk for biological contamination. However, the exact substrate, structure, and production methods have yet to be defined.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:
In the current study, tubular-shaped poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLCL) constructs produced using electrospinning technology were evaluated for their potential application in the field of tissue regeneration in two separate anatomic locations: the skin and the abdomen. The constructs were designed to have an internal diameter of 3 mm and thickness of 200 μm. Using a rodent model, 20 PLCL tubular constructs were surgically implanted in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneously. The constructs were then evaluated histologically using electron microscopy at 6 weeks post-implantation.
RESULTS:
Histological evaluation and analysis using scanning electron microscopy showed that pure scaffolds by themselves were able to induce angiogenesis after implantation in the rat model. Vascularization was observed in both tested groups; however, better results were obtained after intraperitoneal implantation. Formation of more and larger vessels that migrated inside the scaffold was observed after implantation into the peritoneum. In this group no evidence of inflammation and better integration of scaffold with host tissue were noticed. Subcutaneous implantation resulted in more fibrotic reaction, and differences in cell morphology were also observed between the two tested groups.
CONCLUSIONS:
This study provides a standardized evaluation of a PLCL conduit structure in two different anatomic locations, demonstrating the excellent ability of the structure to achieve vascularization. Functional, histological, and mechanical data clearly indicate prospective clinical utilization of PLCL in critical size defect regeneration.

Słowa kluczowe:

Polymers, Regenerative medicine, Tissue Engineering, Tissue Scaffolds, Urinary Diversion

Afiliacje autorów:

Jundziłł A.-other affiliation
Pokrywczyńska M.-other affiliation
Gatherwright J.-University Hospitals – Case Medical Center (US)
Drewa T.-Nicolaus Copernicus University (PL)
Adamowicz J.-Nicolaus Copernicus University (PL)
Kowalczyk T.-IPPT PAN
Nowacki M.-other affiliation
Bodnar M.-Nicolaus Copernicus University (PL)
Marszałek A.-Nicolaus Copernicus University (PL)
Frontczak-Baniewicz M.M.-Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Kloskowski T.-other affiliation
15p.
3.Mikułowski G., Wiszowaty R., Pneumatic Adaptive Absorber: Mathematical Modelling with Experimental Verification, MATHEMATICAL PROBLEMS IN ENGINEERING, ISSN: 1024-123X, DOI: 10.1155/2016/7074206, Vol.2016, pp.7074206-1-14, 2016

Streszczenie:

Many of mechanical energy absorbers utilized in engineering structures are hydraulic dampers, since they are simple and highly efficient and have favourable volume to load capacity ratio. However, there exist fields of applications where a threat of toxic contamination with the hydraulic fluid contents must be avoided, for example, food or pharmacy industries. A solution here can be a Pneumatic Adaptive Absorber (PAA), which is characterized by a high dissipation efficiency and an inactive medium. In order to properly analyse the characteristics of a PAA, an adequate mathematical model is required. This paper proposes a concept for mathematical modelling of a PAA with experimental verification. The PAA is considered as a piston-cylinder device with a controllable valve incorporated inside the piston. The objective of this paper is to describe a thermodynamic model of a double chamber cylinder with gas migration between the inner volumes of the device. The specific situation considered here is that the process cannot be defined as polytropic, characterized by constant in time thermodynamic coefficients. Instead, the coefficients of the proposed model are updated during the analysis. The results of the experimental research reveal that the proposed mathematical model is able to accurately reflect the physical behaviour of the fabricated demonstrator of the shock absorber.

Afiliacje autorów:

Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Wiszowaty R.-IPPT PAN
20p.
4.Mróz K.P., Kucharski S., Doliński K., Bigos A., Mikułowski G., Bełtowska-Lehman E., Nolbrzak P., Failure modes of coatings on steel substrate, BULLETIN OF THE POLISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES: TECHNICAL SCIENCES, ISSN: 0239-7528, DOI: 10.1515/bpasts-2016-0027, Vol.64, No.1, pp.249-256, 2016

Streszczenie:

The critical monotonic strain of Ni-W and MoS2(Ti,W) coatings on steel substrates was studied. The idea of axisymmetric bending test (called here as coin bending test) limited to monitoring of the coating failure was used. Experiments revealed mechanism of the coating failure, as cracking initiated from coating surface defects and/or substrate was demonstrated using indentation technique. By pushing the center of the uncoated side of a circular plate, the axisymmetric stress state was generated in the coating. The stress components varied gradually from the greatest value in the center to the smallest value at the edge of the specimen. The changes of the sample surface as a result of loading were monitored step by step via optical microscopy.

Słowa kluczowe:

Ni-W coating, MoS2(Ti.W) coating, steel substrate, fracture, coatings strength, axisymmetric bending test

Afiliacje autorów:

Mróz K.P.-IPPT PAN
Kucharski S.-IPPT PAN
Doliński K.-IPPT PAN
Bigos A.-Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Bełtowska-Lehman E.-Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Nolbrzak P.-Łódź Technical University (PL)
20p.
5.Noszczyk B.H., Kowalczyk T., Łyżniak M., Zembrzycki K., Mikułowski G., Wysocki J., Kawiak J., Pojda Z., Biocompatibility of electrospun human albumin: a pilot study, Biofabrication, ISSN: 1758-5082, DOI: 10.1088/1758-5090/7/1/015011, Vol.7, pp.015011-1-11, 2015

Streszczenie:

Albumin is rarely used for electrospinning because it does not form fibres in its native globular form. This paper presents a novel method for electrospinning human albumin from a solution containing pharmaceutical grade protein and 25% polyethylene oxide (PEO) used as the fibre-forming agent. After spontaneous cross-linking at body temperature, with no further chemicals added, the fibres become insoluble and the excess PEO can be washed out. Albumin deposited along the fibres retains its native characteristics, such as its non-adhesiveness to cells and its susceptibility for degradation by macrophages. To demonstrate this we evaluated the mechanical properties, biocompatibility and biodegradability of this novel product. After subcutaneous implantation in mice, albumin mats were completely resorbable within six days and elicited only a limited local inflammatory response. In vitro, the mats suppressed cell attachment and migration. As this product is inexpensive, produced from human pharmaceutical grade albumin without chemical modifications, retains its native protein properties and fulfils the specific requirements for anti-adhesive dressings, its clinical use can be expedited. We believe that it could specifically be used when treating paediatric patients with epidermolysis bullosa, in whom non-healing wounds occur after minor hand injuries which lead to rapid adhesions and devastating contractures.

Słowa kluczowe:

albumin, nanofibers, wound dressing, biocompatibility, bioresorption

Afiliacje autorów:

Noszczyk B.H.-Medical University of Warsaw (PL)
Kowalczyk T.-IPPT PAN
Łyżniak M.-Central Clinical Hospital of the MSWiA (PL)
Zembrzycki K.-IPPT PAN
Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Wysocki J.-Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology (PL)
Kawiak J.-Nałęcz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Pojda Z.-Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology (PL)
45p.
6.Holnicki-Szulc J., Graczykowski C., Mikułowski G., Mróz A., Pawłowski P., Wiszowaty R., Adaptive Impact Absorption - the Concept and Potential Applications, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES, ISSN: 2041-4196, DOI: 10.1260/2041-4196.6.2.357, Vol.6, No.2, pp.357-377, 2015

Streszczenie:

Adaptive Impact Absorption focuses on adaptation of energy absorbing structures to actual dynamic loading by using system of sensors detecting and identifying impact in advance and embedded semi-active dissipaters with controllable mechanical properties. Application of such devices allows to modify dynamic characteristics of the structure during the period of impact and to precisely control the process of energy dissipation. The paper presents an overview of research conducted at the Department of Intelligent Technologies of the Institute of Fundamental Technological Research dedicated to design and applications of various systems of Adaptive Impact Absorption. Wide range of presented examples covers adaptive hydraulic and pneumatic landing gears, skeletal systems equipped with controllable elements and detachable joints as well as adaptive inflatable structures.

Słowa kluczowe:

adaptive impact absorption, safety engineering, smart structures, optimal control

Afiliacje autorów:

Holnicki-Szulc J.-IPPT PAN
Graczykowski C.-IPPT PAN
Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Mróz A.-IPPT PAN
Pawłowski P.-IPPT PAN
Wiszowaty R.-IPPT PAN
7.Pokrywczyńska M., Jundziłł A., Adamowicz J., Kowalczyk T., Warda K., Rasmus M., Buchholz Ł., Krzyżanowska S., Nakielski P., Chmielewski T., Bodnar M., Marszałek A., Dębski R., Frontczak-Baniewicz M.M., Mikułowski G., Nowacki M., Kowalewski T.A., Drewa T., Is the Poly (L- Lactide- Co– Caprolactone) Nanofibrous Membrane Suitable for Urinary Bladder Regeneration?, PLOS ONE, ISSN: 1932-6203, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105295, Vol.9, No.8, pp.105295-1-12, 2014

Streszczenie:

The purpose of this study was to compare: a new five-layered poly (L–lactide–co–caprolactone) (PLC) membrane and small intestinal submucosa (SIS) as a control in rat urinary bladder wall regeneration. The five-layered poly (L–lactide–co–caprolactone) membrane was prepared by an electrospinning process. Adipose tissue was harvested from five 8-week old male Wistar rats. Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) were seeded in a density of 3×106 cells/cm2 onto PLC membrane and SIS scaffolds, and cultured for 5-7 days in the stem cell culture medium. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five equal groups. Augmentation cystoplasty was performed in a previously created dome defect. Groups: (I) PLC+ 3×106ADSCs; (II) SIS+ 3×106ADSCs; (III) PLC; (IV) SIS; (V) control. Cystography was performed after three months. The reconstructed urinary bladders were evaluated in H&E and Masson's trichrome staining. Regeneration of all components of the normal urinary bladder wall was observed in bladders augmented with cell-seeded SIS matrices. The urinary bladders augmented with SIS matrices without cells showed fibrosis and graft contraction. Bladder augmentation with the PLC membrane led to numerous undesirable events including: bladder wall perforation, fistula or diverticula formation, and incorporation of the reconstructed wall into the bladder lumen. The new five-layered poly (L–lactide–co–caprolactone) membrane possesses poorer potential for regenerating the urinary bladder wall compared with SIS scaffold.

Słowa kluczowe:

urinary bladder regeneration, electrospinning

Afiliacje autorów:

Pokrywczyńska M.-other affiliation
Jundziłł A.-other affiliation
Bodnar M.-Nicolaus Copernicus University (PL)
Marszałek A.-Nicolaus Copernicus University (PL)
Dębski R.-Nicolaus Copernicus University (PL)
Frontczak-Baniewicz M.M.-Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Nowacki M.-other affiliation
Kowalewski T.A.-IPPT PAN
Drewa T.-Nicolaus Copernicus University (PL)
Adamowicz J.-Nicolaus Copernicus University (PL)
Kowalczyk T.-IPPT PAN
Warda K.-other affiliation
Rasmus M.-Nicolaus Copernicus University (PL)
Buchholz Ł.-Nicolaus Copernicus University (PL)
Krzyżanowska S.-other affiliation
Nakielski P.-IPPT PAN
Chmielewski T.-other affiliation
40p.
8.Mikułowski G., Wiszowaty R., Holnicki-Szulc J., Characterization of a piezoelectric valve for an adaptive pneumatic shock absorber, SMART MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, ISSN: 0964-1726, DOI: 10.1088/0964-1726/22/12/125011, Vol.22, No.12, pp.125011-1-12, 2013

Streszczenie:

This paper describes a pneumatic valve based on a multilayer piezoelectric actuator and Hörbiger plates. The device was designed to operate in an adaptive pneumatic shock absorber. The adaptive pneumatic shock absorber was considered as a piston–cylinder device and the valve was intended to be installed inside the piston. The main objective for the valve application was regulating the gas flow between the cylinder's chambers in order to maintain the desired value of the reaction force generated by the shock absorber. The paper describes the design constraints and requirements, together with results of analytical modelling of fluid flow verified versus experimentally obtained data. The presented results indicate that the desired performance characteristics of the valve were obtained. The geometrical constraints of the flow ducts were studied and the actuator's functional features analysed.

Afiliacje autorów:

Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Wiszowaty R.-IPPT PAN
Holnicki-Szulc J.-IPPT PAN
40p.
9.Lisiecki J., Błażejewicz T., Kłysz S., Gmurczyk G., Reymer P., Mikułowski G., Tests of polyurethane foams with negative Poisson’s ratio, PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI B-BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, ISSN: 0370-1972, DOI: 10.1002/pssb.201384232, Vol.250, No.10, pp.1988-1995, 2013

Streszczenie:

Auxetic materials exhibit counterintuitive and interesting properties, which can be utilized to develop new families of products, which can meet sophisticated needs. Study presented within this paper is focused on manufacturing and testing auxetic polyurethane foams for potential introduction for seats in military helicopters. Firstly, a manufacturing process was developed which benefits from the well-known methods of processing conventional foams and allows preparing necessary test specimens for further tests. Secondly, a series of static and dynamic tests was performed during which the market available conventional foams used in transport are compared with processed auxetic foams.

Afiliacje autorów:

Lisiecki J.-other affiliation
Błażejewicz T.-Air Force Institute of Technology (PL)
Kłysz S.-other affiliation
Gmurczyk G.-other affiliation
Reymer P.-Air Force Institute of Technology (PL)
Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
20p.
10.Mikułowski G., Jankowski Ł., Adaptive Landing Gear: optimum control strategy and potential for improvement, SHOCK AND VIBRATION, ISSN: 1070-9622, DOI: 10.3233/SAV-2009-0460, Vol.16, No.2, pp.175-194, 2009

Streszczenie:

An adaptive landing gear is a landing gear (LG) capable of active adaptation to particular landing conditions by means of controlled hydraulic force. The objective of the adaptive control is to mitigate the peak force transferred to the aircraft structure during touch-down, and thus to limit the structural fatigue factor. This paper investigates the ultimate limits for improvement due to various strategies of active control. Five strategies are proposed and investigated numerically using a~validated model of a real, passive landing gear as a reference. Potential for improvement is estimated statistically in terms of the mean and median (significant) peak strut forces as well as in terms of the extended safe sinking velocity range. Three control strategies are verified experimentally using a laboratory test stand.

Słowa kluczowe:

Adaptive landing gear, adaptive impact absorption, shock absorber, load mitigation

Afiliacje autorów:

Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Jankowski Ł.-IPPT PAN
20p.
11.Holnicki-Szulc J., Graczykowski C., Mikułowski G., Mróz A., Pawłowski P.K., Smart technologies for adaptive impact absorption, SOLID STATE PHENOMENA, ISSN: 1012-0394, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/SSP.154.187, Vol.154, pp.187-194, 2009

Streszczenie:

The article presents a review of recent research carried out in the Department of Intelligent Technologies of Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, dedicated to application of systems for adaptive impact absorption to adaptive aircraft landing gears, novel concept of protective MFM structures, flow-control based airbags, maritime applications of inflatable structures, and development of adaptive wind turbine blade – hub connections.

Słowa kluczowe:

Adaptive Impact Absorption, Adaptive Structure, Optimal Control

Afiliacje autorów:

Holnicki-Szulc J.-IPPT PAN
Graczykowski C.-IPPT PAN
Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Mróz A.-IPPT PAN
Pawłowski P.K.-IPPT PAN
20p.
12.Graczykowski C., Mikułowski G., Pawłowski P.K., Koncepcja absorbera pneumatycznego do zastosowania w podwoziach aparatów latających z wykorzystaniem układu rozpoznania energii uderzenia, JOURNAL OF AERONAUTICA INTEGRA, ISSN: 1896-8856, Vol.1, No.5, pp.25-31, 2009

Streszczenie:

Podwozia lotnicze są traktowane przez konstruktorów samolotów jako elementy konieczne, ale z wielu względów mające negatywny wpływ na projekt. Z punktu widzenia aerodynamiki podwozia w trakcie lotu, stawiają dodatkowy opór aerodynamiczny (mniejszy w przypadku podwozi chowanych), a z punktu widzenia możliwości przewożenia ładunków, pochłaniają część masy startowej samolotu, która mogłaby być wykorzystana na transport towarów lub pasażerów. Biorąc pod uwagę takie uwarunkowania, idealne podwozie lotnicze powinno ważyć jak najmniej i zajmować minimalną ilość miejsca.
Obecnie najpopularniejszym rodzajem podwozia stosowanego w lotnictwie jest typ olejowo-gazowy, który charakteryzuje się najkorzystniejszym stosunkiem sprawności do wagi. Sprawność obecnie stosowanych podwozi lotniczych dochodzi do 80%. Aczkolwiek jest to wartość, która jest uzyskiwana dla jednego predefiniowanego przypadku lądowania z określoną energią uderzenia samolotu o pas startowy. Praktyka pokazuje, że w rzeczywistości zmienność warunków lądowania jest dużo większa niż zakres, na jaki można zaprojektować klasyczne podwozie pasywne. Najczęściej energia uderzenia przy lądowaniu jest znacząco mniejsza od tej, jaką konstruktorzy zakładają do obliczeń w procesie projektowania.
Dwa przedstawione problemy w projektowaniu podwozi lotniczych mogą zostać rozwiązane dzięki koncepcji nowego podwozia gazowego przedstawionego w tym artykule. Po pierwsze, dzięki zastosowaniu technologii inteligentnych i wykorzystaniu materiału funkcjonalnego stało się możliwe zaprojektowanie amortyzatorów czysto gazowych w podwoziach do aparatów latających, dzięki czemu możliwe jest wyeliminowanie oleju hydraulicznego o znacznie większej gęstości od gazu i efektywne obniżenie ciężaru podwozia samolotu. Po drugie dzięki wprowadzeniu inteligentnego sterowania przepływem gazu w amortyzatorze, stała się możliwa adaptacja rzeczywistych charakterystyk pracy amortyzatora do aktualnej wartości energii uderzenia samolotu o pas startowy.
Artykuł przedstawia wstępną fazę badań koncepcyjnych nad gazowym absorberem uderzeń przeznaczonym od zastosowania w podwoziu aparatu latającego, sterowanym przy pomocy zaworu piezoelektrycznego. W trakcie badań wykonano serię prób na modelu numerycznym, która została zweryfikowana przy pomocy badań eksperymentalnych, do których zaprojektowano i zrealizowano sterowanie w pętli zamkniętej dla szybkiego zaworu piezo elektrycznego zintegrowanego z absorberem gazowym.

Słowa kluczowe:

podwozia lotnicze, podwozie adaptacyjne, adaptacyjna dyssypacja energii

Afiliacje autorów:

Graczykowski C.-IPPT PAN
Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Pawłowski P.K.-IPPT PAN
2p.
13.Mikułowski G., Holnicki-Szulc J., Adaptive landing gear koncept - feedback control validation, SMART MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, ISSN: 0964-1726, DOI: 10.1088/0964-1726/16/6/017, Vol.16, No.6, pp.2146-2158, 2007

Streszczenie:

The objective of this paper is to present an integrated feedback control concept for adaptive landing gears (ALG) and its experimental validation. Aeroplanes are subjected to high dynamic loads as a result of the impact during each landing. Classical landing gears, which are in common use, are designed in accordance with official regulations in a way that ensures the optimal energy dissipation for the critical (maximum) sink speed. The regulations were formulated in order to ensure the functional capability of the landing gears during an emergency landing. However, the landing gears, whose characteristics are optimized for these critical conditions, do not perform well under normal impact conditions. For that situation it is reasonable to introduce a system that would adapt the characteristics of the landing gears according to the sink speed of landing. The considered system assumes adaptation of the damping force generated by the landing gear, which would perform optimally in an emergency situation and would adapt itself for regular landings as well. This research covers the formulation and design of the control algorithms for an adaptive landing gear based on MR fluid, implementation of the algorithms on an FPGA platform and experimental verification on a lab-scale landing gear device. The main challenge of the research was to develop a control methodology that could operate effectively within 50 ms, which is assumed to be the total duration of the phenomenon. The control algorithm proposed in this research was able to control the energy dissipation process on the experimental stand.

Afiliacje autorów:

Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Holnicki-Szulc J.-IPPT PAN
14.Mikułowski G., Pawłowski P.K., Wołejsza Z., Podwozie lotnicze z adaptacyjnym systemem absorpcji energii, JOURNAL OF AERONAUTICA INTEGRA, ISSN: 1896-8856, Vol.1, pp.125-129, 2007

Streszczenie:

Podczas każdego lądowania samoloty są narażone na duże przeciążenia dynamiczne mające zdecydowany wpływ na trwałość i niezawodność konstrukcji nośnej. Wielkość przeciążeń, jakim poddawany jest kadłub samolotu, zależy w dużej mierze od poprawnej pracy podwozia lotniczego. Głównym elementem podwozia, który pochłania największą ilość energii kinetycznej związanej z momentem przyziemienia jest amortyzator. Optymalne działanie amortyzatora lotniczego ma decydujący wpływ na zużycie zmęczeniowe materiałów konstrukcyjnych oraz na bezpieczeństwo lądowania.
Wprowadzenie systemu adaptacyjnego, który będzie w stanie modelować charakterystykę dyssypacji po przeprowadzeniu diagnozowania energii kinetycznej związanej z prędkością przyziemienia i ciężarem samolotu, znacznie poprawi efektywność działania amortyzatora lotniczego, zwiększając niezawodność eksploatacyjną konstrukcji i bezpieczeństwo lotu.

Słowa kluczowe:

podwozia lotnicze, podwozie adaptacyjne, adaptacyjna dyssypacja energii

Afiliacje autorów:

Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Pawłowski P.K.-IPPT PAN
Wołejsza Z.-IPPT PAN
15.Mikułowski G., Holnicki-Szulc J., Fast controller and control algorithms for MR based adaptive impact absorbers - Force Based Control, Machine Dynamics Research, ISSN: 2080-9948, Vol.30, No.2, pp.113-122, 2006

Streszczenie:

Adaptive impact absorption is a modern control problem being solved nowadays for several transportation and industry branches. The objective of the impact absorption process is dissipation of the impact energy by means of generation the minimal interface forces and minimal decelerations acting on the protected structure. One of the possibilities for minimization of the impact forces is using of an adaptive actuator that enables adjusting its characteristics to the actual impact energy. The presented research was focused on development of the adaptive impact absorption procedurę and as an example of the adaptive actuator an MR damper was used. The MR damper ensured the convenient rangę of the damping forces to provide the proper controllability of the process. However, sińce impact is a very short phenomenon the performance of the device must have met very strict reąuirements in the field of time delays. High ąuality of the driving electronics is the emphasized factor influencing the system performance. The paper presents the controller for the MR damper and control algorithms with experimental verification.

Słowa kluczowe:

MR damper, vibrations, damping

Afiliacje autorów:

Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Holnicki-Szulc J.-IPPT PAN

Lista rozdziałów w ostatnich monografiach
1.
364
Graczykowski C., Knor G., Kołakowski P., Mikułowski G., Orłowska A., Pawłowski P., Skłodowski M., Świercz A., Wiszowaty R., Zieliński T.G., Monitorowanie obciążeń i stanu technicznego konstrukcji mostowych, rozdział: Wybrane zagadnienia monitorowania, IPPT Reports on Fundamental Technological Research, pp.189-236, 2014
2.
365
Wiszowaty R., Biczyk J., Graczykowski C., Mikułowski G., New Trends in Smart Technologies, rozdział: Method of impact energy dissipation by the use of the pneumatic impact absorber with a piezo-valve, Fraunhofer Verlag, pp.223-230, 2013
3.
196
Pawłowski P.K., Mikułowski G., Graczykowski C., Ostrowski M., Jankowski Ł., Holnicki-Szulc J., Smart technologies for safety engineering, rozdział: Adaptive impact absorption, Wiley, Holnicki-Szulc J. (Ed.), pp.153-213, 2008

Prace konferencyjne
1.Popławski B., Mikułowski G., Mróz A., Jankowski Ł., Decentralized damping of vibrations in 2D frame structures using controllable nodes, SMART 2017, 8th Conference on Smart Structures and Materials, 2017-06-05/06-08, Madrid (ES), pp.94-103, 2017

Streszczenie:

Extensive research efforts have been recently devoted to semi-active structural control with its paradigms of smart self-adaptivity and low consumption of energy, which is used for local adaptation rather than to generate external control forces. Considered application areas include adaptive landing gears, seismic isolation systems, vehicle-track/span systems, power train electro-mechanical systems, damping of flexible space structures, vehicle crashworthiness, arctic engineering, wind turbines, etc. A part of the research concerns semi-active management of strain energy for damping of structural vibrations. Early works considered truss structures with stiffness-switched bars. They later evolved into either standalone one degree of freedom stiffness-switched dampers and isolators or investigations in triggering modal energy transfer to highly-damped high-order modes. The latter researches seem all to study the fundamental vibration mode of a cantilever beam with two detachable layers and differ mainly in the actuator technologies; the main idea is to employ actuators for a quick release of the vibration-related strain energy. This research extends the problem to general 2D frames. Controllable truss-frame nodes are incorporated into the structure. Thanks to their controllable ability to transmit moments, they allow for a quick transition between truss and frame modes. We propose a new, decentralized, closed-loop control strategy based on local energy measures. Vibration damping is more effective than in the previously studied control scheme based on a global energy measure, especially for higher vibration modes. Mitigation of vibrations will be presented in representative numerical examples, including a comparison to the global energy-based control strategy. Finally, results of experimental study, conducted on a structure analogous to the one from numerical simulations, will be demonstrated.

Słowa kluczowe:

Vibration damping, Smart structures, Semi-active control, PAR strategy, Decentralized damping strategy

Afiliacje autorów:

Popławski B.-IPPT PAN
Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Mróz A.-IPPT PAN
Jankowski Ł.-IPPT PAN
2.Jankowski Ł., Graczykowski C., Pawłowski P., Mikułowski G., Ostrowski M., Popławski B., Faraj R., Suwała G., Holnicki-Szulc J., Adaptive Self-Protection against Shock and Vibration, Advances in Science and Technology, ISSN: 1662-0356, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AST.101.133, Vol.101, pp.133-142, 2017

Streszczenie:

This contribution reviews the challenges in adaptive self-protection of structures. A proper semi-active control strategy can significantly increase structural ability to absorb impact-type loads and damp the resulting vibrations. Discussed systems constitute a new class of smart structures capable of a real-time identification of loads and vibration patterns, followed by a low-cost optimum absorption of the energy by structural adaptation. Given the always surging quest for safety, such systems have a great potential for practical applications (in landing gears, road barriers, space structures, etc.). Compared to passive systems, their better performance can be attributed to the paradigm of self-adaptivity, which is ubiquitous in nature, but still sparsely applied in structural engineering. Being in the early stages of development, their ultimate success depends on a concerted effort in facing a number of challenges. This contribution discusses some of the important problems, including these of a conceptual, technological, methodological and software engineering nature.

Słowa kluczowe:

adaptive impact absorption, smart structures, semi-active control, safety engineering

Afiliacje autorów:

Jankowski Ł.-IPPT PAN
Graczykowski C.-IPPT PAN
Pawłowski P.-IPPT PAN
Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Ostrowski M.-IPPT PAN
Popławski B.-IPPT PAN
Faraj R.-IPPT PAN
Suwała G.-IPPT PAN
Holnicki-Szulc J.-IPPT PAN
3.Popławski B., Mikułowski G., Mróz A., Sekuła K., Jankowski Ł., A decentralized strategy of structural reconfiguration in mitigation of vibrations, Procedia Engineering, ISSN: 1877-7058, DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2017.09.363, No.199, pp.1683-1688, 2017

Streszczenie:

This contribution proposes a decentralized closed-loop control algorithm for semi-active mitigation of free vibrations in frame structures. The control uses dedicated dissipative devices, which consist of two controllable structural nodes placed pairwise in both ends of selected structural beams. The nodes are capable of a controlled transition between the standard frame mode of operation (full moment-bearing ability) and the truss mode in which they do not bear any moments and constitute in fact structural hinges. Synchronous switching is equivalent to reconfiguration of the global structure by (dis)allowing the involved beams to transmit moments and to accumulate vibration energy in the form of their bending strain. Upon switching to the truss mode, the accumulated energy is released into high-frequency local vibrations, which undergo quick dissipation by standard mechanisms of material damping. The approach is illustrated in a numerical example and verified in a preliminary experimental test.

Słowa kluczowe:

Mitigation of vibrations, Semi-active control, Decentralized control, Structural reconfiguration

Afiliacje autorów:

Popławski B.-IPPT PAN
Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Mróz A.-IPPT PAN
Sekuła K.-IPPT PAN
Jankowski Ł.-IPPT PAN
4.Rojek J., Mikułowski G., Marczewska I., Experimental and numerical studies on magnetorheological fluids, 6WCSCM, 6th World Conference on Structural Control and Monitoring, 2014-07-15/07-17, Barcelona (ES), pp.2152-2159, 2014

Streszczenie:

This paper presents experimental and numerical studies of magnetorheological (MR) fluids. Experimental studies have been focused on the investigation of MR fluid flow in the valve mode. An experimental device operating in the valve mode has been built and used for testing. Numerical investigations h ave included analysis of magnetic field, continuum based analytical modelling of the valve mode as well as micromechanical discrete element simulation of MR fluid. Analytical studies of the MR flow have been carried out using the conventional Buckingham equation with constant yield stress across the valve gap and the modified Buckingham equation with nonlinear yield stress distribution across the channel according to the magnetic field distributionm determined numerically. The analytical results have been compared with experimental data. A better performance of the modified Buckingham model has been observed. A micromechanical model of MR fluids has been developed within the discrete element framework. The DEM model has been verified qualitatively on a test example of forming chains by magnetized particles after application of an external magnetic field.

Afiliacje autorów:

Rojek J.-IPPT PAN
Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Marczewska I.-IPPT PAN
5.Mikułowski G., Wiszowaty R., Holnicki-Szulc J., Analysis and thermodynamic modeling of a pneumatic adaptive absorber, 6WCSCM, 6th World Conference on Structural Control and Monitoring, 2014-07-15/07-17, Barcelona (ES), pp.3057-3066, 2014

Streszczenie:

The objective of this work was to develop a mathematical model of coupled thermodynamic and mechanical processes proceeding in pneumatic, adaptive absorbers under cyclic loadings. The results of the modelling were to be verified versus experimentally obtained data. The analysis was divided into sections devoted to: forces acting on the piston, thermodynamics of the gas in the absorber’s chambers, gas flow through the piezoelectric valve. Three control volumes were distinguished within the absorber’s structure in order to analyze the thermodynamic processes. For each control volume analysis of energy balance, thermodynamic state parameters and heat transfer were performed. A set of equations was formulated for each control volume in order to determine: (1) motion of the piston in relation to the acting forces, (2) the gas state evolution, (3) energy balance within each control volume and (4) heat transfer to the surroundings. The obtained results revealed that the proposed approach to modeling was in good agreement with the data obtained experimentally. The controllability of the absorber was successfully reflected by means of the numerical model outcome.

Afiliacje autorów:

Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Wiszowaty R.-IPPT PAN
Holnicki-Szulc J.-IPPT PAN
6.Holnicki-Szulc J., Graczykowski C., Grzędziński J., Mikułowski G., Mróz A., Pawłowski P., Wiszowaty R., Adaptive Impact Absorption - the concept, simulations and potential applications, 4th International Conference on Protection of Structures Against Hazards, 2012-11-15/11-16, , pp.1-16, 2012

Streszczenie:

Adaptive Impact Absorption focuses on adaptation of energy absorbing structures to actual dynamic loading by using system of sensors detecting and identifying impact in advance and semi -active dissipaters with controllable mechanical properties which enable change of system dynamic characteristics in real time. The article present s a review of research conducted at the Department of Intelligent Technologies of the Institute of Fundamental Technological Research dedicated to applications of systems for Adaptive Impact Absorption. Wide range of presented examples covers pneumatic landing gears, bumpers for offshore towers, wind turbine blade-hub connections and d protective barriers for automotive applications.

Słowa kluczowe:

adaptive impact absorption, safety engineering, smart structures, optimal control

Afiliacje autorów:

Holnicki-Szulc J.-IPPT PAN
Graczykowski C.-IPPT PAN
Grzędziński J.-IPPT PAN
Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Mróz A.-IPPT PAN
Pawłowski P.-IPPT PAN
Wiszowaty R.-IPPT PAN
7.Mikułowski G., Ostrowski M., Holnicki-Szulc J., Overview of High Performance Actuator and High Performance Valve Technologies, ACTUATOR 2012, International Conference on new actuators, 2012-06-18/06-20, Bremen (GE), pp.742-745, 2012

Streszczenie:

This paper describes concepts of two different technologies developed for control of gas flow in High Performance Actuator (HPA) and control of gas discharge from airbag system through High Performance Valve (HPV). The HPA technology utilizes piezoelectric valve to govern flow in the pneumatic cylinder, used as an impact absorber or smart damper, while the HPV uses membrane surfaces driven by flow and controlled by explosive rings to mode discharge of an airbag system. Both techniques, different in their nature realizes comparatively similar function in flow different scales but similar time scale, where each cycle of operation is near single milliseconds. The paper also covers experimental results and a simple numerical study on the High Performance Valve (HPV) concept developed for a control of an adaptive inflatable impact energy absorber (gas-bag). Patent pending concept of the HPV is utilizing a flow energy drive method, using the flow energy to move and seal working parts of the valve.

Słowa kluczowe:

Adaptive devices, Piezo-valve, Airbag, Valve, Explosion, Control

Afiliacje autorów:

Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Ostrowski M.-IPPT PAN
Holnicki-Szulc J.-IPPT PAN
8.Mikułowski G., Wiszowaty R., An Adaptive Pneumatic Shock-Absorber with a Piezo-valve under Harmonic Loading, EACS 2012, 5th European Conference on Structural Control, 2012-06-18/06-20, Genoa (IT), pp.1-8, 2012

Streszczenie:

An adaptive pneumatic shock absorber with a piezo-valve was designed for real-time impact energy dissipation. The device was a piston-cylinder type with a fast actuated (less than 2 ms) piezo-valve positioned inside the piston. The principle of operation of the device was to keep the reaction force on a predefined level by means of managing of the gas flow between the internal chambers of the shock absorber. The internal chambers were defined by spaces in the cylinder on both sides of the piston. The proper control of the valve, which connected the two chambers, allowed to adjust the instantaneous pressure drop between them. The pressure drop was a decisive factor that influenced the total reaction force of the shock absorber.
The presented investigation was conducted using the MTS Test System experimental setup in order to perform measurements of stiffness and viscous effects in the domain of frequency of excitation. The shock absorber under investigation was fixed between a stiff base and a piston rod of the hydraulic actuator that was used for the mechanical excitation.
The conducted set of experimental tests included measuring of the following set of quantities: frequency of harmonic excitation, reaction force of the absorber, displacement of the piston, velocity of the piston, gas pressure in both chambers.
The presented research was focused on characterization of the response of the device to harmonic excitation. The study was aimed at identification of limits of the device in terms of its controllability and adaptability.

Słowa kluczowe:

adaptive devices, Adaptive Impact Absorption, AIA, pneumatic shock-absorbers, piezo stack, piezo-valve

Afiliacje autorów:

Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Wiszowaty R.-IPPT PAN
9.Holnicki-Szulc J., Graczykowski C., Mikułowski G., Mróz A., Ostrowski M., Wiszowaty R., Adaptive impact absorption for safety engineering, 9th International Conference on Shock & Impact Loads on Structures, 2011-11-16/11-18, Fukuoka (JP), pp.373-385, 2011

Streszczenie:

Adaptive Impact Absorption focuses on active adaptation of energy absorbing structures to actual dynamic loading by using system of sensors detecting and identifying impact in advance and controllable semi-active dissipaters with high ability of adaptation. The article presents a review of research carried out in the Department of Intelligent Technologies of Institute of Fundamental Technological Research dedicated to applications of systems for adaptive impact absorption. Wide range of presented examples covers pneumatic landing gears, adaptive crashworthy structures, wind turbine blade-hub connections and flow control based airbags for maritime and aeronautical applications.

Słowa kluczowe:

smart structures, adaptive structures, Adaptive Impact Absorption, crashworthiness, safety engineering

Afiliacje autorów:

Holnicki-Szulc J.-IPPT PAN
Graczykowski C.-IPPT PAN
Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Mróz A.-IPPT PAN
Ostrowski M.-IPPT PAN
Wiszowaty R.-IPPT PAN
10.Graczykowski C., Mikułowski G., Holnicki-Szulc J., Adaptive impact absorption – a benchmark and an example absorber, SMART2011, 5th ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Smart Structures and Materials, 2011-07-06/07-08, Saarbrücken (DE), pp.663-668, 2011

Streszczenie:

This paper proposes a benchmark for conceptual devices dedicated to adaptive impact absorption (AIA) and protection against shock excitations. The problem of the exploitation impacts is present in a wide class of applications, and particularly where direction of the object’s movement is well-defined, for example: precise docking systems, rail car buffers or landing gear shock absorbers. In those applications the objective is to equalize the values of velocities of the bodies in order to minimize the deceleration peak. The proposed benchmark establishes a comparing procedure for materials or devices in the field of AIA in a simplified regime in order to improve the comparability of the solutions. A drop test device is proposed to be used for testing the proposed devices in the predefined experimental regime. Besides, an example of the adaptive absorber is presented.

Afiliacje autorów:

Graczykowski C.-IPPT PAN
Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Holnicki-Szulc J.-IPPT PAN
11.Wiszowaty R., Biczyk J., Graczykowski C., Mikułowski G., Method of impact energy dissipation by the use of the pneumatic impact absorber with a piezo-valve, SMART2011, 5th ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Smart Structures and Materials, 2011-07-06/07-08, Saarbrücken (DE), pp.640-647, 2011

Słowa kluczowe:

Adaptive structures, Shock absorption, Impact energy absorption, Piezoelectric valve

Afiliacje autorów:

Wiszowaty R.-IPPT PAN
Biczyk J.-Adaptronica Sp. z o. o. (PL)
Graczykowski C.-IPPT PAN
Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
12.Mikułowski G., Pawłowski P., Graczykowski C., Wiszowaty R., Holnicki-Szulc J., On a pneumatic adaptive landing gear system for a small aerial vehicle, SMART 2009, 4th ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Smart Structures and Materials, 2009-07-13/07-15, Porto (PT), pp.1-9, 2009

Streszczenie:

The class of ultra-light aircraft becomes more and more popular among the enthusiasts of aviation due to low formal requirements of getting the pilot license and low costs of the equipment. Therefore, the training of the pilots starts to be a large-scale task. One of the most difficult operation for the inexperienced pilots is touch-down and it often happens to strike the ground with a high sink speed. In consequence the training machines are endangered of fast structural damage. A potential solution would be to mount a system of adaptive landing gear for light aircraft with a capability of recognition of the actual landing impact and tuning the landing struts in order to conduct the smoothest landing operation possible. In the case of the ultra-light aircraft class the weight of the components is the crucial task and therefore the low-weight pneumatic system is proposed for these application.
The paper presents a concept of an adaptive landing system and adequate control strategy for a small aerial vehicle. The objective of the work was to develop a fully functional model of the landing system and experimental verification of it. The system is based on the new pneumatic impact absorbers actuated via piezo-stacks. The concept assumes designing of the system with the capability of adaptation to actual energy of impact scenario identified by a dedicated sensing system for impact energy recognition.
The designed control system was dedicated to process the data from the system of impact energy recognition in order to perform the optimal landing scenario. The objective of the control strategy was minimization of the structure’s deceleration peaks during the touchdown.
The presented results consist of numerical analysis of the adopted strategy of control and experimental verification of the concept on the dedicated experimental device. The results proved that the proposed method allowed minimization of the maximal deceleration level acting on the demonstrator.

Afiliacje autorów:

Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Pawłowski P.-IPPT PAN
Graczykowski C.-IPPT PAN
Wiszowaty R.-IPPT PAN
Holnicki-Szulc J.-IPPT PAN

Abstrakty konferencyjne
1.Popławski B., Mikułowski G., Jankowski Ł., On-off damping of free vibrations and optimum actuator placement, SolMech 2016, 40th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2016-08-29/09-02, Warszawa (PL), pp.1-2, 2016
2.Holnicki-Szulc J., Faraj R., Graczykowski C., Jankowski Ł., Mikułowski G., Mróz A., Ostrowski M., Pawłowski P., Wiszowaty R., Adaptive impact absorption - potential applications for safety engineering, SMART 2015, 7th ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Smart Structures and Materials, 2015-06-03/06-05, Ponta Delgada (PT), pp.1-2, 2015

Słowa kluczowe:

Smart And Adaptive Structures, Adaptive Impact Absorption, Safety Engineering

Afiliacje autorów:

Holnicki-Szulc J.-IPPT PAN
Faraj R.-IPPT PAN
Graczykowski C.-IPPT PAN
Jankowski Ł.-IPPT PAN
Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Mróz A.-IPPT PAN
Ostrowski M.-IPPT PAN
Pawłowski P.-IPPT PAN
Wiszowaty R.-IPPT PAN
3.Wiszowaty R., Mikułowski G., Sekuła K., Biczyk J., Application of Piezoelectric Actuators for the Gas Valve Opening Control, SolMech 2014, 39th Solid Mechanics Conference, 2014-09-01/09-05, Zakopane (PL), pp.111-112, 2014
4.Flaszyński P., Doerffer P., Mikułowski G., Holnicki-Szulc J., Numerical Simulations for Transonic Flow in Control Valve, 11th International Symposium on Experimental and Computational Aerothermodynamics of Internal Flows, 2013-05-06/06-11, Shenzhen (CN), pp.1-6, 2013

Streszczenie:

Results of numerical simulations for transonic flow in control valve are presented. The valve is the main part of an adaptive pneumatic shock absorber. Flow structure in the valve domain and the influence of the flow non-uniformity in the valve on a mass flow rate is investigated. Numerical simulation results are compared with experimental data.

Słowa kluczowe:

pneumatic valve, transonic flow, numerical simulations

Afiliacje autorów:

Flaszyński P.-Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Doerffer P.-Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences (PL)
Mikułowski G.-IPPT PAN
Holnicki-Szulc J.-IPPT PAN

Patenty
Numer/data zgłoszenia patentowego
Ogłoszenie o zgłoszeniu patentowym
Twórca / twórcy
Tytuł
Kraj i Nazwa uprawnionego z patentu
Numer patentu
Ogłoszenie o udzieleniu patentu
pdf
415443
2015-12-21
BUP 14/2017
2017-07-03
Doerffer P., Flaszyński P., Mikułowski G., Holnicki-Szulc J.
Zespół płyt zaworowych
PL, Instytut Maszyn Przepływowych im. Roberta Szewalskiego PAN, Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN
-
-
-
397312
2011-12-09
BUP 12/13
2013-06-10
Świercz A., Mikułowski G., Wiszowaty R., Holnicki-Szulc J., Kołakowski P., Graczykowski C.
Sposób generowania wstępnie zaprojektowanego udarowego obciażania konstrukcji oraz urzadzenie do generowania wstępnie zaprojektowanego obciążania konstrukcji
PL, Adaptronica Sp z o.o., Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN
221709
WUP 05/16
2016-05-31
392368
2010-09-13
BUP 07/12
2012-03-26
Mikułowski G., Rogoźnicki W., Wiszowaty R.
Zawór płytowy
PL, Adaptronica Sp z o.o.
214668
WUP 08/13
2013-08-30
387534
2009-03-18
BUP 20/10
2010-09-27
Graczykowski C., Mikułowski G., Mróz A., Sekuła K.
Sposób dyssypacji energii uderzenia obiektu i absorber pneumatyczny
PL, Adaptronica Sp z o.o.
214845
WUP 09/13
2013-09-30